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  1. 1. COMPARATIVE QUESTIONS 1. Comparative Studies in Physical Education Describe the part played by the American High Schools in the development of sports talent. [4] 2. Comparative Studies in Physical Education In the Sydney Olympic Games of 2000 Australia aimed to become a leading Olympic nation. Explain the administrative and cultural reasons which have helped Australia to achieve this aim. [8] 3. Comparative Studies in Physical Education (i) In Australia, the former colonial games are popular. However, soccer has experienced problems. Outline the problems of an ethnic nature encountered by soccer in Australia and identify the measures taken to overcome them. [4] (ii) Identify the major aims of the ‘Active Sport’ initiative in Australia and explain why this initiative has national importance. [3] 4. Comparative Studies in Physical Education The table below shows the number of boys and girls participating in American High School sports programmes. Year Boy participants Girl participants 1971 3,666,917 294,015 1987 3,517,829 1,836,256 1997 3,634,052 2,367,936 2002 3,624,500 2,990,836 Give reasons why the number of girl participants was low in 1971 and explain the significant increase by 2002. [5] St Thomas More High School for Boys 1
  2. 2. 5. Comparative Studies in Physical Education Many major American team sports are violent. American football Baseball Ice Hockey Choose one sport from the figure above. With reference to the features of the game and the American culture explain why the sport you have chosen is violent. [6] 6. Comparative Studies in Physical Education and Sport Explain why a successful High School performer in America who has an ambition to progress into professional sport would accept a scholarship at an American College (University). [5] 7. Comparative Studies in Physical Education and Sport The aim of the Australian Institute of Sport (A.I.S.) is to develop sporting excellence. (i) Describe the structure and function of the A.I.S. [2] (ii) What cultural factors influence the pursuit of sporting excellence in Australia? [6]
  3. 3. 8. Comparative Studies in Physical Education Identify the cultural factors which have prevented cricket from becoming a popular game in USA. [2] 9. Comparative Studies in Physical Education Identify the cultural factors that make outdoor education an important subject in Australian schools? [3] 10. Comparative Studies in Physical Education Describe how the Ivy League Colleges helped to develop American Grid Iron Football and explain why American Grid Iron Football is a popular sport in the USA [8] 11. Comparative Studies in Physical Education Explain why achievement in sport is increasing among ethnic minorities in the USA. [4] 12. Comparative Studies in Physical Education (i) Outline two factors that make Outdoor Education an important subject in Australian High Schools. [2] (ii) Describe the Australian High Schools’ initiatives entitled S.E.P.E.P. and P.A.S.E. [4] 13. Comparative Studies in Physical Education In Australia, whilst some sports have always been popular, Association Football (soccer) has been slow to emerge. (i) Explain why the popularity of Association Football (soccer) has now begun to increase in Australia. [4] (ii) Why has Australian Rules Football (Aussie Rules) developed into the prominent ‘new game’ of Australia? [5] 14. Comparative Studies in Physical Education (i) Explain how Title IX (nine) has influenced women’s sport in the USA. [3] (ii) What factors have led to the high profile of extra-curricular sport in USA high schools? [3] St Thomas More High School for Boys 3
  4. 4. 15. Comparative Studies in Physical Education Cultural factors have caused new games like Aussie Rules football in Australia and basketball in the USA to develop. [3] (i) Outline the reasons why basketball in the USA has evolved into a game dominated by the African-American minority and identify one example of improved provision which has contributed to this development. [3] (ii) Explain why Aussie Rules football is known as a ‘new game’ and describe how it has developed into a game of the people. [3] 16. Comparative Studies in Physical Education Identify two different types of Summer Camps in the USA. Describe the benefits that a child would gain as a result of attending a Summer Camp. [6] 17. Comparative Studies in Physical Education The culture of the USA influences professional sport and this influence extends to young children who engage in community sport. (i) Identify one community recreation sports initiative involving children