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Principles of Architecture and qualities of architecture by Pravin Minde
Principles of Architecture
Prof . Pravin Minde
B.E. (Civil), M.E. (C & M)
LMISTE, LMIWWA, AMIE, MICE(I),
ARCHITECTURE is “The science and art of
constructing buildings, according to some
proportions and rules determined by the
character and destination of the buildings”
ARCHITECTS: a person who plans, designs
buildings and advises in their constructions.
Role of various agencies in planning of
1. ARCHITECT 35%
2. QUNTITY SURVEYOR 23%
3. STRUCTURAL ENGINEER 18%
4. SERVICE ENGINEER 12%
5. MANAGEMENT CONSULTANT 4%
6. LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT 2%
7. SPECIALIST DESIGNER 2%
8. VARIOUS OTHER CONSULTANTS 4%
(such as environmentalist, interior designer etc.)
Principles of Architecture
Goodness:- It means convenient arrangement
of various rooms or grouping
Beauty:- It means balances between Moral,
Social, Aesthetic & Scientific aspects.
Truth:- It means harmony with establishment
Architecture of Building
Function/Utility Form Aesthetics
Function / Utility
• Requirement of Client.
• Requirement of Site.
• Building Rules And Byelaws.
• No. of Users.
• Principles of Building Planning like Aspect,
Prospect, Roominess, Circulation, Privacy etc.
• Sketch plan & layout plan
• Approval from Sanctioning authority
• Lighting & Ventilation
Method And Technique of Construction
• Character of Building
• Interior Design
Principles and Elements of
• It means to Highlight Elements .
• Eye movement is directed towards a center of interest that takes
a position of prominence in the Elevation.
• The elements in a design that attracts one’s eye – the focal
• Unity is achieved by the consistent use of lines, color,
material, and/or texture within a design. It means
Completeness and indicates harmony among the different
• Parts of the design are equally distributed to
create a sense of stability. Both physical and
visual balance exist.
•Symmetrical or formal
•Asymmetrical or informal
Symmetrical or Formal Balance
• The elements within the design are identical in
relation to a centerline or axis.
The Taj Mahal Agra,
Uttar Pradesh, India
Asymmetrical or Informal Balance
• Parts of the design are not identical but are
equal in visual weight.
Chateau de Chaumont
• Design elements radiate outward from
Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II
Architect: Giuseppe Mengoni
• The top and bottom parts are equal.
• The parts on the left and right sides are equal
• If a vertical line were drawn down the center of each
design, the left and right would be mirror images.
• Repeated use of line, shape, color, texture or
• Regular rhythm
• Random rhythm
• Gradated rhythm
• An element is repeated at the same repetition/interval each
• The beats of the element are random or are at
• The repeated element is identical with the exception
of one detail increasing or decreasing gradually with
5.Harmony / Movement
• Flow or feeling of action.
• When two or more Elements are
similar nature produce harmony.
• It is a group of elements of entirely
different nature so that they have an
unpleasant effect. These can be
disturbed to all elements of harmony
• The surface look or feel of something
• Smooth Surface – Reflects more light and
therefore is a more intense color.
• Rough Surface – Absorbs more light and
therefore appears darker.
Park Guell – Barcelona, Spain
Architect: Antonio Gaudí
• Noticeably different
Can be created with
• Proportion and scale
• Shape & Mass
• Texture & Pattern
• Continuous repetition of single elements or a
number of elements producing an unpleasant
effects is call as monotony
• Comparative relationships between elements in a design with
respect to size.
• Proportion refers to the relative size and scale of the various
elements in a design.
• The scale in architectural composition means
proper relation of different elements to one
another and to whole. The scale is considered
with respect to surroundings.
• The sizes of doors, windows and staircase are
different for residential building when
compared to public building.
• The proper scale is essential for better and
qualitative results of proportion.
• Colour has an immediate and profound effect
on a design.
It refers to the styles of the building.
The character is related to functional aspect of
the building and evolves from proper
combination of unity, mass composition,
proportion, scale etc. which constitutes the
basic principles of Architectural composition.
Types of character
1. Functional Character
2. Traditional Character
3. Personal Character
That show the purpose of the building or
the reason for its erection.
The external appearance plays an
important role in determining the purpose
and the function of the structure.
The character of some buildings is expressed
through elements associated with certain
influences. Such influences often go thousands
of years back in history and culture.
Cultural aspects play an important role in
determining the Associated Character of a
If a building is designed
in the proper spirit,
such as grace, dignity
and vitality can be expressed
as an integral part of the
• The action or fact of forming a unified
whole.(Uniformity between elements)
• Cohesion runs within functional sub-
components of an architecture (e.g., how
related the functions are within a room or
floor.) as well across the entire architecture
• The Functionally Inter-correlated between
different elements and components of
• Having all the necessary or appropriate parts.
• There are no missing parts to the design and
there are no elements of the design that have
been left with a weaker description than the
rest. The solution is complete and the
• Pleasingly ingenious and simple.
• The architecture weaves together the
ingenious use of technology with
processes & organisation to complete tasks
and fulfil business objectives.
• The architecture oozes innovation without
confusing the observer.
• To achieving this degree of quality
requires dedication, time and experience.
• Equal in value, amount, function, meaning,
• The architecture separates the design along
with levels of equivalent concern of its
• The results in uncluttered and clear designs for
each design concern.
• The principle levels of abstraction concentrate
design effort efficiently.
• An arrangement or classification of things
according to relative importance.
• The architecture demonstrates the inheritance
of properties from higher levels of abstraction
to lower levels of detail.
• This order of inheritance recognises patterns
to simplify complex problems, using
hierarchical relationships to avoid repetition
and confusion in detail.
• Employing or involving a module or modules
as the basis of design or construction
(where module is each of a set of standardised
parts of independent units that can be used to
construct a more complex structure).
• Significances or ability of Modules/elements .
• A mental image of what the future will or could
• The architecture conveys an inspiring outline
of the future of the enterprise within the
bounds of the scope of the problem being
• Inspiration is born of creative innovation in
the solution, justification in the language &
context of the business.
Role of Architect
• Architecture has to do with planning and designing form,
space and ambience to reflect functional, technical, social,
environmental and aesthetic considerations.
• It requires the creative manipulation and coordination of
materials and technology, and of light and shadow. Often,
conflicting requirements must be resolved.
• The practice of architecture also encompasses the pragmatic
aspects of realizing buildings and structures, including
scheduling, cost estimation and construction administration.
• Documentation produced by architects, typically drawings,
plans and technical specifications, defines the structure and/or
behavior of a building or other kind of system that is to be or
has been constructed.