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Earth’s Water Budget
• 97%  saltwater

• 3%  freshwater

• 2.59%  ice caps, glaciers, deep groundwater
• 0.41% surface freshwater, accessibl...
WHY is it ESSENTIAL to LIFE?
PROPERTIES of WATER
WATER has HYDROGEN
  BONDS




• Responsible for other
  special characteristics of
  water 
Water boils at 100 C and freezes at 0 C at sea
 level

• Water exist as a liquid in a wide range of
  temperature
High Heat Capacity

• Specific heat capacity of 4.184 j/g-C

• Helps protect living organisms from the shock of
  abrupt t...
High Heat of Vaporization
• It takes a lot of heat to evaporate liquid water
• Makes evaporation of water an effective
  c...
Water is Polar
• Liquid water can dissolve a variety of
  compounds
  – Carry nutrients
  – Flush waste products
  – Serve...
Water is Transparent
• Water is clear and allows light to pass through.
Importance?

Density
• Liquid = 1g/ml
Importance?
Short Quiz 
What property of water is responsible for
  the following: Explain.
1. Ice floats on water.
2. Water remains ...
SOURCES of WATER
WATER available as:

• SURFACE WATER

• GROUND WATER
Surface Water

• Rivers, lakes, seas, reservoirs
• Gets replenished through?

     precipitation and run-off
Ground Water
• The water that works its way below the
  ground through voids of permeable rocks

                         ...
SPRING

• Ground water that comes out from fissure or
  cracks in aquifers solid impermeable
  base, and naturally surface...
Ground water is a major source of fresh water
  in the country. How can we extract it?
Depletion of Ground water, possible?




= land subsidence or sinking area
Sea Water
• Contains high concentration of dissolved
  solids than freshwater.

• Salinity = 35 ppt

• ESTUARY
  – Region ...
1. Discuss the Earth’s water budget.
  a. Which part gets the largest percentage? The
     least?
  b. What are the effect...
HW
• Research on El Nino – La Nina Phenomena (1
  whole pad paper/bond paper)

• Bring the following: (Friday)
  – Sand
  ...
Water and Atmospheric Conditions
Atmosphere : An important component of the
  Hydrologic Cycle?

HOW?
Water plays a major role in climate, or daily
 weather changes.

HOW?
Humidity in AIR
HUMIDITY

• Measure of the atmospheric water vapor
  content.

• Relative Humidity (RH) – one way of
  exp...
Check-up
• Why do we feel sticky and warmer during
  summer days when the air is humid?

• When is the best time of the da...
El Niño - La Niña
El Niño (ENSO)                   La Niña
                                 Frequent and stronger
Warmer s...
QUIZ #3
1. What are the consequences of a major event of
   ENSO?
2.What should be done in the following situations:

a. I...
WATER PROBLEMS
War in the Middle East
Seawater Intrusion
• Contamination of freshwater with saltwater
Land Subsidence
• Depression of the land above an area where
  massive extraction of water leaves voids
  underground
Water Scarcity
• Occurs in places surrounded by seas

• Seawater cannot be used for drinking and
  other purposes

• desal...
INDICATORS OF WATER QUALITY
Dissolved Oxygen(DO)
• Amount of diatomic oxygen dissolved in water
• Comes from air which mixes with water
• High DO = ?
...
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)
• The amount of oxygen needed by
  microorganisms in the water to survive

• High BOD =?
Total Suspended Solids(TSS)
• Indicates turbidity
• High TSS = ?
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
• A measure of the mount of dissolved
  contaminants in water
• High TDS = ?
Coliform Bacteria
• Microorganisms which come from the animal
  dung or human feces
• Presence of coliform bacteria = ?

•...
WATER POLLUTION
• A condition in which water becomes unfit for
  its intended use.

