The word “communicate” comes from the Latin word
“communicate” that means to impart, to participate, to share or to
make common. By virtue of its Latin origin it also the source of the
English word “common” .communication is the process of
exchanging information through a common system of symbols.
These symbols can include sign language, speaking, writing,
gestures or pictorial graphs and charts. Communication is thus the
process of sharing information, ideas, concepts and messages
between people. It is the core of all human relationships.
Communication is essentially a two-way process can be considered
complete only when the message generated by the origination of
the process is understood in its correct meaning by the recipient.
The recipient in turn communicates is understanding of the
message through words or actions. This is called feedback and it
completes the process of communication. In society we share or
thoughts, feelings, emotions, reactions, propositions, facts and
figures with individuals as well as groups at all level, higher, lower
or equal. Communication is, in fact, the most important of all our
activities as it has helped us to organise ourselves as a civilized
society. In a civilized society there are well-defined roles for all and
one. They only way to play these roles is through communication.
All communication is based on, and is guided by role-relationships.
Only when we understand and appreciate these role-relationships
can we successfully communicate. In the words john Adair
“communication” is essentially the ability of one person to make
contact with another and to make himself or herself understood.
4. With every interaction, whether active or passive, we find ourselves
communicating with other people. Even our silence connotes some
intention, which others may interpret at their discretion. Whether by
artifact or by attendance, every human being constantly
participates in the process of communication. The field of
Communication Theory exists at a crossroads of Psychology and
Sociology, borrowing heavily from each, illuminating a process that
defines what it is to be human The concepts of effective
communication, the communication process, and Ability to function
in the world and cooperate with others and are all tied. overcoming
barriers are all critical pieces to our ability to communicate
effectively. Learners were introduced to the Communication
process during the first day introductions. The Communication
Process Loop should be displayed in the room. Throughout Learning
Skills, teachers can use this visual to review the Communication
loop and to help students remember the process. While primarily
referring to spoken verbal communication, typically relies on both
words, visual aids and non-verbal elements to support the
conveyance of the meaning. Oral communication includes
discussion, speeches, presentations, interpersonal communication
and many other varieties. In face to face communication the body
language and voice tonality plays a significant role and may have a
greater impact on the listener than the intended content of the
spoken words. In oral communication it is face to face that's why
we got to know the others reaction. and we immediately got the
5. Process of communication
1. Sender / Encoder - Sender / Encoder is a person who sends
the message. A sender makes use of symbols (words or
graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce
the required response. For instance - a training manager
conducting training for new batch of employees. Sender may
be an individual or a group or an organization. The views,
background, approach, skills, competencies, and knowledge
of the sender have a great impact on the message. The
verbal and non verbal symbols chosen are essential in
ascertaining interpretation of the message by the recipient in
the same terms as intended by the sender.
2. Message - Message is a key idea that the sender wants to
communicate. It is a sign that elicits the response of
recipient. Communication process begins with deciding
about the message to be conveyed. It must be ensured that
the main objective of the message is clear.
3. Medium - Medium is a means used to exchange / transmit the
message. The sender must choose an appropriate medium
for transmitting the message else the message might not be
conveyed to the desired recipients. The choice of
appropriate medium of communication is essential for
making the message effective and correctly interpreted by
the recipient. This choice of communication medium varies
depending upon the features of communication. For instance
- Written medium is chosen when a message has to be
conveyed to a small group of people, while an oral medium is
chosen when spontaneous feedback is required from the
recipient as misunderstandings are cleared then and there.
4. Recipient / Decoder - Recipient / Decoder is a person for
whom the message is intended / aimed / targeted. The degree
to which the decoder understands the message is dependent
upon various factors such as knowledge of recipient, their
responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of encoder
6. 5. Feedback - Feedback is the main component of
communication process as it permits the sender to analyze
the efficacy of the message. It helps the sender in confirming
the correct interpretation of message by the decoder.
Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in
form of smiles, sighs, etc.). It may take written form also in
form of memos, reports, etc.
7. Purpose of communication
Communication is a combination of various skills – body movement,
mind, spirit, energy, language, tone, voice, social skills, and so on.
Each one has to be developed and perfected separately, combined
in the right proportions and with the right strategies during the
process of communication.
Now we come back to the origin of the communication process,
which is the sender, which is „you.' It is imperative that one be an
effective sender. This needs the right combination of inner balance,
attitude, and a constant and balanced level of confidence.
Purpose of communication
Once we have this, the next important thing is to understand and
know the „purpose of communication.' This means:
Why are you communicating?
What are the different reasons you are communicating for?
There could be several purposes for communication or at times
there could be no real purpose. You could be relating a story,
sharing information or an experience with someone with the primary
purpose to impress that person. And if that person is suitably
impressed, then you can call yourself a successful communicator.
