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THE EARTH’S RELIEF
PEDRO FLORES. 1º ESO
THE EARTH IS FORMED BY SEVERAL LAYERS
CHEMICAL
layers
PHYSICAL
layers.
CRUST
MANTLE
CORE
Oceanic crust
Continental crust
LITHOSPHERE
ASTHENOSPHERE ?
MESOSPHERE
...
MANTLE
CORE
CRUST
SKIN
 THE CRUST IS DIVIDED INTO BLOCKS AND THE MANTLE IS LIQUID.
-- EARTHQUAKES -- SEPARATION OF LANDS -- OCEAN RIDGES
 CONSE...
1.- WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH?
2.- WHAT’S THE NAME OF THE WIDER LAYER? AND THE THINNER ONE?
3.- COMPLETE...
AN EARTHQUAKE IS A VIBRATION OF THE EARTH’S CRUST THAT OCCURRED WHEN TWO SIDES
OF A FAULT COLLIDE OR SEPARATE. THE FRICTIO...
8.- WHAT ARE THE EXTERNAL AGENTS IN THE FORMATION OF THE RELIEF?
9.- WHY DO EARQUAKES AND VOLCANOES TAKE PLACE? WHICH ARE ...
RELIEF
INTERNAL
FORCES
It is the result of…
EXTERNAL
FORCES
ELEVATION EROSION
EXTERNAL AGENTS (WATER, WIND, VEGETATION, LIVING BEINGS, ETC)
ARE PRODUCED IN THE EARTH’S CRUST AND MODIFY THE RELIEF
EROS...
WATER
RAVINES AND VALLEYS PLAINS AND DELTAS
ROCK’S FRACTURES
CAVES AND GALLERIES
WATER. WAVES, OCEAN CURRENTS AND TIDES
WIND
WIND ERODES THE ROCKS, TRANSPORT THEM AND ERODE OTHER ONES,
BUT IT DOES IT VERY SOFTLY AND IN SMALL PARTICLES.
VEGETATION
PLANTS AND TREES WITH THEIR
ROOTS ALSO CHANGE THE RELIEF
BREAKING ROCKS AND FIXING THE
SOIL.
HUMAN BEINGS
FARMLANDS
INFRAESTRUCTURES
CITIES
ROADS, RAILWAYS…
13.- WHAT ARE THE MAIN EXTERNAL AGENTS THAT CHANGE THE EARTH RELIEF? WHAT ARE
THE NAMES OF ITS ACTIONS?
14.- FROM ALL EXTE...
SIERRA
PLATEAU
RANGE
VALLEY
DEPRESSION
MOUNTAIN
PLAIN
HILL
PLATEAU: A FLAT TERRAIN THAT IS ELEVATED ABOVE THE SURROUNDING AREA.
PLAIN: A FLAT AREA OF LAND WITH FEW LANDFORMS.
DEPRES...
ISLAND: A PIECE OF LAND SURROUNDING BY WATER.
ARCHIPELAGO: A GROUP OF ISLANDS.
PENINSULA: A PIECE OF LAND SURROUNDED BY WA...
CONTINENTAL SHELF: AN EXTENSION OF THE CONTINENTE BELOW THE WATER. IT RUNS
ALONG THE COAST AND IS RELATIVELY SHALLOW (UP T...
