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Bernd X. Weis: Innovation: Requirements and Opportunities

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Lecture @ German Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Jan 16 2013

Publicada em: Negócios, Tecnologia
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Bernd X. Weis: Innovation: Requirements and Opportunities

  1. 1. Innovation Requirements and Opportunities
  2. 2. Agenda • Innovation in General – The Fundamental Dilemma • Different Aspects of Innovation – Destruction and Creation – The Golden Mean – System Models and System Reality • Predicting the Future – Scenarios • Innovation Culture – Creativity and Resistance – The Learning Organization and Personal Mastery • • • Learning Example Recommendations 06.02.2014 2
  3. 3. On Innovation: The Hand Axe Idea: To produce a hand axe and not to Man-made hand axe found in Turkana, Kenya, dated to1,76 Mil. Years BCE 06.02.2014 rely on chance in finding one Invention: To develop the necessary capabilities and skills (process innovation) Diffusion: To copy and export the „production process“ Innovation: Man-made hand axe Success Story: Has been the predominant tool of the Acheuléen (“hand axe”) culture Inventor: Homo Erectus Market: Africa, Europe and Asia Market Window: Between 1,8 Mil. und 150 Thou. years BCE 3
  4. 4. On Innovation: The Hand Axe Idea: To produce a hand axe and not to rely on chance in finding one Invention: To develop the necessary capabilities and skills (process innovation) Diffusion: To copy and export the „production process“ Innovation: Man-made hand axe Success Story: Has been the predominant tool of the Acheuléen (“hand axe”) culture Inventor: Homo Erectus Market: Africa, Europe and Asia Market Window: Between 1,8 Mil. und 150 Thou. years BCE Innovation = Idea + Invention + Diffusion Man-made hand axe found in Turkana, Kenya, dated to1,76 Mil. Years BCE 06.02.2014 4
  5. 5. On Innovation: Timeliness 100 → 45 → 15 - 20 → Not all ideas become inventions, Not all inventions become products Not all products become innovations 45 15 - 20 5–9 Study Innovation Behavior 2012, Dr. Bernd X. Weis Timeliness Successful innovations are in themselves unique, creative and original, realize developments not conceived before. They are closely interwoven with the organization and the people, and properly positioned in time. I I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I I I II I I I II I Idea (Generation) 06.02.2014 I E P N Idea Invention Product Innovation E E E E E E P P P Invention (Development) Diffusion (Marketing) N Innovation (Success) 5
  6. 6. On Innovation: The Fundamental Dilemma The particular capabilities of the organization are at the same time (Christensen) its special incapabilities. Inexpensive Products Innovative Products Maintaining Competitiveness Delays Creative Processes Efficient Processes 06.02.2014 Short Run: Higher Profits Short Run: Higher Cost Innovation Pressure Cost Pressure 6
  7. 7. On Innovation: Types Traditional Markets, Improved Products Sustainable Innovations Innovations 06.02.2014 Disruptive Innovations New Markets, New Quality of Products 7
  8. 8. On Innovation: Sustainable versus Disruptive Innovations (Christensen) Often Incumbent succeeds Performance No Additional Customer Benefit Perceived Differentiating Customer Benefit Perceived Disruptive Innovation Often Innovator succeeds Minor Customer Benefit Perceived Time 06.02.2014 8
  9. 9. On Destruction and Creation Verbrennen musst du dich wollen in deiner eignen Flamme: wie wolltest du neu werden, wenn du nicht erst Asche geworden bist! You must be ready to burn yourself in your own flame; how could you rise anew if you have not first become ashes! Nietzsche: Also sprach Zarathustra Nietzsche: Thus spoke Zarathustra Creative Destruction (Joseph Schumpeter) Perceive the continuous alterations and changes in the environment as potential • to disengage from the outdated and adapt to new developments, • to develop further, to design and shape, to create something new. Innovation implies Change. 06.02.2014 Phoenix (Mosaic, Louvre, Paris) 9