Of course, if the receiver is obligated to act impressed it is a
different story altogether. Such communication to impress happens
mainly at social get-togethers, parties or casual meetings.
But on the flip side, if one doesn't know where and when to stop or
has no idea how to communicate, it's certain he or she ends up as a
„bore' whom everyone would want to avoid like a plague! To inform
someone about something is the most common and the simplest
purpose of why we communicate. The sender is more like a
messenger but he has to make sure that the information is
complete, accurate and timely.
8. Sharing is more like a two-way communication and there is the
process of specific feedback as well. Your purpose could be to
share some information in detail with the receivers
The way we communicate with others can greatly alter the
relationships we have and techniques can be used to either
deliberately create harmonious working or to put a spanner in the
works. By fostering a common understanding and awareness the
message you try to portray becomes ever clearer and you are more
likely to gain support from others.
From a management point of view, portraying a vision enables an
executive to lead without being ever-present on the shop floor. A
strongly communicated message gains the way we communicate
with others can greatly alter the relationships we have and
techniques can be used to either deliberately create harmonious
working or to put a spanner in the works. By fostering a common
understanding and awareness the message you try to portray
becomes ever clearer and you are more likely to gain support from
From a management point of view, portraying a vision enables an
executive to lead without being ever-present on the shop floor. A
strongly communicated message gains respect and understanding
and increases the influence of the communicator. Being able to
relate concepts and plans with no ambiguity is an important skill
but it is also important that the person receiving the message
realizes the same as what he is being told. For this reason you
should incorporate feedback when you are communicating so that
you can be sure that others are on the same wavelength.
At any level of a job communication skills are important and often
employers look for the ability to make oneself understood in both
verbal and written context as a key issue in deciding on employees.
It is key to know what your message is, to succinctly recount it and
to be persuasive enough to get others to buy-in to what you are
9. METHODS OF COMMUNICATION
Communication is at the heart of any relationship, be it familial,
business, romantic, or friendly. While there have been significant
advances in how we understand body language and other forms of
communication, verbal communication continues to be the most
important aspect of our interaction with other people. It‟s important
to understand both the benefits and shortcomings of this most basic
In a world flooded with E-mail and other text-based communication,
verbal communication has several advantages over other forms of
communication. For example, we can slow down and present points
one-by-one and make sure that each point is clearly communicated
and understood before moving on to the next point. This can greatly
increase both the speed and accuracy of communication.
Verbal communication is far more precise than non-verbal cues. No
matter how clear we believe we are being, different gestures have
different interpretations between different cultures and even
between two members of the same culture. One famous example is
Richard Nixon‟s use of the victory finger salute in Australia, as he
was unaware that the gesture was a vulgarity there. However,
verbal communication is most effective when combined with other
forms of communication like body language and gestures to help
cue the intensity of the verbiage.
Verbal communication is also the most effective way of explaining
intangible concepts, as problem areas can be readily addressed and
explained. Verbal communication also does not use natural
resources in the way that technological methods or printing can.
10. NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION
Nonverbal communication is any kind of communication not
involving words. When the term is used, most people think of
facial expressions and gestures, but while these are important
elements of nonverbal communication, they are not the only
ones. Nonverbal communication can include vocal sounds that
are not words such as grunts, sighs, and whimpers. Even when
actual words are being used, there are nonverbal sound
elements such as voice tone, pacing of speech and so forth.
Nonverbal communication can be incorporated in a person‟s
dress. In our society, a person wearing a police uniform is
already communicating an important message before they say
a word. Another example is a man‟s business suit, which is
perceived by some as communicating an air of efficiency and
While each of these cues conveys a message, so does its
absence. In some settings, failing to express a nonverbal cue
also communicates meaning. A policeman out of uniform is
called “plainclothes” and is seen as deliberately trying to
conceal his role. To some, this may make him seem smart or
efficient, while others may consider him sneaky or
untrustworthy. In the same way, a businessman who does not
wear a suit is conveying an air of casualness which some
would consider slightly less professional. In the modern world,
“dressing down” implies a relaxation of professional standards
that is much more than just a change of clothes.
Many cues are based on learned cultural standards, but there
are some elements of nonverbal communication that are
universal. Paul Beckman‟s landmark research on facial
expressions in the 1960′s found that the expressions for
emotions such as anger, fear, sadness and surprise are the
same across all cultural barriers.
11. The setting where communication takes place also lends a
meaning to words apart from their literal definition, and
constitutes nonverbal communication. For instance, the word
“tradition” means one thing when it is spoken in City Hall, and
quite another when it is spoken in a church. The sign of a
cross takes on great cultural meaning when used in a religious
context, but on a road sign it just means that an intersection
is coming up.
