2. “Two or more individuals, interacting and
interdependent, who have come together
to achieve particular objectives.”
Definitions Of A Group
3. The interactions that take place among
the members of a group are called
Groups are the basic fundamental
units of an organization.
It is a primary source of social identity
4. Nature of groups
The term group dynamics was coined
by Kurt Lewin in 1930s.
There are three views regarding the
nature of groups.
1. Normative:- How a group is to be
organized and how its activities are to
be carried out.
5. 2. Group dynamics consists of a set of
techniques like role plays,
brainstorming, sensitivity training, team
building, Johari window and self
3. Regarding internal nature of groups-
how groups are formed, their structure,
processes and their functioning. How
groups affects the individual members,
other groups and the org. as a whole.
6. Dynamics of group formation
Acc. to the Theory of Propinquity- ,
people associate with one another due
to geographical proximity. Ex. People
in the same office.
Acc to the Balance theory- people who
have similar attitudes toward certain
objects and goals tend to form a
7. Acc. to the Exchange theory- the
reward-cost outcomes of interactions
serve as the basis for group formation.
Affiliations and associations takes
place when rewards are greater than
the costs incurred.
Most important reason to form group is
to to satisfy social needs.
8. Types of Groups- formal and
defined by the organisation’s structure,
with designated work assignments
the behaviours that members should
engage in are stipulated by and
directed toward organisational goals.
9. Formal groups are further classified
into Command groups and Task
Command groups are relatively
permanent in nature.
Task groups are formed to carry out
specific tasks. They are temporary in
alliances that are neither formally
structured nor organisationally
natural formations in the work
environment that appear in response
to the need for social contact.
11. Informal groups are divided into-
Friendship and Interest groups
Friendship groups are permanent in
nature. Formed because of cordial
relationships that the members share.
Interest groups are relatively
temporary and are organized around a
common activity or interest.
12. Stages of Group development
The five –stage model
Punctuated Equilibrium model
13. Stage I: Forming - great deal of uncertainty about
the group’s structure, purpose and leadership.
Stage 2: Storming - intragroup conflict.
Resistance to the constraints that the group
imposes on individuality. Conflict over who will
control the group.
Stage 3: Norming - close relationships develop
and the group demonstrates cohesiveness. Strong
sense of group identity and camaraderie.
Stage 4: Performing - structure is fully functional
and accepted. Emphasis is on performing the task.
Stage 5: Adjourning - group prepares for its
disbandment. Attention is directed towards
wrapping up activities.
The Five stage- model
14. Punctuated Equilibrium Model
Studies have confirmed that groups do not develop
in a universal sequence of stages BUT the timing of
when groups form and change the way they work is
1. The first meeting sets the group’s direction.
2. The first phase of group activity is one of inertia.
3. A transition takes place at the end of the first phase which
occurs exactly when a group has used up half its allotted time.
4. The transition initiates major changes.
5. A second phase of inertia follows the transition.
6. The group’s last meeting is characterised by markedly
15. Group Structure
It helps shape the behavior of its members,
predict the behavior and guide the
performance of the group as a whole.
Structural variables are:
1.Formal leadership 4.Group status
2.Roles 5.Group size
3.Norms 6.Composition of the group
16. Formal leadership
Leader’s behavior has a
significant impact on the group
behavior and performance
Style of a leader is imitated by the
members of the group.
Set of behavior pattern which an individual
occupying a certain position in society is
expected to display.
Dimensions of role are:
Role Identity: Attitudes and behavior of an
individual gives rise to role identity
Role perception: Involves understanding
how one is supposed to behave in a
18. Role Expectations: how an individual is
expected to behave in a given
Role conflict: An individual who is
required to perform diverse roles in life
may find that compliance with one role
hinders his compliance with another
Acceptable standards of behaviour within a
group that are shared by the group’s members.
1. Norms related to performance
2. Norms related to appearance
3. Norms related to informal social arrangements.
4. Norms that regulate the allocation of resources.
21. Size of a group
12 or more are good for obtaining diverse input.
Approx. 7 members tend to be more effective for
Groups of 5-7 members exercise the best
elements of both small and large groups.
Social Loafing - The tendency for individuals to
expend less effort when working collectively
than when working individually.
22. Composition of a group
Most group activities require a variety
of skills and knowledge. Research
studies show that heterogeneous
groups (those composed of dissimilar
individuals in terms of gender,
personalities, opinions, abilities, skills
and perspectives) are likely to perform
23. Group demography - The degree to which
members of a group share a common
demographic attribute such as age, sex,
race, educational level or length of service
in the organisation, and the impact of this
attribute on turnover. Cohorts are
individuals who hold a common attribute.
Research has shown that turnover is higher
among those with dissimilar experiences
because of communication problems,
conflict, and power struggles.
24. Group Tasks
Large groups facilitate pooling of information e.g.
addition of a diverse perspective to a problem-
When the task is to co-ordinate and implement a
decision, larger groups are not so effective.
Therefore, the size-performance relationship is
moderated by the group’s task requirements.
25. Group Processes
The processes that go on within a work
group e.g. communication patterns, group
decision processes, leader behaviour,
power dynamics, conflict interactions etc.
Processes are important to understanding
work group behaviour e.g. Synergy.
(Social loafing is negative synergy.)
26. Social Facilitation effect
Tendency of people show significant
improvement in the performance of the
task when they are performing it in
front of others than they are
performing it in private.