in the USA and describe the benefits that can be gained by the child who participates in community sports initiatives. [4] (ii) Explain how cultural factors have influenced the development of professional sport in America. [5] 18. Comparative Studies in Physical Education (i) Why is compulsory Physical Education being withdrawn from many USA High Schools? [2] (ii) Explain why opportunities for mass participation in sport in the USA are limited. [2] (iii) Explain how the nature of professional sports in the USA might deter people from taking part in sport. [6] 19. Comparative Studies in Physical Education Australia is a country with a tradition of sporting excellence which began during the colonial period. Explain the political and cultural factors that extend the tradition of sporting excellence
  5. 5. into the 21st century.[6] 20. Comparative Studies in Physical Education Government policy toward Sport and Physical Education greatly influences mass participation in Australia, France and USA. (i) Describe the strategies in the Australian schools’ Physical Education curriculum that encourage pupils to participate in sport throughout life. [3] (ii) Describe how the Australian government has increased active sports participation amongst the adult population. [3] St Thomas More High School for Boys 5
  6. 6. MARK SCHEME 1. (American High schools in the development of sports talent) 4 marks for four of: 1. Time available to practise 2. Inclusion of the specialist coach 3. Strong emphasis on the Lombardian ethic / a reflection of pro-sport /use of fitness testing / elitist 4. Progression by way of scholarship (through to Higher Education) 5. Have high quality facilities 6. Schools have a broad/distinctive infrastructure/ highly structured / competitive sports programme 7. Press/local community interest/revenue opportunities [4] 2. 8 marks in total Administrative factors 5 marks max 1. (Funding) Central Government/Federal/ State 2 (Administration) academies/devolved systems to states/AIS 3. (Facilities) High level 4. (Coaches) Professionalised coaching programme/high ratio of coaches to performers/sports science support 5. (School) initiatives e.g. SEPEP/ PASE/ SPORTIT/fundamental motor programme/Aussie Sport 6. (Pyramid development) Planned progress from wide range of activities 7. (Selection) Process of physical/ psychological testing e.g. Sport Search/talent identification 8. (Elite players) Structured/professional development plan (for sports success) Cultural factors 5 marks max 9. Pride/incentive of competing at ‘home’ 10. Affluent population supporting sport 11. Desire of a young culture to prove/excel on the world stage/Shop Windowism/national identity 12. Desire to prove emergence from a ‘bush culture’ 13. To show success over UK 14. Nation has a sports orientation/obsession 15. Inclusive policy/desire to achieve mass participation 16. Small (but urban) population coming together as one force 17. Pluralism/ethnic minorities positively contributing 18. Tradition of sports excellence/expectation of success
  7. 7. 19. History of pride in sports heroes e.g. Bradman, Fraser, Goolagong, Elliot, Gasnier, Campase and Freeman [8] 3. (i) (Problems encountered by soccer/measures taken) 4 4 marks for 4 of − sub max: 3 from either section (Problems) 1. (Historical) Soccer branded a British game/associated with ethnic migrants 2. (Tradition) Anti-British feeling from Australians/need to have own game 3. (Outcome 1) Australians refused to play soccer/game not accepted 4. (Outcome 2) Concern that soccer would become premier sport 5. (Violence) Spectator and player violence associated with ethnic rivalry 6. (Commercialism) Ethnic connection reduced media interest and sponsorship (Measures) 7. Banning ethnic team names e.g. Sydney Croatia became Sydney United 8. Soccer officials have made efforts to Australianise and de-ethnicise the game 9. Playing down/reducing the ethnic connection has increased positive publicity and brought in sponsors 10. Soccer officials have rejected multi-cultural policy 11. Game increasingly used as a social unifier (ii) (Active Australia) 3 marks for 3 of − sub max: 2 from either section 3 (Aims) 1. Increase participation 2. Promote social, health and economic benefits of participation 3. Increase/ensure quality of participation 4. Increase the number of officials/administrators in sport 5. Enhance relationships between national, state and local sports organisations 6. Develop links between schools and local sports clubs 7. Assist clubs to achieve high performance outcomes (National Importance) 8. Improve fitness of the nation 9. Provide wide base of participation 10. Production of champions serves to enhance national esteem 11. Improve morale of nation [7] St Thomas More High School for Boys 7