  10. 10. On the Golden Mean Virtue, then, is a state of character concerned with choice, lying in a mean, i.e. the mean relative to us... For in everything it is no easy task to find the middle… Wherefore goodness is both rare and laudable and noble. Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics The Golden Mean On no account does the golden mean imply mediocrity, but rather a prudent and wise resolution of diametrical, often irreconcilable options – the “right” mean. Prudent businessman A direct corollary is that a failing “innovation” may shake an organization or enterprise, but should by no means threaten its very existence. 06.02.2014 Aristotle teaching (British Library) 10
  11. 11. On Complexity Reduction Handle stets so, dass die Anzahl der Möglichkeiten wächst. Heinz von Foerster: Das Konstruieren einer Wirklichkeit Innovation Strategies When talking about reducing complexity, complexity of the model is reduced not the complexity of system reality. Thus, complexity reduction is a cognitive necessity but remains a chimera. In consequence, innovation strategies, which maximize the number of options, have a higher potential for success. 06.02.2014 Always act so as to increase the total number of choices. Heinz von Foerster: Constructing a Reality Model Derive Real World Options, possible Consequences, Goals, Actions, Influences Be aware of Uncertainty, Emergence, The Unknown 11
  12. 12. On Predictions: Russell’s Chicken I act with complete certainty. But this certainty is my own. Wittgenstein: Über Gewissheit Wittgenstein: On Certainty Market Uncertainties Markets, that are not (yet) existing, cannot be analysed. New markets are fundamentally afflicted with uncertainty and can therefore not be dealt with in the conventional processes and techniques of business planning and conduct. 06.02.2014 Weight Ich handle mit voller Gewissheit. Aber diese Gewissheit ist meine eigene. Time 12
  13. 13. On Predictions Continue this sequence of numbers: Rule – Expanatory Framework 0 2 4 6 … Continuation The next number is the previous one + 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 The next number is even and not in the list 0 2 4 6 256 24 396 10532 The next number is bigger than the previous one 0 2 4 6 7 99 396 123456 The last 4 numbers are attached in reversed order 0 2 4 6 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 4 arbitrary numbers followed by 1‘s 0 2 4 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 06.02.2014 13
  14. 14. On Prediction: Scenarios I Current State P Planning Target S Scenario I P P P P P Presence 06.02.2014 Near Future (Planning Horizon) S S S S SS SS S S I S S S SS S S S S SS I S I S SI S SS I SS S S I SS S S2 S1 S3 Far Future 14
  15. 15. On Prediction: Scenarios I S Current State S P Planning Target S Scenario I P P P P P Unexpected, Very Unlikely, Disruptive Event Presence 06.02.2014 Near Future (Planning Horizon) S S S S S SS SS S S I S S S SS S S S S SS I S I S SI S SS I SS S S I SS S S2 S1 S3 Far Future 15
  16. 16. On Innovation Culture Innovation culture has to be conceived a transdisciplinary culture. Its imperative is to pragmatically integrate anything desirable, necessary, useful, feasible, and appropriate. Edge of Exploration, Edge of the Known The five basic characteristics • Vision • Co-operation and Networks • Inspiration and Leadership • “FREIRAEUME”(*) • Creativity and Readiness to take Risks (*) The German noun FREIRAEUME refers to what is ordinarily called "free space," and also what is called "room for ideas", “room for selfactualization” and the likes. FREIRAEUME refers to the kind of opportunities given, that allow to pursue activities that are not on the specified agenda e.g. to create and follow up with new ideas. Elizabeth Eastland, Sidney 06.02.2014 16
  17. 17. On Creativity Innovation can be conceived anywhere. It is presumptuous to believe that methods, techniques and processes create innovation. However, innovativeness benefits from appropriate methods, techniques and processes. Study Innovation Behavior 2012, Dr. Bernd X. Weis 06.02.2014 Caspar David Friedrich 17
