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Viollet le duc

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Viollet le duc

  1. 1. Eugène-Emmanuel Violletle-Duc, (born Jan. 27, 1814), Paris, France—died Sept. 17, 1879, Lausanne, Switz.) •French Gothic Revival architect, •Restorer of French medieval buildings •Writer whose theories of rational architectural design linked the revivalism. His philosophy was "to restore the building to a state of completeness that may never have existed."
  2. 2. Inspiration • August Ferret was inspired by his ideas and steadfastly clung to them throughout his life. •Frank Lloyd Wright continually acknowledged his debt to the great restorer. •Mies van der Rohe even has admitted his influence. And if his ideas might seem more closely related to the steel and glass building of this architect. •Russian constructivist El Lissitsky who found his stimulus in Viollet-le-Duc's L' A rt Russe—it is as well to remember that his theories have not been inimical to the creation of such works as the Sagrada Familia in Barcelona and the chapel at Ronchamps. •Antonio Gaudi's highly original architecture was directly inspired by the writings of Viollet-le-Duc.
  3. 3. Architectural restorer Viollet-le-Duc was a pupil of Achille Leclère but was inspired in his career by the architect Henri Labrouste. In 1836 he traveled to Italy, where he spent 16 months studying architecture. Back in France he was drawn irrevocably to Gothic art. J.-B. Lassus first trained Violletle-Duc as a medieval archaeologist on the restoration of SaintGermain-l’Auxerrois (1838) Main restorations •Vezelay Abbay, France •Holy Chapell, Paris •Notre Dame, Paris •City wall of Carcassone, France •Pierrefonds castel, France. (Reconstruction for Napoleon III) Viollet le Duc let his imagination run to rebuild this castel near in the north of Paris.
  4. 4. Viollet-le-Duc has concerned itself with the modern political circumstances that surrounded the formation of a theory and practice of national monument preservation. Historians of medieval architecture, in particular, have long decried the heavy hand of Viollet-le-Duc's restoration, at times involving such a thorough changing of the confused palimpsests of the passage of time to achieve his famous paradoxical dictum that "to restore an edifice is not to maintain it, repair or remake it, it is to re-establish it in a complete state that may never have existed at any given moment in the past."
  5. 5. Abbey of la Madaleine, Vézelay-1840 He replaced the later 13th-century pointed vaults with 12th-century semicircular groin vaults in order to give a sense of unity to the nave, but changing the character of the building. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/72/Basi lique_Sainte-Marie-Madeleine_de_V%C3%A9zelay.jpg/474pxBasilique_Sainte-Marie-Madeleine_de_V%C3%A9zelay.jpg The flying buttresses that support the nave are his work.
  6. 6. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1d/Vezelay DB145.jpg/799px-VezelayDB145.jpg Floor plan of Vézelay shows the adjustment in vaulting between the choir and the new nave. After the Revolution, Vézelay stood in danger of collapse. In 1834 the newly appointed French inspector of historical monuments, Prosper Mérimée (more familiar as the author of Carmen), warned that it was about to collapse, and on his recommendation the young architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc was appointed to supervise a massive and successful restoration, undertaken in several stages between 1840 and 1861, during which his team replaced a great deal of the weathered and vandalized sculpture.
  7. 7. Lobrichon argued that Viollet-le-Duc's view of Vézelay as a key transitional monument between the Romanesque and the Gothic, and thus between a feudal/monastic and an emerging civic culture, colored his entire restoration, leading Viollet-le-Duc to underscore elements that pointed to the future in this pioneering historical restoration! Lobrichon showed that despite its small size and remote location, the picturesque hilltop town of Vézelay, dominated by its pilgrimage church, loomed large in the relationship between the emergence of a secular town culture and individual religious experience, all factors, moreover, that resonate in Viollet-le-Duc's own nationalist history of gothic architecture, in which Vézelay and its citizens played a role. www.gsinai.com
  8. 8. La Sainte Chapelle Sainte Chapelle suffered from several fires (1630, 1777) and one flood. Nor did the French Revolution spare it: the outside ornamentation was damaged, especially the spire. http://architecture.relig.free.fr/images/sainte_chapelle/ext_entier.jpg Restorations were made in the second part of the 19th century.A new spire was built (1853) And Restoration of the inside ornamentation was almost complete.
  9. 9. Interestingly, the chapel incorporated a form of iron reinforcement, with two ‘chains’ of hooked bars encircling the upper chapel, the main part of the structure. Further, there were iron stabilisers across the nave (with a vertical tension bar). http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/89/Ste_Chapelle_Basse_s.jpg Two meters' worth of glass was removed to facilitate working light and destroyed or put on the market. Its well-documented restoration, completed under the direction of Eugène Viollet-le-Duc in 1855, was regarded as exemplary by contemporaries and is faithful to the original drawings and descriptions of the chapel that survive.