  8. 8. 4. (i) 5 marks for 5 of − sub max: 3 from either section (Reason for low female participation in USA High Schools) 1. Several States had legislation prohibiting inter-scholastic sport for girls 2. Minimal inter-collegiate sports programmes for girls 3. Male orientated society/Sport the preserve of men/men in control/social inequality/tradition/weaker sex 4. Women said to degrade/bring down status of sport 5. Men perceived dominant sports women as a threat 6. Sports women made out as undesirable stereotypes/role models/lack of positive role models 7. Sport not recommended by the medical profession 8. Women’s facilities inferior to men’s 9. Men control most sports organisations (Reasons for the increase in female participation in High school sport) 10. Title IX 11. Equal entitlement to funding/facilities/coaching 12. Increase rewards/recognition (professionalism)/sponsorship opportunities 13. Issues of equality/discrimination/Law Suits in favour of women 14. More sympathetic media coverage 15. Changing perception of women in society e.g. image/status/capabilities 16. More informed medical opinion 17. Positive role models [5] 5. See levels mark scheme below (Violence as a feature of the game) Max 6 marks American football Baseball Ice Hockey 1. Physical game 7. Ball is pitched/thrown 12.High degree of contact 2. Tackling off the ball 8. Bat as a weapon to be 13.Nature of surface used aggressively 3. Nature of tackling 14.Stick perceived also as 9. Players slide to base and weapon 4. Tactical substitutions often collide keep game at high speed 15.Heavy padding to reduce 10. High speed confrontation physical inhibition 5. Padding takes away physical inhibition 11. Opportunity to intimidate 16.Helmet renders a player lone batter anonymous/a machine 6. The helmet renders a player anonymous/a 17.Crowd proximity machine Stimulation of music 18.Roles permit some fighting
  9. 9. (Cultural determinants and violence) 19. Sensation seeking society/demand for action/entertainment 20. Players perceived as gladiators 21. Lombardian ethic/fierce competition to win 22. Desire of the crowd to identify the winner 23. Incentive of the Dream/Rags Riches attainment/opportunity for financial success (social mobility) 24. Tradition of violence/males fulfil ‘macho’ role 25. Frontier legacy/sport as the last frontier 26. Media influence 27. Violent/aggressive/winning role models [6] 6. Levels Marked Level 3 5 marks Responses will give at least three reasons which will be fully explained and developed. Alternatively candidates will give five reasons which may lack detail. Level 2 3-4 marks Responses will give at least three reasons. These will not be fully developed. Answers rely on description rather than explanation, though at the top of this level some explanation, though at the top of this level some explanation is expected. Level 1 0-2 marks Answers rely on description rather than explanation, responses offer fewer than three reasons. (Successful performer’s motives) 1. High coaching standards 2. Top class sports facilities 3. Draft/ talent identification opportunities 4. Opportunity/Chance to play at a higher level (NCAA or NAIA)/higher standards of play 5. Fulfil ‘American Dream’/Rags-Riches 6. Opportunity for upward social mobility 7. College attractive because of media attention/large crowds/sports status 8. Copy role models of previous College ‘heroes’ who have made it 9. Pay for/provide an education/a college degree can access a highly paid career otherwise out of reach to poorer people/ 10. Pragmatic role acceptance/the accepted sports route [5] St Thomas More High School for Boys 9
  10. 10. 7. (i) 2 marks for 2 of − sub max 1 for either section 2 (The Australian Institute of Sport) Structure 1. (organisation) Based in Canberra 2. (decentralisation) Each state has a replica AIS/Academy 3. (focus) Each AIS has specialisms e.g. Adelaide − cricket 4. (trend) Each AIS is becoming multi-sport based Function 5. (facilities) Provide top performers with top class facilities/training camp/competitive experiences 6. (coaching) Provide top performers with high quality coaches 7. (research) A centre of sport scientific research 8. (education) Provides educational support /ACE 9. (role Models) Sports persons in schools project/use of elite performers as role models in schools to inspire. (ii) 6 marks for 6 of: 6 Cultural factors) (Ideological) 1. Ambition (of young country) to