  18. 18. On Resistance And yet it moves. Eppur‘ si muove. Galilei Galilei Typical Quotes Difficulty in Managing Change “It’s never been that way!” “We’ve never done it that way!” “We tried this before!” ”This has never worked!” “This will never work!” “Nobody would want this!” “It’s already there!” ….. • The protagonists have the structural disadvantage that they have to explain the vision with all its deficiencies. 06.02.2014 • The opponents instead have their vision ready and proven – it is the simple and obvious projection of the Now onto the Then. 18
  19. 19. On Learning Organizations Der Tag gehört dem Irrtum und dem Fehler, die Zeitreihe dem Erfolg und dem Gelingen. The day belongs to the error and the failure, the time series to success and achievement. Goethe: Maximen und Reflektionen Goethe: Maxims and Reflections The Learning Organization An innovative Organization learns from • Successes and Failures • Trial and Error • from Others and • with Others through Co-operative Action Individual Aspects: Autonomy, Personal Mastery and Meaning 06.02.2014 19
  20. 20. On Personal Mastery Denn der Zugang ist ... nur denen vergönnt, die ‚reinen‘, um Nebenabsichten unbekümmerten Herzens sind. But acces is ... only granted to those, who are with a pure heart, free from secondary motives. Herrigel: Zen in der Kunst des Bogenschiessens Herrigel: Zen in the Art of Archery Personal Mastery • Integration of Rationality and Intuition • Realization of the Connectedness with the World • Empathy and Engagement Thus, Personal Mastery is the capability to reflect one‘s own actions and interactions with honesty and depth – and act accordingly. 06.02.2014 20
  21. 21. On Learning Anyone who stops learning is old, whether at twenty or eighty. Anyone who keeps learning stays young. The greatest thing in life is to keep your mind young. Henry Ford The required structures have to develop; they cannot be bought, particularly in research management. Prof. Dr. Bernd Hoefer in „the gulf | February 2011“ The goal is to inspire and to guide! “If you want to build a ship, do not drum up people to collect wood and assign them tasks and work, but rather teach them to long for the endless immensity of the sea”. Antoine de Saint-Exupery 06.02.2014 Daimler Benz Reis Hertz Siemens Zuse Bosch Von Braun 21
  22. 22. On Innovation: Idea, Observation, Question, Requirement Observations • In Kuwait the air at sea level is hot. • Even in Kuwait the air in higher altitudes – say 3 – 5 km – is cold. Question • Is it possible to get the hot air up and at the same time get the cold air down? Requirements • The process should be as passive as possible. 06.02.2014 22
  23. 23. On Innovation: Sketch of First Solution: Ideas wH pH wH = pH H: Height p0 √ 2[(pH - p0) + ρHgHH + ρ0w2 /2 + cv(ρHTH - ρ0T0)] 0 Venturi-Effect for Air Speed p0 w0 Ground Level Heat Exchange p0 pL ρH 1. Low Pressure Chamber (LPC) is filled with air at pressure pL < p0. 2. Lower pressure implies lower temperature. 3. The air flows should eventually come into a steady state. 4. Additionally, air could be heated at ground level using sun energy. 5. Additional exploitation of the air flow should be taken into account. Low Pressure Chamber 2/6/2014 23
  24. 24. On Innovation: Recommendations • • • • Create a culture of appreciation. Create a culture that allows learning from successes AND from failures. Create an environment that allows processes of trial and error. Create an environment that has sufficient free space for creative moments. Inspiration Passion Heart and Soul 06.02.2014 24
  25. 25. Study on Innovation Behavior 2012 In English or German: Can be ordered through my Website www.Bernd-Weis.de 06.02.2014 25
  26. 26. The Book From Idea to Innovation: A Handbook for Inventors, Decision Makers and Organizations 270 Pages, Springer: Heidelberg, 2014 ISBN 978-3-642-54170-4 In German: Praxishandbuch Innovation: Leitfaden für Erfinder, Entscheider und Unternehmen (2. Auflage) 296 Seiten, SpringerGabler: Wiesbaden, 2014 ISBN 978-3-8349-4638-6 Can as well be ordered through my Website www.Bernd-Weis.de 06.02.2014 26
  27. 27. Herzlichen Dank! Thank you! ‫ﺷﻛﺭﺍ‬ 06.02.2014 27

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