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Immunization is Presented & Prepared by Philomia Arnold, Staff Nurse, NIMHANS, Bangalore

Publicada em: Saúde e medicina


  2. 2. IMMUNIZATION • Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as the immunogen). • Immunization is a way of protecting the human body against infectious diseases through vaccination. • Immunization prepares our bodies to fight against diseases in case we come into contact with them in the future.
  3. 3. IMMUNIZATION • Babies are born with some natural immunity which they get from their mother and through breast-feeding. • This gradually wears off as the baby's own immune system starts to develop. Having your child immunized gives extra protection against illnesses which can kill.
  4. 4. IMMUNIZATION • Immunisation can be done through various techniques, most commonly vaccination • Immunization forms one of the most important and cost effective strategies for the prevention of childhood sicknesses and disabilities and is thus a basic need for all children
  5. 5. National Immunization Schedule Vaccine Age 14 9-12 Birth 6 weeks 10 weeks weeks months Primary vaccination BCG X Oral polio X X X X DPT X X X Hepatitis B* X X X Measles X Booster Doses DPT + Oral polio 16 to 24 months DT 5 years Tetanus toxoid (TT) At 10 years and again at 16 years Vitamin A 9, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months Pregnant women Tetanus toxoid (PW): 1st dose As early as possible during pregnancy (first contact) 2nd dose 1 month after 1st dose Booster If previously vaccinated, within 3 years
  6. 6. IMMUNIZATION DTP Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis (Whooping Cough) OPV Oral Polio Vaccine MMR Measles, Mumps, Rubella (German Measles) BCG Tuberculosis Vaccine HIB Hemophilus Influenza B Vaccine (Meningitis Vaccine) HEP B Hepatitis B Vaccine Varicella Vaccine Chicken Pox Vaccine
  7. 7. A baby was given the B.C.G. injection about two months ago, has developed a small blister at the site of injection. Is this a cause of worry? Please reassure your friend that there is no cause for worry. This is a normal reaction after the B.C.G. injection. About 4 to 6 weeks after B.C.G. injection a small lump called a papule appears at a of the injection which may later break, giving out a whitish discharge. This will heal in about 10 to 12 weeks after the injection has been given and will leave a scar. Only if the discharge continues without the wound drying up, should the doctor be consulted
  8. 8. Side effects of the B.C.G. • After the D.P.T. injection, the infant may have pain at the site of the injection and may even develop fever. In that case the baby may be given 1/2 a table or 1/2 a tsp. of paracetamol • After the measles injection, measles like rashes may appear. These are normal. Very rarely, children can have allergic reactions straight after immunization. Also if the baby develops high fever or loses consciousness, a doctor should be consulted immediately. People giving immunizations are trained to deal with allergic reactions and if the child is treated quickly, he or she will recover fully.
  9. 9. Are there any reasons why my child should not be immunized? • There are very few reasons why a child should not be immunized. Ordinarily common illnesses like a cold or a diarrhea are not impediments against getting your child vaccinated
  10. 10. AVOID IMMUNIZATION • The child has a high fever; • He has had a bad reaction to another immunization; • He has had a severe reaction after eating eggs; or • Has had convulsions (fits) in the past. (With the right advice, children who have had fits in the past can be immunized.) • He has had, or is having, treatment for cancer; • He has any illness which affects the immune system, for example, HIV or AIDS. • He is taking any medicine which affects the immune system, for example, immunosuppressants (given after organ transplant or for malignant disease) or high-dose steroids.