EFFECTIVE VERBAL COMMUNICATION
Effective verbal communication has more to do with listening than it
does with speaking because you are always dealing with an
audience. This is true no matter whether you are speaking to a
crowd of thousands or to a party of one. Listening is key because
when you address an audience, no matter the size, you have to
meet its needs to communicate effectively, and to know the needs
of your audience, you have to listen. There are a few basic rules you
should keep in mind when aiming for effective verbal
communication. These are described in this article.
The first tip to keep in mind is to know your audience. This is
perhaps the most important piece of effectively communicating
verbally; you have to listen. For example, if you are speaking to a
small gathering of people in some kind of informal setting or
discussion, the best tool in your kit is the ability and willingness to
listen to what the other people in your group are saying, as well as
what they are not saying. Similarly, if you plan to speak to a much
larger group of people, it will be to your advantage to find out
beforehand as much as you possibly can about the audience you
intend to speak to. In such situations, it pays to do your homework.
Try to find out the burning questions your audience might have. Find
out how much they know about the subject you plan to talk about.
Find out if they hold any opinions about the topic and if so, which
12. ways those opinions lean. Learn how the audience is likely to
communicate; some audiences will listen to everything you say no
matter whether they agree with it or not. Other audiences will be
full of interrupters and challengers.
If formal communication is viewed like dressing for a black tie
affair, informal communication is like dressing casually and wearing
slippers around the house. Much informal communication occurs on
a person-to-person basis, in a face-to-face manner, without
ceremony or fanfare. Other ways to communicate in an informal
manner may include texting, post-it notes, and an informal drop in
visit to another person, or a quick and spontaneous meeting.
Informal communication includes all the various methods of relaying
information or messages between people. It often is called “the
grapevine” as messages weave back and forth and around people.
There are none of the trappings of formal messages, such as
company letterhead, planned meetings or specific introductions of
guests. Everyone is relaxed and casual, eager to chat about many
things, as there is no specific agenda to follow.
This type of communication frequently is oral, and works easily for
small groups. The scope of the conversation may be broader than a
formal presentation, and include topics that are diverse in nature,
free flowing and loose rather than scripted carefully. Unfortunately,
informal communication is subject to creating rumours and
misinformation due to its loose nature and lack of substantiating
evidence. This is the type of interaction that occurs in the
workplace as banter between employees, or idle chatting. It is seen
as blog entries on the Internet. At colleges, students are
encouraged to drop by their professors‟ offices as needed,
informally. Other informal web communication is seen in diaries,
13. personal email letters, instant messaging, emoticons, online chat
rooms and cyberspace bulletin boards.
Formal communication can be considered as communication efforts
that are “dressed up” to fit customary rules and ceremony For
example, in a written letter, the formal communication style will
demand that the layout of the piece of written communication
follow a specific format that includes the date, header, salutation,
body of the letter, close, signature lines and any indicators of
enclosures all placed neatly upon company letterhead or personal
stationery. By contrast, an informal piece of written communication
can be as simple as a jotted note to a friend on a torn slip of paper
Formal communications are mostly written, although they may now
also include formal presentations that are on computer disk, video
tape or DVDs, MP3 presentations and other similar electronic
reproductions of written communications. Other forms of formal
communications include newsletters, legal advisories, invitations,
awards, and letters of congratulations. Non-written formal
communication devices are in-person communications in the forms
of departmental meetings, telephone calls, conferences and special
interviews. Some publications that are devoted to a special
purpose, such as a company‟s annual report, are formal
There is a non-verbal component to formal communication as well.
The style and manners of the presenter dictate the formalness of a
meeting, and this can be immediately seen at the time of
introduction of a speaker. Some elements of non-verbal formal
communication include maintaining a certain distance from others,
standing above the crowd, speaking in formal tones and using
formal means of address to others, such as “Mister” or “Doctor”
when calling upon others
14. COMMUNICATION THROUGH BODY
Communication is how human beings interact with the world that
surrounds them. There are many forms of communication, some
being more effective at conveying the intent or feelings of the
individual expressing than others. Many people have a hard time
with communication, and can find it difficult to tell others what they
think or to give them bad news. Sometimes, they can‟t find the right
words to express the things they want to say. There are also those
people who are not to be believed due to a history of dishonesty or
embellishing the truth. One form of communication, however, is
always honest and can always be counted on.
Body language is a form of communication that is performed
subconsciously. It occurs almost constantly, and will almost always
give the correct impression that a person has of someone else, the
environment, or the situation at hand. Body language makes it easy
to know if someone is nervous, scared, interested, or focused,
among many other feelings that could be happening.
Learning to read body language can be as simple as paying
attention to your own body when feeling specific emotions. For
example, if you are able to notice the unconscious things that your
body does when you are nervous, and then it should be simple for
you to be able to see when another person is nervous in a certain
situation. Often, reading the body language of another person will
tell you more than having an actual conversation would, especially
if the conversation has the potential to be uncomfortable or is
something that no one wants to acknowledge.
