Chap 6 Developing A Project Plan

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Project Management by Gary and Larson

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  • WBS is hierarchical, Network is sequential, emphasizing interdependencies
  • Above is by WBS code, below is by description, presumably with a duration
  • Lets us do the post it activities bettter as well, wherein each activity is a
  • Much of this should be review from BUS786…. Fun activity- if not sure of sequences for activities, can put activities on post its and then move them around. (another reason to use AoN)
  • People may have some different dependencies Use the post its- (have people write the ID and durations on and as much of description as appropriate) Break into teams, give them 5 minutes to come up with an order. Find a volunteer team to present- see if others agree or disagree. Make changes as needed. Save one for future illustration
  • Can do a network- examples later
  • Now we are going to use the AON we did before to compute Slack by hand.
  • Start with first activities, fill in top (ES, EF). Convention is start at 0.
  • Don’t need to bother putting numbers on the arrows that are the sole arrow going into a node, in fact # on arrows are optional
  • Free slack typically occurs at the end of a path that feeds into a merge activity where another feeder is the critical path The whole ES-EF-LS-LF algorithm does not capture Free Slack, only Total Slack. Use MS Project.
  • Draw the AoN Network. CP R-D-F 11 days R-S-A-F 9 days- 2 days total slack for A,S, but only A has free slack. If S disappears for a day without telling anyone, A will be annoyed. Project won’t be late. However, if R,P, or F disappear for a day, the project is delayed as these are critical activities!
  • Chap 6 Developing A Project Plan

