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GOOD MORNING
Theory of Cognitive
development by Jean
Piaget
Dr. Parag S. Deshmukh
Ist MDS.
Contents:
 Introduction
 Classification of psychological theories
 Cognitive development
 Stages of cognitive developm...
Introduction
As the saying goes
“body does what mind says, for
all behavioral act of a person
there is a force behind whi...
• Psychology –
 Study of human mind and its functions.
 Psychology is both a field of study and also
a means of improvin...
 For treating a child successfully or to manage
a child in a dental setting, we as dentists
should have thorough knowledg...
Different Theories Of Psychology Which
Have An Application In Dentistry
 Theories on personality Development

• Psychoana...
 Theories on Learning and development of Behavior
• Classical conditioning by Ivan Pavlov
• Operant conditioning by B.F. ...
IMPORTANCE OF KNOWING
CHILD PSYCHOLOGY IN
DENTISTRY:To understand the child as he comes to dental office &
know his proble...
Biography
 Switzerland, on August 9, 1896

 Arthur Piaget, was a professor of medieval literature
with an interest in lo...
 He worked for a year at psychology labs in
Zurich and at Bleuler‟s famous psychiatric clinic

 In 1919, he taught psych...
Cognitive Development of Children

• Cognition refers to the mental processes by
which knowledge is acquired, elaborated,...
Intelligence
 Basics of the processes involved in cognition
i.e. perception, thinking, abstraction etc. is
intelligence.
...
Cognition and Age
 It wasn‟t until about the middle of the last century
that researchers began to systematically study th...
Jean Piaget’s structural-functional
approach –
a model that emphasizes the biological
functions and the environmental infl...
Jean Piaget Research Work
 Conversation &

observation of 3
children and nephew
 Development of
thought process
Piaget’s Basic Ideas Of
Cognition
 Genetic Epistemology, “As the study of acquisition,
modification and abstract ideas an...
• Piaget rejected the idea that learning was
the passive assimilation of the knowledge.

• He proposed that learning is dy...
PIAGET’S VIEW OF COGNITIVE
DEVELOPMENT

Equilibration
schemes
Adaptation
Organization
Equilibrium
Equilibration
It is a mechanism that Piaget proposed to
explain how children shift from one stage of
thought to next
Eve...
Cognitive Schemes: The
structural aspects of intelligence
 Describe the models or mental structures, that we create
to re...



Behavioural schemes
A behavioural scheme is an organized pattern of
behaviour that the child uses to represent and
re...
Organization:
 It is the process by which children
combine existing schemes into new
and more complex intellectual
struct...
Adaptation :
 It is the ability of the person to

adjust to the environment and to
interact with it.

 Assimilation and ...
Assimilation  From the beginning a child incorporates or assimilates
events within the environment into mental categories...
Accommodation:
 Accommodation occurs when the child changes his or
her cognitive structure or mental category to better
r...
Schemata:
 Both the processes i.e. assimilation and
accommodation are used simultaneously
alternately throughout life
 T...
Cognitive development
stages:
Cognitive development
stages:
Sensorimotor Period  Infants knowledge of world is limited to their sensory

perceptions an...
Age

Birth – 2 months
Simple Reflex
2-4 months
Primary circular
reactions / Habits

Characteristics

Uses inborn motor and...
8 months – 1 year
Coordination of
reactions

Child starts to show clearly intentional actions. Children
begins exploring t...
Preoperational Period:
 Because children above the age of 2 begin to

use language in ways similar to adults, it appears
...
children understand the world in the way
they sense it through five primary senses.
Concepts that can not be seen heard
sm...
Features of thought process:
Egocentrism:
A general feature of the thought process
and language during the preoperational...
Mountain Study
Animism
 giving dental instrument and
equipment lifelike names and
qualities
Handpiece :- “Whistling Willie”
Conservation:

• Piaget found that few children shows any
understanding of conservation prior to age
of five.
 Dental staff should use immediate sensations rather than
abstract reasoning in discussing concepts like prevention
of de...
Period of Concrete
Operations(7 yr – 11 yr)
 An improved ability to reason emerges.
 8 year old could watch the water be...
By seven or 8 years, most children develop the
ability to conserve number, length, and liquid
volume. Conservation refers...


