2. MATERIAL SELECTION!
The best-baked goods, including light cakes,
tender cookies, fine-textured breads, and high
popovers depend on the precise combination
of flour, liquid, leavening agents, fats, sugars,
3. Flour Provides the Recipe Foundation
• Flour gives the structure for the product.
• The gluten, or protein, in flour, combines to form a
web that traps air bubbles and sets. Starch in flour
sets as it heats to add to and support the structure.
• In cakes, cookies, and quick breads, we want little
gluten formation, which makes products tough. Fats
and sugars help prevent gluten formation.
• In most baked goods, all-purpose flour is a good
choice; it has less gluten than bread flour.
4. The protein content of a flour affects the strength of a dough.
Cake flour All
in colour ,
flour that is
made from it
bran as well
of the wheat
5. Fat Holds it All Together
• Fat coats gluten molecules so they can't combine as
easily, contributing to the finished product's
• In many cakes, fat also contributes to the fluffiness
of the final product.
• When sugar is creamed with fat, small pockets of air
form from the sharp edges of the crystals interacting
with the fat. These pockets form a finer grain in the
• Fats also carry flavors and add to a
•Commonly used baking fats include
butter, shortening, coconut oil, and
(less rarely these days) lard.
6. Sugar Is Sweet and Helps Tenderize
• Sugar adds sweetness, as well as contributing to
the product's browning. Sugar tenderizes a cake by
preventing the gluten from forming. Sugar also
holds moisture in the finished product. Sugar
crystals cutting into solid fats like butter help form
the structure of the product by making small holes
which are filled with CO2 when the leavening
Ultrafine Granulated sugar Powdered sugar Brown sugar
Used for cakes and
the “baker’s special”
found in the table at
because it is used in
Often called soft
sugar because of its
And its colour vary
from light to dark
7. Eggs Add Texture
• Eggs are a leavening agent and the yolks add fat
for a tender and light texture.
• The yolks also act as an emulsifier for a smooth
and even texture in the finished product.
• And the proteins contribute to the structure of
the baked good.
8. Liquids Add Leavening and Tenderness
• Liquid helps carry flavorings throughout the product,
forms gluten bonds, and reacts with the starch in the
protein for a strong but light structure.
• Liquids also act as steam during baking, acting as a
leavening agent and contributing to the tenderness of the
Water Milk Juice
Gives different texture
to baked items
especially breads and
rolls. The texture of a
baked product is coarse
and chewy if water is
used instead of milk
Has definite functions
in baking. It gives finer,
more velvety grain. It
adds flavour. It helps
the product stay longer.
Maybe be used in a
recipie because fruit
juices are acidic, they
are best used in baked
products that have
baking soda as an
9. Salt Adds Flavor and Weight
• Salt strengthens gluten and adds flavor. Salt
enhances flavors. In yeast breads, salt helps
moderate the effect of the yeast so the bread
doesn't rise too quickly. It gives a finer texture to
bread and removes flatness or lack of flavor in it.
10. Leavening agents used
contains ingredients that
cause the dough to
bubble and rise and create
a light, airy product
is a flatbread, often
resembling a cracker, No
leavening agents are used.
11. Leavening Agents - Baking Soda and
• Baking soda and baking powder form CO2, that
is held by fat pockets, gluten, and starch, which
makes the baked product rise. Baking soda and
powder are not interchangeable; be sure that you
have the product the recipe calls for.
• Too much leavening agent will make the bubbles
too big, then they will combine and burst,
leading to a flat cake or bread. Too little
leavening agent will result in a heavy product,
with soggy or damp layers.
12. Air Steam
• Air works as a leavener
because it expands
• It can be incorporated
into the product by,
Folding in beaten egg
Sifting the flour
•Steam is considered to
be the most powerful
•Water changes to
steam when heated
causing the mixture to
13. Yeast- different from other leavening
agents because it is alive!
• Yeast is a single celled plant that feeds on starch and sugar
• In a bread dough where the oxygen supply is limited, the yeast
can only partially breakdown the sugar. Alcohol and carbon
dioxide are produced in this process known as alcoholic
• The carbon dioxide produced in these reactions causes the
dough to rise (ferment or prove),and the alcohol produced
mostly evaporates from the dough during the baking process.
Compressed yeast Dry yeast
Also called cake yeast;
It can be stored for 4-5
weeks in refrigerator
Is granular and darker ;
It is purchased in sealed
packs or envelops to ensure
14. Flavourings and spices
Chocolate and cocoa
Are highly prized for their flavor , aroma and deep brown colour
Fruit flavours and spices
Are extracts from the base of fruits which add pleasant odour to baked products