3. Personality has two
1. It refers to the impression a
person makes on others
2. It refers to the underlying ,
unseen structures and
processes inside a person that
explain why we behave the way
4. Personality Traits and Leadership
• Traits refer to recurring regularities or
trends in a person’s behavior.
• The trait approach to personality
maintains that people behave the way
they do because of the strengths of
the traits they possess.
5. Personality Traits and Leadership
• Personality traits are useful concepts
for explaining why people act fairly
consistently from one situation to the
• Knowing how two people differ on a
particular personality trait can help us
predict more accurately how they
will tend to act in a variety of
6. Personality Traits and Leadership
• A leader’s behavior reflects an
interaction between his or her
personality traits and various
– Weak situations
– Strong situations
7. Personality Traits
Personality Traits: Include
tendencies to be enthusiastic,
demanding, easy-going, nervous,
-Each trait can be viewed on a
continuum, from low to high.
There is no “wrong” trait, but rather
leaders have a complex mix of traits.
9. Personality Traits
MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator)
Preferences distinguish one personality
from another, based on four basic
dimensions used to create one of 16
possible psychological styles.
11. Their spontaneous sociability makes it
easy for them to strike up conversations
with anyone about almost anything.
Not surprisingly, such extraverts have a
breadth of interests and a large circle of
acquaintances. They are energized by
being around others, but their tendency
to “think out loud” and speak whatever
is on their mind can sometimes get
them into trouble.
Other leaders are more comfortable alone, or
with just a few others.
Introverts can interact effectively with others,
but they are fundamentally both more
reserved and more deliberate than extraverts.
Introverted leaders prefer to think things
through and only announce their final
decisions, and followers may have a difficult
time understanding the process the leaders
used to reach his or her conclusions.
The sensing-and-intuition dimension is concerned
with how people look at data.
Leaders who prefer their sensing mode like facts
and details; the focus of information gathering
concerns the real, the actual, the literal, the specific,
and the present.
Hence, sensing leaders tend to be practical,
orderly, and down-to-earth decision makers.
14. • By contrast, leaders who rely on their
intuition look for the big picture beyond
particular facts or details; information is
most meaningful for its pattern,
framework, figurative meaning, and
• Intuitive leaders tend to be innovative
and conceptual (though sometimes
impractical), and are more comfortable
with their hunches.
The thinking-and-feeling dimension is
concerned with the considerations
leaders prefer when making decision.
Thinking leaders like to analyze,
criticize, and approach decisions
impersonally and objectively.
They use their heads to adopt a
relatively detached stance toward
decisions and pay more attention to
operational, bottom-line considerations.
16. • Feeling leaders naturally
empathize and appreciate, and
prefer to approach decisions
personally and subjectively.
• They value humaneness and
social harmony and use their
hearts to weigh the impact of any
decision on particular people.
18. Judging leaders
• strive for closure;
• they like things to be settled and come
across as decisive, methodical and
• make poorer decisions.
• get nervous before decisions are made
and only want a minimal amount of
information when making decisions.
• Although they make up their minds
quickly, they may not have all relevant
facts and as a result
19. Perceiving leaders like to keep their
options open; they are curious,
spontaneous, and flexible.
Perceivers prefer to collect as much
information as possible before making a
decision or a commitment.
Perceivers often get nervous after a
decision is made, as they may not feel
that enough information was collected
or data was analyzed.
20. Big Five Model
• Advantages of the Big Five Model
– Most personality researchers currently use
one form of the Big Five Model
– The model is usefully categorized
– It is a useful heuristic (shortcut)for
categorizing or profiling people
– It appears to be universally applicable
21. Big Five Model (cont.)
• Disadvantages of the Big Five Model
– Some argue that five factors are not
enough to adequately encompass all the
different personality traits
– The Big Five personality dimensions tend
to be fairly heterogeneous internally, which
makes them poor predictors of job
performance as compared to personality
23. Locus of Control
The degree to which leaders believe they
control their own fate
Internal Locus of Control: Leaders
believe they are responsible for their fate.