Animism declines

 Children are much more like adults
 “Now wear your retainer every night and be sure to
keep it cle...
Features of concrete
operations:
Logic:
 Children now are fairly good at inductive
logic which involves going from a
spe...
Reversibility:
Here is awareness that actions can
be reverse
Eg.:

child might be able to recognize
that his or her dog ...
Period of Formal Operations
Ability to deal with abstract concepts and abstract
reasoning develops by about age 11
Intelle...
• Aware that others think
• Experiencing tremendous biologic changes in
growth and sexual development
• They feel as thoug...
 The imaginary audience is a powerful influence on
young adolescents

 The reaction of the imaginary audience to braces
...
Personal Fable
 “Because I am unique, I am not subject to
the consequences others will experience”.
 Imaginary audience ...
Clinical Application:
Dentistry
 Accept or reject T/t
 To wear or not to wear appliance
 Decalcification of the teeth f...
logic
 Deductive logic becomes important
during formal operational stage.
 It requires ability to use general principle
...
Abstract thought
 The ability to think about abstract
concepts emerges.
 child begin to consider possible
outcomes and c...
Problem solving
Ability to systematically solve a
problem in logical and methodical
way emerges.

Child is able to quick...
 One role of an effective dental professional is to
help teenagers test the reality that actually
surrounds them.
 It is...
Evaluating Piaget’s theory
Contributions:• Psychologists owe him a long list of masterful
concepts of enduring power and
f...
 Piaget's focus on qualitative development

had an important impact on education.
While Piaget did not specifically apply...
Criticism
Problems With Research
Methods
 A major source of inspiration for the theory was
Piaget's observations of his own three c...
Problems With Formal
Operations
 Research has disputed Piaget's argument
that all children will automatically move to
the...
Underestimates Children's
Abilities
Most researchers agree that children
possess many of the abilities at an earlier
age ...
Q. Is Piaget‟s account of cognitive
change clear and accurate?

 Broad transformation in thinking but
exactly what the ch...
 Culture and education

• Culture and education exert a stronger
influence on children‟s development
than Piaget believed...
conclusion
 Dentistry for children can be demanding and
frustrating; at the same time, it can be enriching,
satisfying, a...
1.Profitt- textbook of contemporary orthodontics.
2. textbook of craniofacial growth- Shridhar premkumar.
3.Textbook Of Pe...
"Children
have
never
been good listeners to
their elders, but they
never failed to imitate
them”
~ James Baldwin

thank Yo...
Jean Piaget theory parag
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Jean Piaget theory parag