achieve (global) recognition 2. Create image of high technological status 3. Lose old frontier image eg individuality/ruggedness (Political) 4. Desire for unity/patriotism eg gender equalities/nationalism/ integration of ethnic groups 5. Appeasement/sports success reflects well in govt/vote catching (Tradition) 6. Colonial influence still important 7. History of sport success (Geography) 8. Favourable climate/topography eg outdoor pursuits 9. urban development/population around coast fuels sports competition/ utilise a relatively small population 10. Favourable internal communication systems promote competition. (Social) 11. Obsession with sport/desire for healthy lifestyle 12. Fashion of sport is ‘popular’/‘trendy’ 13. Affluent society prepared to spend on sport [8]
  11. 11. 8. (Outcome) Drawn match unacceptable/win at all costs (Nature of Game) Cricket not dynamic/physical enough (Spectacle) Cricket perceived in USA as un-sensational/not entertaining enough (Values/traditions) Cricket reflects middle class English values/ traditions not suited to USA (Isolation) Policy meant that USA rejected English games (Frontierism) - Ethic is missing from cricket/cricket emphasises gentlemanly conduct [2] 9. 1. (Affluence) - Population/can afford to engage in outdoor activities 2. (Climate) - Climate favourable to outdoor lifestyle e.g. beach culture 3. (Frontierism/Bush Culture) - Outdoor Education experiences reflect frontier legacy of colonial times 4. (Colonialism) - Influence of ‘Motherland’ and traditions of outdoor activities 5. (Nationalism) - Pride in country 6. (Urbanisation) - A need to explore the outback /escapism 7. (Demography) - Small population makes for expansive unpopulated areas 8. (Landscape) - Genuine wilderness exists/uncharted territory no population 9. (Survival) - Necessary in a country with inhospitable climate and terrain [4] 10. Description of development brought about by Ivy League Colleges 1 (rules) Formalised the rules/legalised forward pass. 2 (origin) First games played at Ivy League Colleges. 3 (adaptation) Adaptation from rugby football took place in Ivy League Colleges. 4 (culture) College games produced a masculine idea/violent play was a feature of the game. Explanation as to why American Grid Iron Football is a popular sport in the USA 5 (nationalism) The game is American/All American game/ product of isolation 6 (rules) Rules promote rough play and violence 7 (sensationalism) Games are designed to be sensational/exciting eg padding to produce collision/they are fast/entertaining 8 (high scoring) Matches can be high scoring/high scoring games allow crowds to be rowdy 9 (intensity) Action remains intense through tactical substitution. St Thomas More High School for Boys 11
  12. 12. 10 (media) The media tend to hype up the games/high profile of the media 11 (frontierism) Reflection of frontier/pioneer spirit 12 (win ethic) Strong evidence of win at all cost/Lombardianism 13 (result) Winner always produced/no draws 14 (culture) Nature of the game suits USA culture/eg gun culture 15 (culture) The American Dream is evident in the competition 16 (commercialism) The game is promoted as a business 17 (spectacle) The game is part of a package/spectacle/eg cheerleading 18 (ranking) Grid Iron is one of the big four games. [8] 11. 1. (Opportunity) - Ethnics have more opportunity to play/improved/ increased provision 2. (Esteem) - Increase in cultural esteem of ethnic groups 3. (Beliefs) - Confidence in abilities 4. (Representation) - Increased representation in major sports 5. (Take over) Ethnics taking over as players in major sports/ disproportionate representation e.g. ‘White flight’ syndrome in basketball 6. (Media) promotion of ethnic group success/role models 7. (Societal) USA society are increasingly tolerant of ethnic culture th st in late 20 & 21 century/less discrimination/more acceptable 12. (i) 2 marks in total. 2 Mark first two only. 2 marks for: 1 (climate) Favourable climate for outdoor lifestyle 2 (landscape) Genuine wilderness/environment promotes outdoor involvement 3 (survival) Survival skills necessary in a country with inhospitable areas/environmental dangers require survival skills 4 (tradition) Outdoor experiences reflect frontierism/Bush Culture/Colonial settlement/reflection of legacy 5 (historical) Copy of ‘Motherland’ activities 6 (nationalism) Outdoor environment part of Australia’s pride/chance to explore beauty of environment 7 (affluence) Population has wealth to take part in outdoor activities 8 (status) Outdoor education is an examined subject/Youth Development Programme/YDP. (ii) 4 marks in total. Sub max 2 if initiatives not qualified. 4 Sub max 3 for description of SEPEP: 1 (curriculum framework) A loose curriculum framework/ adaptable/teacher has choice
