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PROPERTIES of WATER
WATER has HYDROGEN
• Responsible for other
special characteristics of
Water boils at 100 C and freezes at 0 C at sea
• Water exist as a liquid in a wide range of
High Heat Capacity
• Specific heat capacity of 4.184 j/g-C
• Helps protect living organisms from the shock of
abrupt temperature changes
• Moderates earth’s climate
• Makes water as an excellent coolant
High Heat of Vaporization
• It takes a lot of heat to evaporate liquid water
• Makes evaporation of water an effective
Water is Polar
• Liquid water can dissolve a variety of
– Carry nutrients
– Flush waste products
– Serve as an all-purpose cleanser
– Help remove and dilute the water-soluble wastes
Water is Transparent
• Water is clear and allows light to pass through.
• Liquid = 1g/ml
What property of water is responsible for
the following: Explain.
1. Ice floats on water.
2. Water remains a liquid in most climates
3. Water is an excellent solvent.
4. Animals rid their bodies of excess heat
through evaporation of sweat.
SOURCES of WATER
WATER available as:
• SURFACE WATER
• GROUND WATER
• Rivers, lakes, seas, reservoirs
• Gets replenished through?
precipitation and run-off
• The water that works its way below the
ground through voids of permeable rocks
aquitards – impermeable rocks
• Ground water that comes out from fissure or
cracks in aquifers solid impermeable
base, and naturally surface out the ground.
Ground water is a major source of fresh water
in the country. How can we extract it?
Depletion of Ground water, possible?
= land subsidence or sinking area
• Contains high concentration of dissolved
solids than freshwater.
• Salinity = 35 ppt
– Region where freshwater mixes with seawater
1. Discuss the Earth’s water budget.
a. Which part gets the largest percentage? The
b. What are the effects of this distribution on the
2. Make a diagram of the ground water system.
Label its parts.
a. Differentiate aquifer and aquitard.
b. What are the effects of groundwater
• Research on El Nino – La Nina Phenomena (1
whole pad paper/bond paper)
• Bring the following: (Friday)
– 3 20ml colored liquid
Water and Atmospheric Conditions
Atmosphere : An important component of the
Water plays a major role in climate, or daily
Humidity in AIR
• Measure of the atmospheric water vapor
• Relative Humidity (RH) – one way of
• Why do we feel sticky and warmer during
summer days when the air is humid?
• When is the best time of the day to water the
El Niño - La Niña
El Niño (ENSO) La Niña
Frequent and stronger
Warmer surface along the
typhoons; rainy seasons in
Colder and longer winter
Sharp decline in fish harvest season in the northern
Long dry season resulting to
Flooding in coastal regions and
critical water levels in
Drying up of farmlands , Serious economic
resulting to poor crop harvest consequences
1. What are the consequences of a major event of
2.What should be done in the following situations:
a. It is high noon. The plants in the flowerbox look
“thirsty” for water.
b. It is winter in Canada. Inside a room, friends
huddle before the fireplace. RH is very low. Their
skin is also becoming dry.
c. A rich farmer wants to venture into a piggery
business along a river. Downstream, people use
the river for irrigation.
• Amount of diatomic oxygen dissolved in water
• Comes from air which mixes with water
• High DO = ?
• Warm water has lower DO than cold water.
• Water movement increases DO, presence of
pollutants decreases DO
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)
• The amount of oxygen needed by
microorganisms in the water to survive
• High BOD =?
Total Suspended Solids(TSS)
• Indicates turbidity
• High TSS = ?
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
• A measure of the mount of dissolved
contaminants in water
• High TDS = ?
• Microorganisms which come from the animal
dung or human feces
• Presence of coliform bacteria = ?
• For drinking water coliform count = 0
• Swimming pool = <100
• Oil spill – most common problem in the
• Prevents the entry of oxygen
• Coats the gills of fish
• Coats the feathers of birds
Nitrates and phosphates
• used in fertilizers
• Found in detergents
• algal bloom
• Massive fish kills
• Due to acid rain and acidic waste water from
• Dissolves and reacts with nutrients necessary
for algal growth
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
• Stable compound that persists or stays in the
environment for a long time
• “dirty dozen”
• Very toxic to humans and animals
• “one which is not suitable for any beneficial
• “physically lost”
• Biologically dead river – which could no
longer support important aquatic species
• Tullahan River, Pasig River,
• Happens when hot waste water is released in
rivers or lakes
• Spills from mine tailings
• High concentration of mercury and cyanide
• Boac in Marinduque
• Mt. Diwalwal in Campostela Valley
• Rapu-rapu, Albay
• A group of students was assigned to
investigate on the fish kill that happened in a
certain lake. What parameters are they going
to test. Explain your answer.