15. MODES OF COMMUNICATION
The paper develops a theory of communication in which the
sender‟s and receiver‟s motivations and abilities to communicate
and process information endogenously determine the
Communication mode and the transfer of knowledge. In contrast
with the economic literature, which focuses on the (mostly
costless) transmission of soft and hard information, it
Models communication as a moral-hazard-in-team problem, in which
the sender and receiver
Select persuasion and message elaboration aborts. The paper
shows how strategies and outcomes depend on whether the
receiver needs to absorb the content in order to act (executive
16. Decision-making) or uses the information only in order to assess the
merits of alternative
Decisions (supervisory decision-making). The model is then shown
to provide a rich set of
Insights concerning: (i) the impact of incentive alignment on
communication strategies; (ii)
The relative impudence and the complementarily/substitutability
between issue-relevant communication and cues (information that
relates to the credibility of the sender rather than to
the issue at stake); and (iii) the path-dependency of communication.
VOIP: - VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) Telephone Service is
offered to on-campus entities including UA Departments, UA
Affiliates and Third Parties in UA VoIP buildings. A VoIP line is used
to provide service for VoIP phone sets on campus. These VoIP sets
have some features not found on the Digital ISDN sets. A VoIP
telephone is also a data device; it passes either a 10/100 or
10/100/1000 data connection through your phone to your computer.
ADDRESS BOOK: - An address book or a name and
address book (NAB) is a book or a database used for storing entries
called contacts. Each contact entry usually consists of a few
standard fields (for example: first name, last name, company
name, address, telephone number, e-
mail address, fax number, mobile phone number). Most such
systems store the details in alphabetical order of people's names,
although in paper-based address books entries can easily end up
out of order as the owner inserts details of more individuals or as
people move. Many address books use small ring binders that allow
adding, removing and shuffling of pages to make room.
17. SMS/MMS: - Short Message Service (SMS) is a text
messaging service component of phone, web, or mobile
communication systems, using standardized communications that
allow the exchange of short text messages between fixed
line or mobile phone devices.
SMS text messaging is the most widely used data application in the
world, with 2.4 billion active users, or 74% of all mobile phone
subscribers The term SMS is used as a synonym for all types of
short text messaging as well as the user activity itself in many
parts of the world. SMS is also being used as a form of direct
marketing known as SMS marketing.
VIDEO CONFERENCE:- Videoconferencing is the
conduct of a videoconference (also known as a video
conference or video teleconference) by a set of
telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations
to communicate by simultaneous two-way video and audio
transmissions. It has also been called 'visual collaboration' and is a
type of groupware.
Videoconferencing differs from videophone calls in that it's
designed to serve a conference or multiple locations rather than
individuals. It is an intermediate form of video telephony, first
deployed commercially in the United States by AT&T during the
early 1970s as part of their development of Picture
INSTANCE MESSAGE:- instant messaging (IM) is a
form of real-time direct text-based chatting communication in push
mode between two or more people using personal computers or
other devices, along with shared clients. The user's text is
conveyed over a network, such as the Internet. More advanced
instant messaging software clients also allow enhanced modes of
18. communication, such as live voice or video calling and inclusion
of links to media.
VOICE CONFERENCE:- Voice chat is a modern form
of communication used on the Internet. The means of
communicating with voice chat is through any of the messengers,
mainly Skype, Yahoo! Messenger, AOL Instant Messenger, in
Speak or Windows Live Messenger.[ Voice chat has led to a
significant increase in distant communications where two or more
people from opposite ends of the world can talk almost free of cost.
E-FAX: - eFax stands for electronic fax. Instead of using a fax
machine, eFax works through email. Allowing you to send and
receive using your favorite email program. Currently ICA uses the
service called NextivaFax (NextivaFax.com).
SENDING: A fax is sent via email to the fax gateway (NextivaFax),
which receives the fax and converts it into PDF format. The fax is
then transmitted to the recipient through standard telephone lines.
Please note that only one email address is allowed to send a fax. If
someone else wants to send a fax they either have to use the same
account or the online portal.
Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages
with attached meaning ( Schermerhorn, Osborn, Hunt 2000).
Communication process has the following basic aspects, which are
source, receiver, channel, noise and feedback. The source is the
person that encodes a message in understandable terms, and then
transmits it via a communication channel that carries the message.
There are various communication channels such as face-to-face
meetings, emails, memorandums, faxes, telephone, internet, voice-
mail, among others. All the communication channels are all subject
to noise and distortion which can have a big effect on the message
been sent. The receiver is the person to whom the message is sent
and if there are noises or other barriers a feedback can spot the
error. Feedback is the response from the receiver back to the