  13. 13. 2 (time) 100 mins PE and 100 mins sport per week/compulsory time given to both PE and sport 3 (government) A government requirement 4 (content) Development of skills and sport performance /games sense 5 (competition) Intra schools sport/games in lesson time/Inter school sport games against other schools 6 (participation) Participation is the priority/excellence is a secondary consideration 7 (non-participants) Allows non-sporting roles/roles for children in administration/officiating/Sports leader role 8 (progression) Sports Linkage scheme/link between school and club. Sub max 3 for description of PASE: 9 (professional development) Professional development for teachers 10 (training) Provides teacher training programmes/inset 11 (guidance) Helps teachers to work better/to improve/to be more effective 12 (government) Government funding for PASE 13 (provider) Australian Council of Health Physical Education and Recreation/ACHPER responsible for programme delivery/design/write PASE programmes 14 (teacher games) Involves teacher games/promotes teachers as active role models. 13. (i) 4 marks from: 4 1 (governing) Better leadership/stronger governing body 2 (ethnicity) Ethnic origin of teams no longer recognised/team names no longer have name of country of origin/ reduced ethnic violence 3 (media attention) Increased media coverage/positive media publicity 4 (schools) A popular school option/elective/increasingly popular with children/increased participation 5 (AIS) Sports institutes are now supporting soccer 6 (sponsorships) Sponsors are being attracted to soccer 7 (role models) Australian players are amongst stars of European leagues/role models 8 (success) World Cup qualification/victory over ‘Motherland’/England. (ii) Levels marked 5 1 (origin) A genuine Australian game 2 (origin) Adapted from an Aborigine game 3 (origin) Link with cricket/fitness for cricket/a winter game St Thomas More High School for Boys 13
  14. 14. for fitness/cricket helped with development 4 (popularity) Known as the people’s game/accessible to all/ethnic/ cultural blending/celebrates its ethnic appeal/game of cosmopolitan Australia 5 (spectators) All classes/backgrounds/no one excluded 6 (culture) Suits egalitarian society/ethos 7 (frontier) Reflects the frontier/Bush ethos/the manly image of bush/frontier 8 (fair play) Fair play image suits Australia/recognition for the ‘best and fairest’ eg Brownlow medal 9 (space) Large/open spaces available throughout Australia 10 (commercialism) Opportunities for commercialism business/sponsors 11 (media) A good product for media promotion/commercial breaks during games/frequent ‘chat shows’/previews. [9] 14. (i) 3 marks from: 3 1 (opportunity) Equal opportunity for women in sport 2 (finance) Equal distribution of money between men and women 3 (participation) Increased numbers of women participants/equal/ improved practical time 4 (competition) More competition for women/competition at High School/College 5 (status) Increased status of women’s sport/increased standards of performance 6 (culture) Male dominance/hyper/extreme masculinity challenged/women’s sport accepted 7 (scholarships) Scholarships for women in more sports/increased accessibility to scholarships 8 (facilities) Improved/upgraded facilities for women. (ii) 3 marks for: 3 1 (standard) School perceived as a centre of excellence/high standard of play 2 (incentive) Scholarship for players 3 (accountability) Pressure on coach to be successful/hire and fire contract for coach 4 (winning) Lombardian ethic/strong win ethic/ethic reflects mainstream culture 5 (copy of Copies/reflects professional sport/matches include professionalism) other entertainment eg cheerleading 6 (community) Spectator interest/large crowds/spectator sport for the community 7 (finance) Sponsorships/commercial investment/Alumni donations. [6]