The earth relief
The earth relief
The earth relief
The earth relief
The earth relief
The earth relief
The earth relief
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The earth relief

  1. 1. THE EARTH’S RELIEF PEDRO FLORES. 1º ESO
  2. 2. THE EARTH IS FORMED BY SEVERAL LAYERS
  3. 3. CHEMICAL layers PHYSICAL layers. CRUST MANTLE CORE Oceanic crust Continental crust LITHOSPHERE ASTHENOSPHERE ? MESOSPHERE ENDOSPHERE Upper mantle Lower mantle Outer core Inner core
  4. 4. MANTLE CORE CRUST SKIN
  5. 5.  THE CRUST IS DIVIDED INTO BLOCKS AND THE MANTLE IS LIQUID. -- EARTHQUAKES -- SEPARATION OF LANDS -- OCEAN RIDGES  CONSEQUENCES: -- VOLCANOES -- TSUNAMIS -- MOUNTAIN RANGES -- ISLANDS
  6. 6. 1.- WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH? 2.- WHAT’S THE NAME OF THE WIDER LAYER? AND THE THINNER ONE? 3.- COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING TABLE: • VOLUME: • COMPOSITION:CORE • VOLUME: • COMPOSITIONMANTLE • VOLUME: • COMPOSITION:CRUST 4.- MAKE A DRAWING OF THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH. 5.- WHAT ARE THE AGENTS THAT SHAPE THE RELIEF? 6.- EXPLAIN THE THEORY OF THE CONTINENTAL DRIFT. 7.- LOOK AT THE MAP OF THE EARTH’S CRUST AND INDICATE THE NAME OF THE THREE MOST IMPORTANT TECTONIC PLATES. WHAT HAPPENS WHERE TWO IMPORTANT PLATES CLASH?
  7. 7. AN EARTHQUAKE IS A VIBRATION OF THE EARTH’S CRUST THAT OCCURRED WHEN TWO SIDES OF A FAULT COLLIDE OR SEPARATE. THE FRICTION CAUSES ENERGY. THE POINT WHERE THIS ENERGY IS FREED IS CALLED EPICENTRE. TO MEASURE THE MAGNITUDE OF AN EARQUAKE WE USE A SEISMOGRAPH AND WE USE THE RICHTER SCALE.
  8. 8. 8.- WHAT ARE THE EXTERNAL AGENTS IN THE FORMATION OF THE RELIEF? 9.- WHY DO EARQUAKES AND VOLCANOES TAKE PLACE? WHICH ARE THEIR EFFECTS? 10.- INDICATE THE PARTS OF AN EARTHQUAKE. HOW DO WE MEASURE IT? WHAT’S THE MOST IMPORTANT SCALE?. 11.- INDICATE AND DESCRIBE THE PARTS OF A VOLCANO. 12.- WHY DO YOU THINK THE MEDITERRANEAN IS A PLACE OF EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANOES?
  9. 9. RELIEF INTERNAL FORCES It is the result of… EXTERNAL FORCES ELEVATION EROSION
  10. 10. EXTERNAL AGENTS (WATER, WIND, VEGETATION, LIVING BEINGS, ETC) ARE PRODUCED IN THE EARTH’S CRUST AND MODIFY THE RELIEF EROSION WEATHERING TRANSPORT DEPOSITION
  11. 11. WATER RAVINES AND VALLEYS PLAINS AND DELTAS ROCK’S FRACTURES CAVES AND GALLERIES
  12. 12. WATER. WAVES, OCEAN CURRENTS AND TIDES
  13. 13. WIND WIND ERODES THE ROCKS, TRANSPORT THEM AND ERODE OTHER ONES, BUT IT DOES IT VERY SOFTLY AND IN SMALL PARTICLES.
  14. 14. VEGETATION PLANTS AND TREES WITH THEIR ROOTS ALSO CHANGE THE RELIEF BREAKING ROCKS AND FIXING THE SOIL.
  15. 15. HUMAN BEINGS FARMLANDS INFRAESTRUCTURES CITIES ROADS, RAILWAYS…
  16. 16. 13.- WHAT ARE THE MAIN EXTERNAL AGENTS THAT CHANGE THE EARTH RELIEF? WHAT ARE THE NAMES OF ITS ACTIONS? 14.- FROM ALL EXTERNAL AGENTS, WHICH ONE DO YOU THINK IS THE MOST IMPORTANT? WHY? 15.- WRITE A KIND OF LANDFORM ORIGINATED BY WATER AND EXPLAIN IT. YOU CAN LOOK INFORMATION ON THE INTERNET ABOUT THIS LANDFORM. 16.- HOW SEA WATERS CAN CHANGE THE COASTAL RELIEF? 16.- WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE WIND ON THE EARTH’S RELIEF? HOW DOES THE VEGETATION CHANGE THE RELIEF? 17.- GIVE EXAMPLES OF HUMAN ACTIONS THAT CAN CHANGE THE RELIEF.
