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Basics Ubuntu commands

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Basics Ubuntu commands for biginers

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Basics Ubuntu commands

  1. 1. Basics GNU/Linux Commands
  2. 2. Basics GNU/Linux Commands #1. ls : list directory contents ls If you want to see hidden files/directories (beginning with dot.), the use -a flag. ls -a Check the manual for more detail (man ls). #2. cd : Change Directory cd ../ cd /home/Desktop Remember, . represents the current directory .. represents the parent directory ~ represents the home directory (of the user) #3. ​pwd​ : print the current/working directory pwd /home/Desktop/scripts #4. ​mkdir​ : make/create directory. mkdir ​funny_stuffs #5. ​rm : remove/delete​ file/directory rm useless.sh NOTE : it removes directories only if it’s empty, unless you specify -f flag for force deletion. But you must be careful with the arguments such as -r, -f. (-rf is very dangerous). #6. ​sudo​ : superuser do, to gain root privilege e.g sudo apt-get install ​gnome-shell Then enter your user account password, and you would be able to do administrative tasks like root. So if you’re getting any permission error using a command, then adding sudo as a prefix, might help.
  3. 3. #7. ​mv : rename or move a file/directory mv file1 ~​/Downloads/Archive/ the above command will move the file from the current directory to target directory. mv logo_2.jpg new_logo.jpg it will rename the file to new_logo.jpg. #8. ​cat : View File contents cat install.log #9.​ man ​: A Reference manual for utils/commands/programs e.g if you want to know more about rm command, then type – man rm #10. ​cp : Copy Files/Directories cp movie_name.mp4 ~/Downloads/movies/ The above command will copy the movie_name.mp4 to the specified directory. #11.​ wget : Download files from server GNU Wget or wget is very handy in downloading stuffs from internet, over the command line. wget url_of_the_content #12.​ gksudo : Run GUI Application with Root privilege gksudo nautilus The above command will open nautilus with root privilege. It’s just like sudo, but in GUI mode. #13. ​shutdown : To shutdown ​the computer from terminal shutdown -h where time can be 0 if you want to shutdown now or specify the exact time such as 10:30. #14.​ restart : Restart the computer restart Package Management These are Ubuntu Specific commands. It Requires root privilege, so just add the sudo prefix before each command (it will ask for the user password and you’re done!).
  4. 4. #15. ​apt-get : Command Line Tool for handling packages There are various options such as install – To install package. e.g Install the program PyRoom (A distraction Free Text Editor) sudo apt-get install pyroom remove – To remove package sudo apt-get remove kate update – To update the package cache sudo apt-get update #​16. add-apt-repository – To add a PPA (for your favorite Application) e.g add the PPA for the App Eidete (Screencasting program) sudo add-apt-repository ppa:shnatsel/eidete-daily After, adding the PPA, apt-get update command is required. #17. ​apt-cache : To access the Package details from cache search : search for the related packages in the apt-cache e.g apt-cache search image editor Prabathshantha@gmail.com