  15. 15. 15 (i)Sub Max 2 mark 2 Two marks for: 1. (Inner city game) Inner city populated by ethnic minorities 2. (Expense) Basketball inexpensive sport for ethnic groups 3. (Role models) Top stars / white flight / syndrome 4. (Cultural esteem) Increased due to success 5. (Belief ) Belief that ethnic culture has growing expertise / value 6. (Motivation) The African-American driven by success / wealth / American Dream / rags to riches 1 mark for example of improved provision 1 7. (Outdoor courts) Purpose built in the inner city (or example) 8. (Midnight Leagues) Midnight leagues established (and dominated by city ethnic minorities) (ii) New game 1 mark for: 1 1. (Invented by Australians) Unique to Australia / was not an adopted game from the UK / Motherland / adapted from Aboriginal game A game for all people 2 marks for: 2 2. (Social background) For players from every social background / for Aboriginals/Irish/English/Cornstalks / Open to all 3. (Social class) All levels of society watched / role for women as spectators 4. (Frontierism) Reflected frontier Australia / spirit of working together / bush culture 5. (National game) Now adopted as the game of cosmopolitan Australia / spread beyond Victoria / now played in all States 6. (Media) Wide media appeal for all society [9] 16 Types of summer camp 2 marks: Sub Max 2 of 2 1. Outdoor adventure / sports camps 2. Fat camps / Self-improvement camps e.g. cosmetic camps 3. Special needs camps e.g. learning and physical needs 4. State sponsored camps / underprivileged camps 5. Business / religious / ethnic / sponsored camps St Thomas More High School for Boys 15
  16. 16. 6. Commercial camps Different types of benefits 4 marks 4 7. Challenge relate to type of camp e.g. Outdoor adventure rock climbing 8. Self discovery / knowing limitations / never giving up / how to achieve 9. Independence / self sufficiency / living away from home 10. Knowledge / skills (specific to type of camp) 11. Community spirit / working as a team / sharing work / helping others / leadership / social life skills or equivalent 12. Endorse patriotic love of America national pride 13. Frontier spirit 14. Appreciation for / Respect of environment [12] 17. (i) 1 mark from 1 identification 4 1 (Little League Sports) Little League Sports/Pop Warner/Grid Iron Little League/Biddy Basketball/Little League Basket Ball/Pee Wee Baseball/Little League Baseball. 2 (Time Out for Better Sports for Kids) 3 (Hook a Kid on Golf) 3 marks for benefits of community sports initiatives. From: 4 (Grass root Childhood opportunity/development of development) fundamental motor skills 5 (Structure) Organised competition/fixtures/organised leagues/mini Super Bowls 6 (Coaching) Coach involvement/high standard of coaching 7 (Social development) Opportunities to mix/initiation into culture 8 (Preparation) Prepares youngsters for sports progression /professional sport 9 (Preparation) Preparation for competitive USA lifestyle 10 (Professionalism) Format reflects professional sport 11 (Media) Chance to gain media attention (ii) 5 marks from: 5 1 (American Dream) The winner achieves the Dream/Rags to Riches 2 (Media) Strong influence/major source of revenue 3 (Capitalism) Enables players to accumulate great
  17. 17. wealth/a system which rewards the best 4 (Commercialism) Sport is business/strong/traditional links with business 5 (Lombardianism) Professional sport is highly competitive/win at all cost ethic/Lombardian 6 (Equality) Increasing opportunity/achievements of women/ethnic minorities/availability of scholarships 7 (Hire and Fire) Dismissal after failure 8 (Colonialism/ Sports mirror the spirit of frontierism/ Frontierism) reflection of toughness/ ruggedness/ endeavour/ individuality/ sport is the last frontier 9 (Violence) Sports reflect aggressive/violent society 10 (Sensationalism) Sports are required to be sensational/action intensive/high scoring/spectacle/hype [9] 18. (i) 2 marks from: 2 1 (Replacement) Many States are replacing PE with other subjects 2 (Administration) School Boards voting PE off curriculum 3 (Popularity) PE is unpopular with many students 4 (Option) PE is becoming an option in senior school/no longer compulsory in senior school 5 (Economy) Withdrawing PE saves money (ii) 2 marks from: 2 1 (Sports club) Limited sports club provision 2 (Expense) Membership to clubs/participation in sport is expensive 3 (Selection) Selection by professional sport/scholarship causes drop out/elimination/person must be good to take part 4 (Media) Heavy media coverage encourages spectatorism 5 (Finance) Money can be made through spectators more easily than in active participation 6 (Spectator market) Greater inclination to watch rather than to play (iii) Levels Marked Level 3 : 5-6 marks 6 • Responses will fully explain the nature of professional sport and how this deters people from taking part. Level 2 : 3-4 marks St Thomas More High School for Boys 17
