O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Se você continuar a navegar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. Leia nosso Contrato do Usuário e nossa Política de Privacidade.
O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Se você continuar a utilizar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. Leia nossa Política de Privacidade e nosso Contrato do Usuário para obter mais detalhes.
International Political &
Dauphine M. Sloan
“Grant Writing for Development Projects” Earl Picard, Georgia
State U, 10/18-21
“Development, Commerce & Environmental Protection” Mario
Mancilla, Guatemala, 10/25-27
Management of Global Manmade Waste, Lee Gary, NO, 11/8-
Microfinance/Microentreprise courses (3 2- an 1- credit
courses), Carter Garber, Winter Intersession, January 2014.
History of IPER
16th – mid-18th c.: Mercantilism
Mid-18th century – WWI: Industrialization & British
Inter-war period: Isolationism
Post-WWII: US Hegemony and International Regimes
“sets of implicit or explicit principles, norms, rules and decision-
making procedures” that intend to regulate each other’s behavior
in such areas as trade, aid, and monetary relations.” [Cohn, 65]
1970s-Present: Globalization & the end of hegemons?
Adam Smith critical of mercantilism: Why?
Main principles of mercantilism?
Colbert, Louis XIV’s Minister of Finance
Power of the State through wealth accumulation
Priority to exports
Develop external trade
Impose tariff barriers
Les Gobelins (tapestries)
Saint Gobain (glass)
Silk, lace, porcelain
Exports to North America, Middle East, India
Compagnie des Indes Orientales
Luxury manufactured goods
Raw materials from French trading posts
Africa, Caribbean, Orient
No tariff barriers
Finished products exported
North America (Canada, Louisiana)
Triangular Trade: what is it?
Triangular/Slave Trade (1450s-
11-15 million slaves sent to the Americas
Official abolition of slave trafficking
British Empire: 1807
Congress of Vienna: 1815
Abolition of slavery
British Territories : 1834
French Territories: 1848
Dutch Territories: 1863
North-South trading system
raw materials >< manufactured goods
Achieve power through accumulation of wealth
Coerced trading relationships
Ships military and economic power
Politics and religion
Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
Missions, hospitals, schools (Jesuits) // political & economic
Industrialization & British
Corn Laws abolished (1815-1846)
Britain = Global Hegemon
Controls 24% of global trade
Gold = measure for convertibility of currencies
Britain’s waning hegemony
Over-extension of empire
WWI Devastation production/trade decline
1 million dead
1.6 million wounded
20 million dead
21 million wounded (civilians and military)
New World Order?
US largest industrial power: new hegemon?
Few international organizations: which ones?
League of Nations (1920-1946)
Peace and cooperation between nations
Bank for International Settlements (1930)
Payment of German reparations
Do we have a hegemon?
Why? Why not?
US Hegemony (1940-1970s)
Institution of international structures
Military equipment chain of production
Post-War reconstruction new markets
Education and applied research
International Monetary Fund (IMF) – BW, July 1944
Support international monetary stability
Eliminate currency exchange restrictions
Monitor and maintain fixed exchange rates
Provide short-term loans to countries with balance of payment
Weighted voting system
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
(IBRD) / World Bank – BW, July 1944
Provide long-term loans for post-war reconstruction in Europe
and economic development in the Third World
Weighted voting system
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) / World Trade
Organization (WTO: 1995- )
Reduce trade barriers
Establish rules for international trade relations
Establish procedures for settling trade disputes
United Nations (San Francisco, 1945)
IMF, WB: “UN Specialized Agencies” (not WTO)
Gold Exchange/Fixed Exchange Rate/Bretton Woods System
$35/oz of gold
All BW member-states’ currencies pegged to $
End of US Hegemony?
If you go back to the 1970s, what are the main elements that
would support the thesis of a waning US hegemon?
And in recent years, what factors have threatened US
hegemony? What does that entail for global stability?
Globalization & End of US
Emergence of Europe competition
Increase in trade
US balance of payments deficit
Dependence on Middle East oil
End of Gold/Fixed Exchange 1971
$35 $160/oz of gold - 12/1975
$1,775/oz - 9/16/2012
$1,326/oz - 9/12/2013
The Soviet Union: Hegemon?
Perestroika and Glasnost’
Threats to US Hegemony
Growing competition from EU and BRICS
Cost of wars
Globalization of crises
What is important in international political and economic
Is the current global economy stabilized by HEGEMONY or by
REGIMES or by a combination?
2 groups (1. Hegemony; 2. Regimes)
Prepare arguments and counter-arguments
Give specific examples
Best relationship among nations
HARMONY (all share same goals) >< DISCORD (war or global
Negotiation & policy coordination
many states share many goals
Common Market/European Economic Community
European Union (1993)
Coal and steel
agreement: CECA, 1951
Treaty of Rome, 1957
Treaty of Maastricht,
1993 free movement
of people, goods, and
Euro, 2002: 17 countries
in Euro zone
Treaty of Lisbon, 2009
2013: 28 members
Should Turkey join?