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training and development mod 2

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training and development mod 2

  1. 1. 23 TRAINING NEED IDENTIFICATION A training and development needs assessment may be defined as the process of identifying problems that are signaled by deficiencies in compliance with standards or external requirements and that can be resolved wholly or partly by training and development programs. The first step in design of training and development program is to identify the problems, which need to be addressed. This may be done for the entire organization, for a particular location or a particular job. Training need identification is a tool utilized to identify what educational courses or activities should be provided to employees to improve their work productivity. Objectives of identification of training and development needs To pinpoint if training will make a difference in productivity and the bottom line. To decide what specific training each employee needs and what will improve his or her job performance. To differentiate between the need for training and organizational issues and bring about a match between individual aspirations and organizational goals. To determine causes of poor performance. To determine whether training is needed. To determine if training will make a difference. Process of Identification of training and development needs Training is defined as a process for developing Individual skills and effectiveness. Individual effectiveness, in terms of skills, knowledge and attitude, is one of the essential building blocks towards achievement of the wider goal of improved organizational efficiency and effectiveness. The development of the individual and the organization are therefore inextricably linked. The primary purpose of the identification of training and development needs is a process to ensure that there is a need for training and development and to identify the nature of the content of the training and development programs. Conducting a need analysis is a way to collect information that can be used to decide what type of training and development will be perceived as relevant and useful.
  2. 2. 24 Fig: Training and Development Needs Identification Model 1. Organizational analysis At organizational level, training need analysis focuses on strategic planning, organizations goals and needs. It involves assessment of both the internal and external environment of the organization. Internal environment includes procedures, policies, strengths & weaknesses, while the external environment account for the opportunities and threats. 2. Task analysis Training Need analysis at job level focuses on the work that is being assigned to the employees. The job analyst gathers the information on whether the job is clearly understood by an employee or not. He gathers this information through technical interview, observation, psychological test; questionnaires asking the closed ended as well as open ended questions, etc. Based on the information collected, training Need analysis is done. 3. Individual analysis Training need analysis at individual level focuses on each and every individual in the organization. At this level, the organization checks whether an employee is performing at pre-determined standards or not. If the actual performance is below the expected performance then there is a need of training. However, individual competence can also be related to individual need. Identification of training and development needs Organization Needs Assessment Task Needs Assessment Employee Needs Assessment Goals Quality Training Standards Measurements ROI Analysis of environment, strategies and resources to determine where to emphasize training Analysis of the activities to be performed in order to determine needed competencies Analysis of performance, knowledge, and skills in order to determine who needs training
  3. 3. 25 Identification of training and development needs is a Systematic process as depicted below. 1. Problem Identification: Firstly the problem or problem areas need to be identified for appropriate training intervention at a larger stage. A host of methods can be employed such as surveys, data mining, interviews and etc. to identify present as well as anticipated problems in the organizational context. Performance standards for each job should be determined so that objectives and mission of the organization can be seamlessly achieved. Then actual performance of the employees is compared with these performance standards and gaps are identified. 2. Design on needs Analysis: The design of the needs analysis is to be determined in order to identify appropriate method for training and development intervention. Then set objectives for performance improvement are to be analyzed so as to establish method selection criteria. Problem Identification Design On Needs Analysis Data Collection Of Needs Providing Feedback Data Analysis Developing Action Plan
  4. 4. 26 3. Data collection of needs: This step pertains to collecting data of training and development needs. Data may be collected through various methods such as: Interviews Surveys Reviewing Documents Observing employees at work 4. Data Analysis: After collection of data, it needs to be carefully analyzed. After analysis and interpretation of collected data, conclusions and recommended solutions are determined and documented in a structured report format. 5. Providing feedback: Feedback should be provided to the management either through a written report or through oral presentation. Then, the next step is to determine the training and development needs, which must be addressed. 6. Developing action plan: Here, an action plan is developed to meet the identified needs of training and development of employees, action plan is then evaluated, analyzed and reviewed for the fine tuning and put up to management as a business case for approval. Different Levels at which it is to be conducted Identification of training needs can be done at two levels:- Organizational Level These concern the performance of the organization as a whole. Here identification of training needs is done to find out whether the organization is meeting its current performance standards and objectives and if not, exploring ways in which training or learning might help it to do so. Sometimes organizational training needs are also identified when the organization decides that it has to adopt a major new strategy, create a new product or service, and undergo a large-scale change program, or develop significant new relationships, such as joining with others to form new partnership.