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Jean Piaget theory parag

  1. 1. GOOD MORNING
  2. 2. Theory of Cognitive development by Jean Piaget Dr. Parag S. Deshmukh Ist MDS.
  3. 3. Contents:  Introduction  Classification of psychological theories  Cognitive development  Stages of cognitive development  Contributions of piaget cognitive theory  Criticism  conclusion  References
  4. 4. Introduction As the saying goes “body does what mind says, for all behavioral act of a person there is a force behind which is known as mind or psyche. So it is essential on our part to study psychology.”
  5. 5. • Psychology –  Study of human mind and its functions.  Psychology is both a field of study and also a means of improving the quality of life ~Kimble 1984  It can be defined as „Science dealing with human nature, function and phenomenon of his soul in the main‟.
  6. 6.  For treating a child successfully or to manage a child in a dental setting, we as dentists should have thorough knowledge on personality development of the child. “Child Psychology” “Is the science that deals with the study of child‟s mind and how it functions, it also deals with the mental power or an interaction between the conscious and subconscious element in a child”
  7. 7. Different Theories Of Psychology Which Have An Application In Dentistry  Theories on personality Development • Psychoanalytic theory or psychosexual theory by Sigmund Freud • Psychosocial theory or Erikson‟s model of Personality development  Theory on Cognitive Development • Cognitive development theory by Jean Piaget
  8. 8.  Theories on Learning and development of Behavior • Classical conditioning by Ivan Pavlov • Operant conditioning by B.F. Skinner • Social or Observational learning by Albert Bandura • Theory of Hierarchy of Needs by Abraham Maslow  Other relevant theories • Separation-Individuation theory by Margaret S Mahler • Attachment theory – John Bowlby. • Theory of moral development – Kohlberg L. • Childrenese – Haim Ginott.
  9. 9. IMPORTANCE OF KNOWING CHILD PSYCHOLOGY IN DENTISTRY:To understand the child as he comes to dental office & know his problem in the way he explains. Only after understanding the child and the parent, we can deliver treatment effectively. To establish effective communication with child and parents, the basic skill is required. Child and most importantly parents should develop confidence on our treatment and dentistry. To teach and motivate them about importance of primary and preventive care and the importance of oral health. To plan out effective treatment.
  10. 10. Biography  Switzerland, on August 9, 1896  Arthur Piaget, was a professor of medieval literature with an interest in local history.  Rebecca Jackson, his mother, was intelligent and energetic, but Jean found her a bit neurotic  1918, Piaget received his Doctorate in Science from the University of Neuchâtel
  11. 11.  He worked for a year at psychology labs in Zurich and at Bleuler‟s famous psychiatric clinic  In 1919, he taught psychology and philosophy at the Sorbonne in Paris.  He died in Geneva, September 16, 1980, one of the most significant twentieth century. psychologists of the
  12. 12. Cognitive Development of Children • Cognition refers to the mental processes by which knowledge is acquired, elaborated, stored, retrieved, and used to solve problems • Cognitive psychologists are also concerned with why one individual differs from another in many of these cognitive processes. • Cognition includes processes like perception, thinking, concept formation, abstraction and problem solving.
  13. 13. Intelligence  Basics of the processes involved in cognition i.e. perception, thinking, abstraction etc. is intelligence.  Intelligence is a score derived from an intelligence test.  This indicates how the individual‟s mental ability compares with that of others of the same development age.
  14. 14. Cognition and Age  It wasn‟t until about the middle of the last century that researchers began to systematically study the cognitive processes of newborns and young infants  Newborn can recognize the sound of their mother‟s voice and some aspects of their mother‟s language.  By six months of age they also showed some evidence of conceptual knowledge
  15. 15. Jean Piaget’s structural-functional approach – a model that emphasizes the biological functions and the environmental influences that promote developmental changes in the “organization” or “structure”, of intellect. He created a broad theoretical system for the development of cognitive abilities; in this sense, his work was similar to that of Sigmund Freud, but Piaget emphasized the ways that children think and acquire knowledge.
  16. 16. Jean Piaget Research Work  Conversation & observation of 3 children and nephew  Development of thought process
  17. 17. Piaget’s Basic Ideas Of Cognition  Genetic Epistemology, “As the study of acquisition, modification and abstract ideas and abilities on the basis of an inherited or biological substrate, an intelligent functioning that makes the abstract thought possible”  Epigenesis  Every individual is born with the capacity to adjust or adapt to both the physical and socio-cultural environments in which he or she must live.
  18. 18. • Piaget rejected the idea that learning was the passive assimilation of the knowledge. • He proposed that learning is dynamic process comprising successive stages of adaptation to reality. • Piaget theory has two main strands: a. Mechanism by which cognitive development takes place . b. 4 main stages through which child pass.
  19. 19. PIAGET’S VIEW OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Equilibration schemes Adaptation Organization Equilibrium
  20. 20. Equilibration It is a mechanism that Piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to next Eventually, they resolve the conflict and reach a balance or equilibrium of thought For Piaget the motivation for change is an internal search for equilibrium