See their actions as important to achieving
External Locus of Control: Leaders
believe outside forces are responsible for
Their actions make little difference in
24. Less anxious
Set harder goals
Manage stress well and adapt to change
More considerate of followers and less
likely to use coercive power
Internal CEOs select risky and
Characteristics of IndividualsCharacteristics of Individuals
with Internal Locus of Controlwith Internal Locus of Control
25. Dark-Side Personality Traits
• Everyone has at least one dark-side
• Dark-side traits have bigger influence
on performance for people in
leadership versus followership roles.
• The dark-side traits are usually only
apparent when leaders are not
attending to their public image.
26. Dark-side Personality Traits
• Dark-side personality traits are irritating
or counterproductive behavioral
tendencies which interfere with a
leader’s ability to form cohesive teams
and cause followers to exert less effort
towards goal accomplishment.
27. Dark-Side Personality Traits
• Dark-side traits co-vary with social skills and
are difficult to detect in interviews, assessment
centers, or with bright-side personality
• The behaviors associated with dark-side
personality traits can occur at any leadership
level, and many times organizations tolerate
these behaviors because the leader is smart,
experienced, or possesses unique skills.
30. A persistent tendency to feel and behave in
a favorable or unfavorable way toward a
specific person, object, or idea.
31. Important Conclusions
• Reasonably stable
• Directed toward some person, object or idea
• Relates to one’s behavior toward that object
• People tend to behave in ways that are
consistent with their feelings
• Behaviors are also influenced by
motivational forces and situational factors
35. Job Satisfaction Outcomes
• Highly positive effect on intentions to stay in
• Modest effect on actually staying in the job
• Modestly positive effect on regular attendance
• Positive effect on performance (may also be
positively affected by performance)
• Moderately strong relationship with motivation
36. •Managers high on job satisfaction
have a positive view of their jobs.
•Levels of job satisfaction tend to
increase as managers move up in
the hierarchy in an organization.
37. Organizational Commitment
– The collection of feelings and beliefs that
managers have about their organization as
38. Organizational Commitment
• Positive effects on intentions to stay in the job
• Modest effects on actually staying in the job
and attending work regularly
• Significantly related to motivation
• Positive effects on job performance
39. • Role ambiguity
• Pay and benefits
• Nature of the job
• Organization climate
• Perceptions of fair treatment
40. Values are “constructs representing
generalized behaviors or states of
affairs that are considered by the
individual to be important.”
---(simply said, representations of our
behavior based on what we see as
What Are Values?
44. Terminal Values
– A personal conviction about life-long goals
– A personal conviction about desired modes
of conduct or ways of behaving
46. Values are a primary determinant in what data
are reviewed by leaders and how they define
Values often influence leader’s perceptions of
individual and organizational successes as well as
the manner in which these successes are
Values help leaders choose right from wrong,
and between ethical and unethical behavior.
How Values Impact Leadership
47. Leaders tend to like followers with similar
values and dislike those with dissimilar
It is important for leaders to surround
themselves with followers who possess
Leaders are motivated to act in ways
consistent with their values, and they
typically spend most of their time engaged
in activities that are consistent with their
Implications for leaders and managers:
Knowing about one’s personality, values, and
attitude, can help one understand why people
act differently and why working with people
with different personalities can be a source of
harmonious relationship or a conflict in an
It gives leaders ideas on how to deal with a
49. There are no certain personality traits
that will guarantee one will be a
successful leader or manager.
The impact of any personality trait on
behavior will vary with the situation.
50. • Leaders should expect to face a
variety of challenges to their own
system of ethics, values, or attitudes
during their careers.
• Interacting with individuals and
groups holding divergent and
conflicting values is inevitable.
51. • Leaders in particular have a
responsibility not to let their own
personal values interfere with