• Uses of water ?
Pollutants
• Human and animal wastes
• Organic wastes
• Industrial wastes
  – Organic chemicals
  – Heavy metals
  – Nitra...
LEAD
• Neurotoxin
• Can cause hyperacidity and low attention span
• Linked to low IQ and poor performance
• High concentra...
Mercury
• Neurotoxin
• Caused the Minamata disease (Minamata
  Bay, Kyushu Japan)
Methyl
mercury
Oil
• Oil spill – most common problem in the
  industrialized world
• Prevents the entry of oxygen
• Coats the gills of fi...
Nitrates and phosphates
• used in fertilizers
• Found in detergents
• Eutrophication
• algal bloom
• Massive fish kills
Acids
• Due to acid rain and acidic waste water from
  industries
• Dissolves and reacts with nutrients necessary
  for al...
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
• Stable compound that persists or stays in the
  environment for a long time
• “dirt...
Dead Rivers
• “one which is not suitable for any beneficial
  purpose”
• “physically lost”

• Biologically dead river – wh...
Thermal Pollution
• Happens when hot waste water is released in
  rivers or lakes
Mine Spills
•   Spills from mine tailings
•   High concentration of mercury and cyanide
•   Boac in Marinduque
•   Mt. Diw...
Quiz #3
• A group of students was assigned to
  investigate on the fish kill that happened in a
  certain lake. What param...
Hydrosphere
Hydrosphere
Hydrosphere
Hydrosphere
Hydrosphere
Hydrosphere
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Hydrosphere
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Hydrosphere