    1. 1. Developing a Project Plan
    2. 2. Developing the Project Plan <ul><li>The Project Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A flow chart that graphically depicts the sequence, interdependencies, and start and finish times of the project job plan of activities that is the critical path through the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides the basis for scheduling labor and equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides an estimate of the project’s duration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a basis for budgeting cash flow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highlights activities that are “critical” and should not be delayed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help managers get and stay on plan </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. From Work Package… FIGURE 6.1 WBS/Work Package- Sample
    4. 4. … to Network FIGURE 6.1 (cont’d) Network based on prior WBS Sample
    5. 5. Constructing a Project Network <ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity: an element of the project that requires time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merge activity: an activity that has two or more preceding activities on which it depends. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel (concurrent) activities: Activities that can occur independently and, if desired, at the same time…or not </li></ul></ul>A C B D
    6. 6. Constructing a Project Network (cont’d) <ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Path: a sequence of connected, dependent activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical path: the longest path through the activity network that allows for the completion of all project-related activities; It is also the shortest expected time in which the entire project can be completed. Delays on the critical path will delay completion of the entire project. </li></ul></ul>D (Assumes that minimum of A + B > minimum of C in length of times to complete activities.) C A B
    7. 7. <ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Event: a point in time when an activity is started or completed. It does not consume time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burst activity: an activity that has more than one activity immediately following it (more than one dependency arrow flowing from it). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two Approaches to Networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity-on-Node (AON) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a node to depict an activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used in Software Industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity-on-Arrow (AOA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses an arrow to depict an activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional in Construction </li></ul></ul></ul>Constructing a Project Network (cont’d) B D A C
    8. 8. AoA vs. AoN <ul><li>Fundamental difference in philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>DS856 will use only AoN because it: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… Emphasizes the process (i.e. QA) more than the end result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… dominates in more Bay Area relevant industries (software and consulting) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AoA is only in the text’s appendix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is supported by MSProject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lends itself to “post-it notes on the whiteboard” brainstorming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t require use of “dummy activities” or other confusing conceits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can duplicate an AoA network through use milestones and deliverables </li></ul>
    9. 9. Basic Guidelines to Follow in Developing Project Networks <ul><li>Networks typically flow from left to right. </li></ul><ul><li>An activity cannot begin until all of its activities are complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrows indicate precedence and flow and can cross over each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify each activity with a unique number; this number must be greater than its predecessors. </li></ul><ul><li>Looping is not possible! </li></ul><ul><li>Conditional statements are not allowed. </li></ul><ul><li>Use common start and stop nodes. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Activity-on-Node Fundamentals FIGURE 6.2
    11. 11. Activity-on-Node Fundamentals (cont’d) FIGURE 6.2 (cont’d)
    12. 12. Example: Post-it Wedding <ul><li>Below are a set of tasks and durations for a wedding. Break into groups of 3-5 and create a project network. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Put in a start and end activity </li></ul></ul>1 wk Sent Invitations to Guests SI 2 days Select Grooms Tux GT 6 wks Collect RSVPs CR 3 wks Select Site&Date SS 1 wk Tell Caterer headcount & Order food OF 2 wks Hire Caterers HC 1 wk Hire Officiant HO 4 wks Get Bridemaids' Dresses altered BA 4 days Pick Menu PM 4 wks Shop for Wedding Gown SG 2 wks Order Flowers FL 4 wks Select Bridesmaids Dresses BD 3 wks Audition Mariachi Bands MB 2 wks Get Wedding Gown altered GA 2 days Select Best Man&Usher's Tuxes UT 6 wks Bride goes on Diet DI 1 wk Select and Sign on Band SB 2 wks Order Invitations OI Duration Description abrev Duration Description abrev
    13. 13. Network Information: Example TABLE 6.1 Let’s build the structure first…
    14. 14. Koll Business Center —Complete Network FIGURE 6.4
    15. 15. Network Computation Process <ul><li>Forward Pass —Earliest Times </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How soon can the activity start? (early start—ES) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How soon can the activity finish? (early finish—EF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How soon can the project finish? (expected time—ET) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Backward Pass —Latest Times </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How late can the activity start? (late start—LS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How late can the activity finish? (late finish—LF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which activities represent the critical path? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How long can it be delayed? (slack or float—SL) </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Network Information TABLE 6.2
    17. 17. Activity-on-Node Network FIGURE 6.5
    18. 18. Forward Pass Computation <ul><li>Add activity times along each path in the network (ES + Duration = EF). </li></ul><ul><li>Carry the early finish (EF) to the next activity where it becomes its early start (ES) unless… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The next succeeding activity is a merge activity, in which case the largest EF of all preceding activities is selected. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Activity-on-Node Network Forward Pass FIGURE 6.6
    20. 20. Backward Pass Computation <ul><li>Subtract activity times along each path in the network (LF - Duration = LS). </li></ul><ul><li>Carry the late start (LS) to the next activity where it becomes its late finish (LF) unless... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The next succeeding activity is a burst activity, in which case the smallest LF of all preceding activities is selected. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Activity-on-Node Network Backward Pass FIGURE 6.7 Don’t panic!- the ES-EF boxes are still filled in, but this diagram is just emphasizing how to get LS and LF
    22. 22. Activity-on-Node Network with Slack FIGURE 6.8 Now that we have LS,LF in addition to EF, ES, we can fill LAST box in
    23. 23. Another Way to Find Slack- The Gantt Chart <ul><li>Once activity precedence and durations are established, we can determine the critical path and slack via a gantt chart. </li></ul><ul><li>Gantt charts can be hand-drawn, but practitioners generally use MS-Project . </li></ul>
    24. 24. Determining Slack (Not All Slack is Equal) <ul><li>Free Slack (or Float) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying connected successor activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tends to happen as the last activity in a path before a merge activity (when another path is the critical one). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total Slack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the entire project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The critical path is the network path(s) that has (have) the least slack in common. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This class will avoid the confusion of negative slack! … thus all projects will have their end activity have LF=EF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So all critical path activities will have a total slack of 0. </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Slack and Slackers: The Simplest Example of Free Slack <ul><li>Take a 5 person marketing project –Team5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remy writes the requirements doc- which will take 2 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polly can build the prototype from the requirements doc in 7 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Su needs 3 days to survey potential consumers once he has the requirements doc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Al gets to analyze the consumer responses to the survey, which will take 2 days. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatima prepares the final presentation to management, so she needs the prototype and the analysis from the survey. This will take 2 days. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which activities are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have total slack but not free slack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have free slack </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who can disappear for a day in the middle of their project and annoy the fewest people? </li></ul>
    26. 26. Extended Network Techniques to Come Close to Reality <ul><li>Laddering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities are broken into segments so the following activity can begin sooner and not delay the work. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The minimum amount of time a dependent activity must be delayed to begin or end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lengthy activities are broken down to reduce the delay in the start of successor activities. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lags can be used to constrain finish-to-start, start-to-start, finish-to-finish, start-to-finish, or combination relationships. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MS project defaults to finish-to-start, but represents all the others, as well… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>