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0 introdution to Medical Microbiology

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Introduction to medical microbiology . general introduction

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0 introdution to Medical Microbiology

  1. 1. IntroductionIntroduction Medical MicrobiologyMedical Microbiology Hope Tan
  2. 2. What is Microbes? Microbes, or microorganisms are minute living things that are usually unable to be viewed with the naked eye. Bacteria, fungi, viruses are examples! Many are beneficial Some are pathogenic
  3. 3. Microbes make the Universe  There are > 5 x 1030 types microbes in the world  Humans have intimate relation with microbes > 90% of the cells in our Body are covered with microbes
  4. 4. Microbiology defined as the study of organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye. These organisms include viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Microbiologists are concerned with characteristics and functions such as morphology, cytology, physiology, ecology, taxonomy, genetics, and molecular biology. Defining Microbiology
  5. 5. IntroductionIntroduction •   ObjectsObjects •   ContentsContents •   ObjectiveObjective •   TechniquesTechniques •   StatusStatus
  6. 6. Research objectsResearch objects
  7. 7. Definition of microorganism  an organism that is too small to be seen  without the aid of a microscope
  8. 8. Characters of microorganisms Minute volume, simple structure wide range nutriment 、 active metabolism reproduce quickly 、 large quantity  、 widespread variation and adaptability easily
  9. 9. Prokaryotic microorganisms Eukaryotic microorganisms Non­cellular microorganisms Classification
  10. 10. Eukaryotic microorganisms  •  Eukaryotes  –  Larger  –  Complex structure  •  Nucleus  •  Both DNA and RNA  •  Various organelles
  11. 11. Eukaryotic microorganisms  •  Eukaryotes  –  Fungi  •  Yeasts  •  Molds  –  Reproduction  •  Budding  •  Production of spores
  12. 12. Prokaryotic microorganisms  •  Prokaryotes  –  Small  –  Relatively simple structure  •  Nucleoid  •  Both DNA and RNA  •  A single organelle
  13. 13. Prokaryotic microorganisms  •  Prokaryotes  –  Members  •  Bacteria  •  Mycoplasmas  •  Rickettsiae  •  Chlamydiae  •  Spirochetes  •  Actinomyces  –  Reproduction  •  binary fission
  14. 14. Non­cellular microorganisms  •  Smallest  •  Simple structure  –  No cell structure  •  Nucleic acid  •  Capsid  •  Envelope  –  Either DNA or RNA •  Obligate intracellular parasites    – Viruses are replicated only when         they are in a living host cell •  Members       –  Viruses •  Reproduction  –  Replication
  15. 15. The Importance of MicroorganismsThe Importance of Microorganisms Circulation of materialsCirculation of materials MedicineMedicine 、、 FoodFood 、、 IndustryIndustry Micro-ecosystemMicro-ecosystem Microbes Benefit Humans
  16. 16. Microbes are used to produce AntibioticsMicrobes are used to produce Antibiotics  Penicillin  Mold Penicillium notatum  1928 Alexander Fleming
  17. 17. Bacteria synthesize chemicals that our body needs, but cannot synthesize Bacteria synthesize chemicals that our body needs, but cannot synthesize  Example: E. coli B vitamins - for metabolism Vitamin K - blood clotting  Example: E. coli B vitamins - for metabolism Vitamin K - blood clotting
  18. 18. Microbial AntagonismMicrobial Antagonism Our normal microbial flora prevents potential pathogens from gaining access to our body Our normal microbial flora prevents potential pathogens from gaining access to our body
  19. 19. Harmful activities: A portion of microbes can cause diseases and/or are poisonous to animal, plant or human being, and these which cause diseases to human are really that concern us in the study of medical microbiology. Pathogenic microorganism
  20. 20. Anthrax Pathogenic microorganism cause many diseases Pathogenic microorganism cause many diseases
  21. 21. disease : tetanus 、 fungus infection 、 gas gangrene tetanustetanus gas gangrenegas gangreneFungus nailFungus nail
  22. 22. AIDS SARS Ebola DiseasesDiseases
  23. 23. Research contentsResearch contents
  24. 24. Microbiology is the biology of microorganisms. It is a bioscience for the study of the evolution, classification , morphology, physiology, genetics, ecology of microbes under certain definite conditions, the law of their life activities, and their interaction with human being, animals or plants as well as with natural environment. Microbiology
  25. 25. The science that study the biological characters, infectious and immune mechanisms, specific diagnosis, prevention and cure measurement of pathogenic microorganism is called medical microbiology. Medical Microbiology
  26. 26. Research objectiveResearch objective
  27. 27. Diagnostic assistance: Qualitation and/or quantitation for pathogens Therapic guidance: Detection of drug resistance Disease prevention: Development vaccines and/or new generation vaccines
  28. 28. Unique Research TechniquesUnique Research Techniques
  29. 29. The Four Classic Research TechniquesThe Four Classic Research Techniques Microtechnique Aseptic technique Culture technique Staining technique
  30. 30. Microtechnique 1673-1723, Leeuwenhoek (Dutch) described live microorganisms that he observed in teeth scrapings, rain water, and peppercorn infusions.
  31. 31. Anton van Leeuwenhoek - 1st person to actually see living microorganisms “wee animalcules” ( Leeuwenhoek ) 1632-1723 32
  32. 32. He assembled over 247 microscopes, some of which magnified objects 270 times. In the course of his examination of innumerable microorganisms and tissue samples, he gave the first complete descriptions of the bacteria, the protozoans (which he called animalcules), spermatozoa, and striped muscle. He also observed the red blood cells in his detailed study of capillary circulation. He was elected to the Royal Society of England in recognition of his work. Anton van Leeuwenhoek