  21. 21. Cognitive Schemes: The structural aspects of intelligence  Describe the models or mental structures, that we create to represent, organize, and interpret our experience  A Scheme is a pattern of thought or action that is similar in some respects to what the lay person calls a strategy or a concept.  Three kinds of intellectual structures are: • Behavioural (Sensorimotor) schemes • Symbolic schemes • Operational schemes
  22. 22.   Behavioural schemes A behavioural scheme is an organized pattern of behaviour that the child uses to represent and respond to an object or experience.  Symbolic Schemes  During second year, children reach a point at which they can solve problems and truly “think” about objects and events without having acted on them.  Operational Schemes  A cognitive operation is the internal mental activity that a person performs on his or her objects of thought to reach a logical conclusion
  23. 23. Organization:  It is the process by which children combine existing schemes into new and more complex intellectual structures, it takes place internally apart from direct contact with the environment and is both biological and psychological
  24. 24. Adaptation :  It is the ability of the person to adjust to the environment and to interact with it.  Assimilation and Accommodation.
  25. 25. Assimilation  From the beginning a child incorporates or assimilates events within the environment into mental categories called cognitive structures.  A cognitive structure in this sense is a classification of sensations and perceptions.  For ex  Bird:- Flying Object  Bees:- Look Bird
  26. 26. Accommodation:  Accommodation occurs when the child changes his or her cognitive structure or mental category to better represent the environment  Intelligence develops as interplay between assimilation and accommodation  However, the child‟s ability to adapt is limited by the current level of development.  The notion that the child‟s ability to adapt is age related is a crucial concept in Piaget‟s theory of development
  27. 27. Schemata:  Both the processes i.e. assimilation and accommodation are used simultaneously alternately throughout life  Through this continuous dual process child is instantly building various hierarchies of related behavior known as schemata.  It represents dynamic process of differentiation and organization of knowledge with the resultant evolution of behavior and cognitive functioning appropriate for the age of child.
  28. 28. Cognitive development stages:
  29. 29. Cognitive development stages: Sensorimotor Period  Infants knowledge of world is limited to their sensory perceptions and motor activities.  During the first 2 years of life, a child develops from a newborn infant  Simple modes of thought that are the foundation of language develop during this time,  Communication is limited because of the child‟s simple concepts and lack of language capabilities
  30. 30. Age Birth – 2 months Simple Reflex 2-4 months Primary circular reactions / Habits Characteristics Uses inborn motor and sensory reflexes (sucking, grasping, looking) to interact and accommodate to the external world. Children co-ordinates sensation and new schemas. 4-8 months Child becomes more focused on the world and Secondary circular begins to intentionally repeat an action in order to reactions trigger a response in the environment.
  31. 31. 8 months – 1 year Coordination of reactions Child starts to show clearly intentional actions. Children begins exploring the environment around them and will often imitate the observed behaviors of the others. understanding of objects begins. Also begins to recognize certain objects have specific work. 1 year – 18 months Tertiary Period of trial and error experimentation. circulation reaction 18 months – 2 years Early representational thought Children begins to develop symbols to represent events or objects in the world. Begins to move towards understanding the world through mental operations rather than purely through actions. child knowledge develops by: Object permanence, causality and symbolic play.
  32. 32. Preoperational Period:  Because children above the age of 2 begin to use language in ways similar to adults, it appears that their thought processes are more like those of adults.  During the preoperational stage, the capacity develops to form mental symbols representing things and events not present, and children learn to use words to symbolize these absent objects.
  33. 33. children understand the world in the way they sense it through five primary senses. Concepts that can not be seen heard smelt, tasted or felt for example time and health. Children use and understand language in a literal sense.
  34. 34. Features of thought process: Egocentrism: A general feature of the thought process and language during the preoperational period is egocentrism Defined as inability to assume another persons point of view. At this stage his own perspective is all that he can manage
  35. 35. Mountain Study
  36. 36. Animism  giving dental instrument and equipment lifelike names and qualities Handpiece :- “Whistling Willie”
  37. 37. Conservation: • Piaget found that few children shows any understanding of conservation prior to age of five.
  38. 38.  Dental staff should use immediate sensations rather than abstract reasoning in discussing concepts like prevention of dental problems with a child at this stage.  Excellent oral hygiene is very important when an orthodontic appliance is present  “Brushing and flossing remove food particles, which in turn prevents bacteria from forming acids, which cause tooth decay”.  “Brushing makes your teeth feel clean and smooth”, and “tooth paste makes your mouth taste good”,
  39. 39. Period of Concrete Operations(7 yr – 11 yr)  An improved ability to reason emerges.  8 year old could watch the water being poured from one glass to another, imagine the reverse of that process, and conclude that the amount of water remains the same no matter what size the container is  The child‟s thinking is still strongly tied to concrete situations, and the ability to reason on an abstract level is limited.
  40. 40. By seven or 8 years, most children develop the ability to conserve number, length, and liquid volume. Conservation refers to the idea that a quantity remains the same despite changes in appearance.