  18. 18. • Responses will not be fully developed. Answers rely on description rather than explanation. At the top of this level some explanation is expected. Level 1 : 1-2 marks • Answers rely on description rather than explanation. 6 marks from: 1 (Lombardianism) Win at all costs/highly competitive ethic intimidates people/puts people off 2 (Violence) Violent/aggressive/confrontational nature of games does not suit mass participation 3 (Athletic image) The majority of the population can not aspire/achieve the standard of athleticism required in these sports 4 (Sensational image) Only the best/few performers can create/fulfil the sensational image 5 (Frontier image) The majority of the population do not pursue the ‘frontier’ experience 6 (Media) The ‘big 4 sports’ (sports like American football, baseball, ice hockey and basketball) command media focus at expense of minority sports/extra publicity attracts people to the big 4 sports 7 (Commercialism) The commercial/business approach encourages spectatorism not participation 8 (Selection) Only the best can play 9 (Opportunity) There is little opportunity to pursue the big 4 sports in clubs/no opportunity as an amateur. 10 (Equality) Big 4 sports are male orientated 11 (Equality) Concept of stacking and centrality still exist – African- American domination of Basket ball/White Flight in Basketball 12 (Equality) Participation in the big 4 is open to young/fit/physical males only 13 (Franchise) The voting rights of existing teams limit the numbers of teams who play in professional leagues [10] 19. 1 (Funding) Government Funding/Funding through ASC 2 (Policy) Establish Institutes of Sport/provide Institutes in each State 3 (Political) Sport reflects well on government 4 (Voting) Active sports policies increases vote/chances of re- election 5 (Ideology) Sport used to express ambition/Sport creates favourable 21st century image
  19. 19. 6 (Equality) Sport used to address equality/opportunities for women/opportunities from ethnic minorities/commitment to multi- culturalism/egalitarian image of society/ ‘land of the fair go’ 7 (Unity) Sport unites the country/pride 8 (Appeasement) Excellence in sport helps to create contentment in society. 9 (Patriotism) Sport used to promote love of country/pride 10 (International image) Sports success is good for global prestige/shop window 11 (Geography) Favourable climate/climate suits outdoor sports/Urban nature of settlement favours interest in urban sports/good internal communication stimulates competition/news interest 12 (Social) Fashionable to participate in sport/obsession 13 (Economic) Affluent nation spends on sport/disposable income spent on sport 14 (Colonialism) Influence of British settlement/adoption of British sports 15 (History) History/expectation of sports success/beating Motherland was a measure of national progress 16 (Tradition) Reflection/legacy of frontierism/Bush culture. [6] 20. (i) 3 marks from: 3 1 (SEPEP) Sport Education and Physical Education Project/100 minutes per week for each of PE and sport/loose framework as a teaching guide 2 (Structure) Large framework of Intra and Inter school games 3 (Electives) A broad range of electives/options to cater for all interests/needs 4 (Fundamental Skills Basic skills make up Primary Programme) programme/basic skills transfer to complex skills/a skilful child is more likely to continue participation 5 (PASE) Physical and sport education/a professional development programme for teachers. 6 (Sport linkage) Liaison between club and school/sharing facilities/talented children are passed on to clubs 7 (Exemplary Schools) Schools with good programmes are funded to share good practice 8 (Sports/Talent Search) Students select sports which suit the best by accessing database/use of sport/talent search 9 (Awards) State awards/Blues/de Coubertin for St Thomas More High School for Boys 19
  20. 20. excellence/participation/fair play 10 (ACE) Athletes Career Education/star performers used as role models (ii) 3 marks from: 3 1 (Active Australia) ASC have set up the sport for all policy/Active Australia 2 (Active Australia) (Former sport for all policy) Educated the community about importance of physical activity and health 3 (More Active Australia) (Present sport for all policy). Aims to increase membership of sports clubs/ emphasis/support given to sports clubs to increase membership/More Active Australia 4 (Equality) ASC address issues of equality 5 (Funding) The ASC fund (and administer) sport on a national scale 6 (Sport Development The SDG established is the unit of the ASC Group) with responsibility to increase sport participation 7 (Review body) ASC reviews initiatives/trends/needs relating to participation/set up the review ‘Backing Australia’s Sporting Ability’ 8 (Teacher games) Teacher games/residential competitive sports experiences [6]