  33. 33. Magnifier Light microscope electron microscope atomic force microscope
  34. 34. Aseptic technique 1859, Louis Pasteur discoved that the deterioration was caused by microbes and invented pastereurization.
  35. 35. Louis Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822Louis Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822 in Dole, in the Region of Jura, France. Hisin Dole, in the Region of Jura, France. His discovery that most infectious diseases are causeddiscovery that most infectious diseases are caused by germs, known as the"germ theory of disease", isby germs, known as the"germ theory of disease", is one of the most important in medical history. Hisone of the most important in medical history. His work became the foundation for the science ofwork became the foundation for the science of microbiology, and a cornerstone of modernmicrobiology, and a cornerstone of modern medicine.medicine.
  36. 36. In 1865, Joseph Lister, a British surgeon, established antiseptic surgery by introducing aseptic technique to this field. For many years he had explored the inflammation of wounds at the Glasgow infirmary. These observations had led him to considered that infection was not due to bad air alone, and that 'wound sepsis' was a form of decomposition
  37. 37. Cuture technique In 1881, Robert KochIn 1881, Robert Koch, a German bacteriologist, isolated bacteria using solid medium and then he associated many diseases with specific microbes. In 1884, he devised a hypothesis known as Koch’s Postulates designed to establish a causal relationship between a causative microbe and a disease .
  38. 38. Koch’s postulatesKoch’s postulates 1. The same organisms must be found in all cases of a given disease. 2. The organism must be isolated and grown in pure culture. 3. The isolated organism must reproduce the same disease when inoculated into a healthy susceptible animal. 4. The original organism must be isolated again from the experimentally infected animal.
  39. 39. Staining technique Amidobenzene was applied to stain bacteria in suspension by German pathologist named Weigert, then Koch improved it and stained the bacteria on a slide. In 1884, Christian Gram, a famous Denmark pathologist invented a stain technique which is known as Gram Stain now to stain bacteria on a slide, by this technique, all bacteria can be classified as G+ and C-
  40. 40. The protocol of Gram stain
  41. 41. Gram stain morphology  Shape cocci bacilli spiral or curved  Single or multiple cells clusters (e.g. streptococci) chains (e.g. streptococci)  Gram positive or negative
  42. 42. Significance of Gram Stain  •   Differentiate bacteria: G +  / G ­  •   Helpful to select sensitive antibiotics.  •   identify different virulent factors of bacteria.  –  G +  : exotoxin  –  G ­  : endotoxin.
  43. 43.     Research StatusResearch Status
  44. 44. A Diagnosis——pathogen and its antigen, nucleic                             acid, metabolites, antibody                  Prevention——vaccines Therapy——antibiotics The first medical revolution Achievements  The second medical revolution
  45. 45. Discovery origin for hereditary material Tools for gene engineering research Model for human genome research B
  46. 46.        Developmental direction and   perspectives •Emerging and re­emerging pathogens •Pathogenic mechanisms •Development and exploitation for anti­infection       drugs • Development and improvement of vaccines
  47. 47. NowadaysNowadays  New pathogens emerged continuously Hepatitis viruse HIV TTV Prions Coronavirus and SARS   Re­emerging of traditional pathogens Drug resistance became more severe Mycobacterium toberculosis  New pathogens emerged continuously Hepatitis viruse HIV TTV Prions Coronavirus and SARS   Re­emerging of traditional pathogens Drug resistance became more severe Mycobacterium toberculosis
  48. 48. Progress of Hepatitis VirusesProgress of Hepatitis Viruses  1947, concepts of hepatitis A and serum­ transmitted hepatitis  1970, Dane particle was observed (hepatitis  B virus)  1973, hepatitis A virus  1978, non­A, non­B hepatitis viruses  (NANBV)  1989, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis E  virus (HEV)  1990­1994, non A­E hepatitis viruses  1995, hepatitis G virus (HGV)  1997, TT virus (TTV)  1947, concepts of hepatitis A and serum­ transmitted hepatitis  1970, Dane particle was observed (hepatitis  B virus)  1973, hepatitis A virus  1978, non­A, non­B hepatitis viruses  (NANBV)  1989, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis E  virus (HEV)  1990­1994, non A­E hepatitis viruses  1995, hepatitis G virus (HGV)  1997, TT virus (TTV)
  49. 49. Human Immunodeficiency Virus & AIDSHuman Immunodeficiency Virus & AIDS  1981, the first cases report  about AIDS  1983, HIV was isolated  1990s, HAART (cocktail  therapy) was employed  So far, no effective vaccine  available  1981, the first cases report  about AIDS  1983, HIV was isolated  1990s, HAART (cocktail  therapy) was employed  So far, no effective vaccine  available
  50. 50. PrionsPrions  Infectious  proteins Kuru CJD Mad cow  disease Scrapie  Infectious  proteins Kuru CJD Mad cow  disease Scrapie Kuru  vCJD BSE
  51. 51.        Developmental direction and  perspective •Emerging and re­emerging pathogens •Pathogenic mechanisms •Development and exploitation for anti­infection       drugs • Development and improvement of vaccine
  52. 52. How to Study Medical Microbiology?How to Study Medical Microbiology? Fundamentals of Microbiology Bacteriology Virology Mycology •Biological Properties •Morphology, identification,  •Antigenic structure •Pathogenesis and Pathology •Clinical findings •Diagnostic Laboratory Tests •Immunity •Treatment & Prevention •Epidemiology & Control 
  53. 53. •  The definition of microorganisms  •  The classification of microorganisms  •  The differences among viruses, bacteria,  and fungi  Summary •  The four main research techniques

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