  17. 17. SIERRA PLATEAU RANGE VALLEY DEPRESSION MOUNTAIN PLAIN HILL
  18. 18. PLATEAU: A FLAT TERRAIN THAT IS ELEVATED ABOVE THE SURROUNDING AREA. PLAIN: A FLAT AREA OF LAND WITH FEW LANDFORMS. DEPRESSION: A WIDE LOW AREA, WITH GENTLE SLOPES, SURROUNDED BY HIGHER AREAS. SOMETIMES A DEPRESSION CONTAINS VALLEYS AND THEIR RIVERS. HILL: LOW ELEVATION, SMALLER THAN A MOUNTAIN. (LESS THAN 100 METERS). VALLEY: A LOW AREA BETWEEN TWO HIGH AREAS, SMALLER THAN A DEPRESSION, USUALLY WITH A RIVER RUNNING THROUGH IT. IT CAN BE FLUVIAL OR GLACIAL. MOUNTAIN: ELEVATED UNIT OF RELIEF WITH VERY STEEP SLOPES. USUALLY HIGHER THA 700 METERS. SIERRA: A SMALLER LINE OF MOUNTAINS, LOWER THAN A RANGE, OR BELONGING TO A RANGE. MOUNTAIN RANGE: A LINE OF HIGH MOUNTAINS. USUALLY MADE UP OF VARIOUS SIERRAS.
  19. 19. ISLAND: A PIECE OF LAND SURROUNDING BY WATER. ARCHIPELAGO: A GROUP OF ISLANDS. PENINSULA: A PIECE OF LAND SURROUNDED BY WATER, EXCEPT FOR THE ISTHMUS THAT CONNECTS IT TO THE MAINLAND. GULF: A BODY OF WATER INDENTS IN THE COASTLINE. THE NAME VARIES ACCORDING TO ITS SIZE. BAY: A SMALLER GULF. CAPE: A LARGE AREA OF THE COAST THAT EXTENDS INTO THE SEA. RIA: A RIVER VALLEY INVADED BY THE SEA. BEACH: ACCUMULATION OF SAND AND GRAVEL ON LOW AREAS OF THE COAST. MARSHES: LOW WET LAND THAT IS FLOODED BY THE TIDES. LAGOON: A SHALLOW BODY OF WATER SEPARATED FROM THE COAST BY SAND OR CORAL. DELTA: A DEPOSIT OF MATERIALS TRANSPORTED BY THE RIVER TO THE RIVER MOUTH. ESTUARY: WHERE THE RIVER FLOWS INTO THE SEA AT THE RIVER MOUTH AND FRESH WATER MIXES WITH SALT WATER. CLIFF: A VERTICAL WALL AT THE EDGE OF THE LAND.
  20. 20. CONTINENTAL SHELF: AN EXTENSION OF THE CONTINENTE BELOW THE WATER. IT RUNS ALONG THE COAST AND IS RELATIVELY SHALLOW (UP TO 200 M.) CONTINENTAL SLOPE: A SHARP DESCENT AT THE END OF THE CONTINENTAL SHELF. ABYSSAL PLAIN: AN ENORMOUS AREA OF THE OCEAN FLOOR THAT IS RELATIVELY FLAT AND IS AS DEEP AS 4000 M. IN SOME PARTS. OCEAN RIDGE: MOUNTAINS OR MOUNTAIN RANGE, USUALLY OF VOLCANIC ORIGIN, FORMED IN THE AREAS OF CONTACT OR SEPARATION OF TECTONIC PLATES. OCEAN TRENCH: DEEP DEPRESSIONS (REACHING DEPTHS OF OVER 10,000 METERS) THAT ORIGINATE IN AREAS WHERE TECTONIC PLATES MEET.

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