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3d printing technology

  2. Contents  What is 3D Printing ?  How it works ? • 3D Printing versus traditional printing • Workflow  Methods & Technologies  Applications • 3D Printing solutions  Industry Growth  Challenges
  3. What is 3D Printing ?  3D printing or additive manufacturing is a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file.  The creation of a 3D printed object is achieved using additive processes.  In an additive process an object is created by laying down successive layers of material until the entire object is created.
  4. How it works ?  A virtual design of the object is created.  CAD (Computer Aided Design) uses a 3D modeling program or 3D scanner for virtual design.  The software slices the final model into hundreds or thousands of horizontal layers.  The printer creates the object layer by layer, resulting in one three dimensional object.
  5. Methods & Technologies  Several ways to realize 3D objects –  Selective laser sintering (SLS) : uses a high power laser to fuse input materials like plastic, metal, glass, etc. It scans the powdered material layer by layer.  Fused deposition modelling (FDS) : uses a plastic filament or metal wire as input material to an extrusion nozzle. The nozzle is heated to melt the material and can be moved in both horizontal and vertical directions by CAM. The material hardens immediately after extrusion from the nozzle.  Stereolithography (SLA) : photopolymerization is used to produce a solid part from a liquid. This technology employs a vat of liquid ultraviolet curable photopolymer resin and an ultraviolet laser to build the object’s layers one at a time. UV Laser solidifying the pattern.
  6. Applications  Rapid prototyping: Prototyping is a cycle that producers or designing teams make models for end users to test, evaluate, or debug, and get feedbacks then revise or redesign at the pre-production. Saves time & cost.  Personal printing: For about a thousand dollars people can to buy the RepRap kit and put together their own personal 3D printer, complete with any desired customizations. What really speeds the development is the open source idea. Everybody working on the RepRap shares their knowledge so other people can use it and improve it again.
  7. Industry Growth  Will change the nature of commerce, because end users will be able to do much of their own manufacturing rather than engaging in trade to buy products from other people and corporations.  3D printing will change the manufacturing world with effects on energy use, waste reduction, customization, product availability, medicine, art, construction and sciences.
  8. Challenges  1. Cost: June 2011 – The current cost for a personal printer is $1200. The cheapest Commercial printer can be commissioned at $30,000  2. Inability to easily print in multiple materials on the same machine: Particularly plastic, metal and conductive materials. The colours are a touch dull and matt finish only.  3. A decent standard for model designs: The current standard STL files have some limitations. July 2011 – A new standard has been proposed – the AMF file format, but at this stage it is not well known or well used.  4. Speed: Printing is s…l…o…w. It takes a long time to build even the smallest piece. Most videos you see are sped up or cut so you are not sitting there for an hour while you build a tap washer. Aug 2011 – The Ultimaker is able to print much faster than Makerbot now.