  5. 5. 27 Individual Level Identification begins with the job description; this will provide a list of the skills and knowledge required. It can be compared with the actual skills and knowledge that the job holder processes. TNA Approaches Direct approach: It is used to assess training needs by directly asking the employees about training need. Professional approach: A process whereby performance consultants analyse your jobs, identify the competencies required to do each, & perform a gap analysis to determine each employee's area for improvement. It is time consuming & expensive. Secret shopper approach: It is done by conducting an industry related survey among the employees, asking questions related to training by a third party who is a stranger to the members of an organisation. On-line learning: This is a process by which nature of the employees are considered. For e.g if the employees require technical instruction & are computer savvy, on-line learning is the best. TOOLS /METHODS FOR TNI Identification is a part planning process focusing on identifying and solving performance problems. Tools /methods for identifying training and development needs depend on the scope of the assessment and on available resources. They are as follows
  6. 6. 28 1. Documentation Review Various work place process and inspection reports can be examined to determine problems faced in the workplace which has bearing on training and needs. Performance appraisal forms of employee can be analyzed for identifying the areas of improvement for employees. 2.Specific Analysis Various investigation reports of various external agencies such as buyers, statutory authorities and job analysis may be examined for their specific relevance to the problem in question. 3. Observation Observation of work samples of supervisors, workers and others may be used to assess attitude and perceived problem areas; observation can be also be made of representative job to assess compliance safe working practices. A survey can be used for relatively large groups to gain information about current skills and knowledge levels and about perceived training ad development needs and problem areas as well. 4. Surveys Surveys are usually in the form of a questionnaire. A comprehensive survey of the training and development needs of can throw light on the current problems, the desirability of a change and satisfaction with the learning processes. Satisfaction with and the need for additional educational workshops can also be assessed. 5. Interviews Interviews may be formal or informal. Formally business manages are asked if the performance level of employees is currently meeting organizational/ departmental needs and how things could be better. Informal interviews are often done from customers, vendors, and suppliers associated with the organization. 6. Suggestion box A suggestion box is a very basic need assessment tool. Complaints whether received through a suggestion box or not-can fall in to this category of need assessment tool. 7. Meetings, Reports, Newsletters. Attending meetingand reading the organizational newsletter can be useful to find out about new programs and services, and new directions the organization is taking, in order to anticipate the need for collection building in certain subject areas.
  7. 7. 29 8. CQI/TQM process Any of the aforementioned tools may be used in the continuous quality improvement process to uncover areas in need of improvement and to measure progress towards improvement. Recent Scenario Of Identification Of Training And Development Needs: The formal needs identification can take various formats. Generally, needs identification is conducted as a survey. However, questions may be developed and conducted through individual interviews or focus groups, or performance data can be collected and analysed to determine common needs. Individuals who are experienced and knowledgeable with regard to performing a task analysis of the work processes, procedures, methods, and practices being observed should conduct on-site observations. These individuals are referred to as subject matter experts SME’s and they can be found both inside and outside the organisation. Typically, SME’s are individuals who once worked in the position and have the in-depth knowledge of the concepts and processes. Subject matter experts offer the troubleshooting information an organisation may need to determine whether additional training and development is needed, whether the situation is indicative of a needed intervention. TNA Cycle of Events: Training Need Analysis (TNA) is the process that people engage in to discover the training and development needs of people so that they can carry out their job effectively and efficiently, and also to continue to grow and develop their careers. The cycle of events in TNA are given below: A change within the marketplace or organisation, which leads to a Business need, which leads to a Training need, which leads to a TNA, which leads to Training Delivery, which leads to: Training Evaluation, which could lead to: Going through the cycle again.
  8. 8. 30 • ORGANISATIONAL OR MARKET CHANGES: The first stage in the TNA cycle is to identify the changes which take place in the marketplace or organisation which could lead to the business need. • BUSINESS NEED: In order to identify all your training requirements There should be a look at the business objectives, any training that contributes to these should be identified. • TRAINING NEED: To decide what training your staff will need, you should: a. Look at the current skills levels of your staff. b. Identify the skills/knowledge gaps within the business. c. Decide which new skills could take you business forward. d. Plan for appropriate training to bridge those gaps. • TNA: TNA means measuring the gap between skills available and skills required for employees and making recommendations to bridge the gap. ORGANISATIONAL OR MARKETPLACE CHANGES BUSINESS NEED TRAINING NEED TNA TRAINING DELIVERY TRAINING EVALUATION
  9. 9. 31 • DELIVERY OF TRAINING: Delivery of training is the real challenge. Delivery of the programme is the process that actually begins with the arrival of the participants for the programme. The delivery phase of training iswhen the coordination, assessment of learning needs, design, and development phases come together. Successful training delivery depends on: a. Accurate identification of participant’s training needs. b. A carefully crafted training plan. c. Well-managed training details. d. Thorough and relevant materials. e. Prepared trainers, ready to present a compelling learning experience. While the other steps of the training process focus heavily on creating the content of the training, the delivery or implementation phase is concerned with teaching the content and participant learning. • TRAINING EVALUATION: Through the training evaluation ,we can identify whether the business or organisation has benefited.