  10. 10. Completed in 1855 under the direction of Viollet-le-Duc, the project was considered exemplary by contemporaries. Much of the chapel as it appears today dates from this 19th century recreation of what restores at the time thought it might have looked in the 13th century. http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424127887323308504579082991871355218
  11. 11. Notre Dame at Dijon In analysing Notre Dame at Dijon he showed a section of the nave not only with timber buttresses but with thin columns of cast-iron. This was the kindling spark of thought that he struck for the future. http://www.frenchmoments.eu/notredame-cathedral/ He showed how new materials might be used in accord with Gothic structural principles to arrive at a new architecture. But, though the new architecture was to be rooted in the past, there was to be no question of revivalism: scientific analysis and independent synthesis were the keys to his doctrine.
  12. 12. 1844 -Notre-Dame de Paris The restoration of the Cathedral of NotreDame in Paris was undertaken by J.B.A. Lassus and Eugene Emmanuel Viollet-leDuc in 1845 and continued by Viollet-leDuc after the death of Lassus in 1857. He designed a new Chapter House for the the Cathedral of Notre-Dame in 1847. The restoration lasted twenty five years and included a taller reconstruction of the flèche (a type of spire) which was destroyed during the French revolution. As well as the addition of the chimeras on the Galerie des Chimères.
  13. 13. Gargoyles on the cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris, added by restoration architect E.-E. Viollet-leDuc, 1845–64. Gargoyles-The monstrous animals with their fantastic or diabolical pictures set on the top of the cathedral’s western tower to serve as gutters were designed by eugene emmanuel le duc during the lengthy restoration. Viollet le Duc always signed his work with a bat, the wing structure of which most resembles the Gothic vault.
  14. 14. In a number of plans, drawings and sketches, Viollet-le-Duc also made an attempt to revive gothic fittings. Several objects at Notre-Dame de Paris received this treatment including the pulpit, the banc d’oeuvre (now removed), the chapel altars and the choir highaltar, the baptismal fonts, the crown of light, the lustres, candelabra and chandeliers, as well as a number of pieces of liturgical silverwork that can be seen in the cathedral Treasury. Nave to east Choir to west
  15. 15. City of Carcassonne http://whc.unesco.org/uploads/thumbs/site_0345_0006-500-334-20090506135520.jpg Carcassonne is also of exceptional importance because of the lengthy restoration campaign undertaken in the latter half of the 19th century by Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, one of the founders of the modern science of conservation.
  16. 16. Eugene-Emmanuel Viollet-Ie-Duc, who had been commissioned to prepare a report as early as 1846, began his restoration work at the Porte Narbonnaise and the Porte de l' Aude, and continued working at Carcassonne until his death in 1879. During this time the internal fortifications were almost entirely restored, along with a number of the towers on the external defences. Not only had Viollet-le-Duc succeeded in transforming understanding of the nature and history of both sacred and secular Gothic architecture, but he had carried his message to the very nerve center of French political power
  17. 17. Architectural theory Viollet-le-Duc is considered by many to be the first theorist of modern architecture. Sir John Summerson wrote that "there have been two supremely eminent theorists in the history of European architecture - Leon Battista Albertiand Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. His architectural theory was largely based on finding the ideal forms for specific materials, and using these forms to create buildings. His writings centered on the idea that materials should be used 'honestly'. He believed that the outward appearance of a building should reflect the rational construction of the building. The Art Nouveau Style: A Comprehensive Guide with 264 Illustrations
  18. 18. Two books made Viollet le Duc famous: •‘’Dictionnaire raisonné de l'architecture française du XI au XVe siècle" (1854-1868) In English: Dictionnary of French architecture from 11th to 15th century. •"Dictionnaire raisonné du mobilier français de l'époque Carolingienne à la Rennaissance (1858-1870). Dictionnary of French furniture. In those two books, he gave up the idea of a revival to study rigourosly the shapes of gothic arts in order to establish a set of principles for the 19th century architecture. He proponed the use of contemporary materials such as iron.
  19. 19. Summary •It is easy to mock Viollet-le-Duc and disparage his theories, and the knowledge they were based upon, but it is as well to remember his aims and his influence on the modern movement of architecture. •For what he was ultimately concerned to prove was that architecture was a precise, studied affair, whose every form and detail should be thought out in accordance with a rational ideal. •His method was to isolate the ideal wherever it occurred and to uphold it so that it might inspire an architecture of the nineteenth century that was good—or at least capable of being good. Nor did he flinch from the task of indicating how his rational principles might be applied using the materials and serving the needs of the age.
  20. 20. REFERENCES • • • • • • • • • • http://architecture.relig.free.fr/chapelle_en.htm http://artnouveau.pagesperso-orange.fr/en/artistes/vld.htm Neoclassicism and Romanticism By Silvestra Bietoletti http://archive.thetablet.co.uk/article/5th-june-1965/9/viollet-le-duc http://whc.unesco.org/n/list/345 http://www.dictionaryofarthistorians.org/violletleduce.htm http://www.dictionaryofarthhttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/629711 /Eugene-Emmanuel-Viollet-le-Duc historians.org/violletleduce.htm http://www.dictionaryofarthistorians.org/violletleduce.htm http://www.h-france.net/vol1reviews/vol1no46bergdoll.pdf