  1. 1. Earth’s Water Budget
  2. 2. • 97%  saltwater • 3%  freshwater • 2.59%  ice caps, glaciers, deep groundwater • 0.41% surface freshwater, accessible groundwater, soil moisture
  3. 3. WHY is it ESSENTIAL to LIFE?
  4. 4. PROPERTIES of WATER WATER has HYDROGEN BONDS • Responsible for other special characteristics of water 
  5. 5. Water boils at 100 C and freezes at 0 C at sea level • Water exist as a liquid in a wide range of temperature
  6. 6. High Heat Capacity • Specific heat capacity of 4.184 j/g-C • Helps protect living organisms from the shock of abrupt temperature changes • Moderates earth’s climate • Makes water as an excellent coolant
  7. 7. High Heat of Vaporization • It takes a lot of heat to evaporate liquid water • Makes evaporation of water an effective cooling process
  8. 8. Water is Polar • Liquid water can dissolve a variety of compounds – Carry nutrients – Flush waste products – Serve as an all-purpose cleanser – Help remove and dilute the water-soluble wastes of civilization
  9. 9. Water is Transparent • Water is clear and allows light to pass through. Importance? Density • Liquid = 1g/ml Importance?
  10. 10. Short Quiz  What property of water is responsible for the following: Explain. 1. Ice floats on water. 2. Water remains a liquid in most climates on earth. 3. Water is an excellent solvent. 4. Animals rid their bodies of excess heat through evaporation of sweat.
  11. 11. SOURCES of WATER WATER available as: • SURFACE WATER • GROUND WATER
  12. 12. Surface Water • Rivers, lakes, seas, reservoirs • Gets replenished through? precipitation and run-off
  13. 13. Ground Water • The water that works its way below the ground through voids of permeable rocks aquifers aquitards – impermeable rocks
  14. 14. SPRING • Ground water that comes out from fissure or cracks in aquifers solid impermeable base, and naturally surface out the ground.
  15. 15. Ground water is a major source of fresh water in the country. How can we extract it?
  16. 16. Depletion of Ground water, possible? = land subsidence or sinking area
  17. 17. Sea Water • Contains high concentration of dissolved solids than freshwater. • Salinity = 35 ppt • ESTUARY – Region where freshwater mixes with seawater
  18. 18. 1. Discuss the Earth’s water budget. a. Which part gets the largest percentage? The least? b. What are the effects of this distribution on the different ecosystems? 2. Make a diagram of the ground water system. Label its parts. a. Differentiate aquifer and aquitard. b. What are the effects of groundwater depletion?
  19. 19. HW • Research on El Nino – La Nina Phenomena (1 whole pad paper/bond paper) • Bring the following: (Friday) – Sand – Clay – Gravel/pebble – 3 20ml colored liquid – Timer
  20. 20. Water and Atmospheric Conditions Atmosphere : An important component of the Hydrologic Cycle? HOW?
  21. 21. Water plays a major role in climate, or daily weather changes. HOW?
  22. 22. Humidity in AIR HUMIDITY • Measure of the atmospheric water vapor content. • Relative Humidity (RH) – one way of expressing humidity
  23. 23. Check-up • Why do we feel sticky and warmer during summer days when the air is humid? • When is the best time of the day to water the plants? Why?
  24. 24. El Niño - La Niña El Niño (ENSO) La Niña Frequent and stronger Warmer surface along the typhoons; rainy seasons in coasts southeast Asia Colder and longer winter Sharp decline in fish harvest season in the northern hemisphere Long dry season resulting to Flooding in coastal regions and critical water levels in floodplains reservoirs Drying up of farmlands , Serious economic resulting to poor crop harvest consequences
  25. 25. QUIZ #3 1. What are the consequences of a major event of ENSO? 2.What should be done in the following situations: a. It is high noon. The plants in the flowerbox look “thirsty” for water. b. It is winter in Canada. Inside a room, friends huddle before the fireplace. RH is very low. Their skin is also becoming dry. c. A rich farmer wants to venture into a piggery business along a river. Downstream, people use the river for irrigation.
  26. 26. WATER PROBLEMS
  27. 27. War in the Middle East
  28. 28. Seawater Intrusion • Contamination of freshwater with saltwater
  29. 29. Land Subsidence • Depression of the land above an area where massive extraction of water leaves voids underground
  30. 30. Water Scarcity • Occurs in places surrounded by seas • Seawater cannot be used for drinking and other purposes • desalination
  31. 31. INDICATORS OF WATER QUALITY
  32. 32. Dissolved Oxygen(DO) • Amount of diatomic oxygen dissolved in water • Comes from air which mixes with water • High DO = ? • Warm water has lower DO than cold water. Why? • Water movement increases DO, presence of pollutants decreases DO
  33. 33. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) • The amount of oxygen needed by microorganisms in the water to survive • High BOD =?
  34. 34. Total Suspended Solids(TSS) • Indicates turbidity • High TSS = ?
  35. 35. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) • A measure of the mount of dissolved contaminants in water • High TDS = ?
  36. 36. Coliform Bacteria • Microorganisms which come from the animal dung or human feces • Presence of coliform bacteria = ? • For drinking water coliform count = 0 • Swimming pool = <100
  37. 37. WATER POLLUTION
  38. 38. • A condition in which water becomes unfit for its intended use. • Uses of water ?
  39. 39. Pollutants • Human and animal wastes • Organic wastes • Industrial wastes – Organic chemicals – Heavy metals – Nitrates – Grease and oil – Radioactive chemicals
  40. 40. LEAD • Neurotoxin • Can cause hyperacidity and low attention span • Linked to low IQ and poor performance • High concentration in areas using lead in water pipes
  41. 41. Mercury • Neurotoxin • Caused the Minamata disease (Minamata Bay, Kyushu Japan)
  42. 42. Methyl mercury
  43. 43. Oil • Oil spill – most common problem in the industrialized world • Prevents the entry of oxygen • Coats the gills of fish • Coats the feathers of birds
  44. 44. Nitrates and phosphates • used in fertilizers • Found in detergents • Eutrophication • algal bloom • Massive fish kills
  45. 45. Acids • Due to acid rain and acidic waste water from industries • Dissolves and reacts with nutrients necessary for algal growth
  46. 46. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) • Stable compound that persists or stays in the environment for a long time • “dirty dozen” • Very toxic to humans and animals
  47. 47. Dead Rivers • “one which is not suitable for any beneficial purpose” • “physically lost” • Biologically dead river – which could no longer support important aquatic species • Tullahan River, Pasig River,
  48. 48. Thermal Pollution • Happens when hot waste water is released in rivers or lakes
  49. 49. Mine Spills • Spills from mine tailings • High concentration of mercury and cyanide • Boac in Marinduque • Mt. Diwalwal in Campostela Valley • Rapu-rapu, Albay
  50. 50. Quiz #3 • A group of students was assigned to investigate on the fish kill that happened in a certain lake. What parameters are they going to test. Explain your answer.
  • SaifulAmri26

    Feb. 24, 2018
  • saranghaezurcaled

    Jan. 21, 2015

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