  41. 41.  Animism declines  Children are much more like adults  “Now wear your retainer every night and be sure to keep it clean”,  “This is your retainer. Put it in your mouth like this, and take it out like that. Put it in every evening right after dinner before you go to bed, and take it out before breakfast every morning. Brush it like this with an old tooth brush to keep it clean”
  42. 42. Features of concrete operations: Logic:  Children now are fairly good at inductive logic which involves going from a specific experience to a general principal.  There is difficulty in using deductive logic which involves using a general principle to determine the outcome of a specific event
  43. 43. Reversibility: Here is awareness that actions can be reverse Eg.: child might be able to recognize that his or her dog is a Labrador,that a Labrador is a dog.and that a dog is an animal
  44. 44. Period of Formal Operations Ability to deal with abstract concepts and abstract reasoning develops by about age 11 Intellectually the child can and should be treated as an adult Successful communication, in other words, requires a feel for the child‟s stage of intellectual development.
  45. 45. • Aware that others think • Experiencing tremendous biologic changes in growth and sexual development • They feel as though they are constantly “on stage”, being observed and criticized by those around them • “Imaginary Audiences” by Elkind
  46. 46.  The imaginary audience is a powerful influence on young adolescents  The reaction of the imaginary audience to braces on the teeth, of course, is an important consideration to a teenage patient  “Others really care about my appearance and feelings as much as I do”  “Personal fable
  47. 47. Personal Fable  “Because I am unique, I am not subject to the consequences others will experience”.  Imaginary audience and the personal fable have useful functions in helping us develop social awareness and allowing us to cope in a dangerous environment
  48. 48. Clinical Application: Dentistry  Accept or reject T/t  To wear or not to wear appliance  Decalcification of the teeth from poor oral hygiene  A teenage patient may protest to his orthodontist that he does not want to wear a particular appliance because others will think it makes him “look Goofy”
  49. 49. logic  Deductive logic becomes important during formal operational stage.  It requires ability to use general principle to determine specific outcome.  This type of thinking is helpful in science and mathematics.
  50. 50. Abstract thought  The ability to think about abstract concepts emerges.  child begin to consider possible outcomes and consequences of actions.  Important in long term planning.
  51. 51. Problem solving Ability to systematically solve a problem in logical and methodical way emerges. Child is able to quickly plan an organized approach to solving problem.
  52. 52.  One role of an effective dental professional is to help teenagers test the reality that actually surrounds them.  It is the job of the dentist to carefully evaluate the development of the child, and to adapt his or her language  Adage “different strokes for different folks”
  53. 53. Evaluating Piaget’s theory Contributions:• Psychologists owe him a long list of masterful concepts of enduring power and fascination, assimilation, accommodation, object permanence, egocentrism, conservation and others • Psychologists also owe him the current vision of children as active, constructive thinkers and they have a debt to him for creating a theory that generated a huge volume of research on children‟s cognitive development
  54. 54.  Piaget's focus on qualitative development had an important impact on education. While Piaget did not specifically apply his theory in this way, many educational programs are now built upon the belief that children should be taught at the level for which they are developmentally prepared.
  55. 55. Criticism
  56. 56. Problems With Research Methods  A major source of inspiration for the theory was Piaget's observations of his own three children  Well-educated professionals of high socioeconomic status.  Because of this unrepresentative sample, it is difficult to generalize his findings to a larger population.
  57. 57. Problems With Formal Operations  Research has disputed Piaget's argument that all children will automatically move to the next stage of development as they mature.  Some data suggests that environmental factors may play a role in the development of formal operations.
  58. 58. Underestimates Children's Abilities Most researchers agree that children possess many of the abilities at an earlier age than Piaget suspected. For example, children of this age have some ability to take the perspective of another person, meaning they are far less egocentric than Piaget believed.
  59. 59. Q. Is Piaget‟s account of cognitive change clear and accurate?  Broad transformation in thinking but exactly what the child does to equilibrate is vague  On a variety of tasks infants and young children appear more competent than adolescents and adults who appear less competent, than Piaget assumed.
  60. 60.  Culture and education • Culture and education exert a stronger influence on children‟s development than Piaget believed.
  61. 61. conclusion  Dentistry for children can be demanding and frustrating; at the same time, it can be enriching, satisfying, and memorable  Child patient management was a concern 30 years ago as well as today  Multidisciplinary research that results from combining the wealth of knowledge of both dentistry and psychology significantly helps in modifying behavior management and child development
  62. 62. 1.Profitt- textbook of contemporary orthodontics. 2. textbook of craniofacial growth- Shridhar premkumar. 3.Textbook Of Pedodontics Shobha Tendon. 4. Library dissertation on theories of psychology. (department of pedodontics, SPDC) 5.Wikipedia the free encyclopedia.
  63. 63. "Children have never been good listeners to their elders, but they never failed to imitate them” ~ James Baldwin thank You wishing you all happy and

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