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User Centered Design

  1. CUOA - Master in Gestione d'Impresa Modulo User Centered Design Day2 – 30/10/2017
  2. Index Design Thinking Lean UX Digital Entity “The Hive” Usability
  3. 3 Design thinking Definition Design thinking refers to creative strategies designers use during the process of designing. Design thinking is also an approach that can be used to consider issues, with a means to help resolve these issues, more broadly than within professional design practice and has been applied in business as well as social issues. Design thinking in business uses the designer's sensibility and methods to match people's needs with what is technologically feasible and what a viable business strategy can convert into customer value and market opportunity.
  4. 4 Tim Brown’s Change by Design Reference Book • an end to old ideas: The danger of unmanaged technological progress • we need new choices: new products that balance the needs of individuals and of society as whole. • swimming upstream: see the power of design not as a link in a chain but as the hub of a wheel.
  5. 5 Three spaces of innovation Getting Under your Skin Inspiration Ideation Implementation the problem or opportunity that motivates the search for solutions the process of generating, developing, and testing ideas the path that leads from the project room to the market
  6. Fail early… ….to succeed sooner.
  7. 7 Criteria for successful and innovative Ideas Getting Under your Skin People (DESIRABILITY) Business (VIABILITY) Technology (FEASIBILITY) E f f e c t i v e i n n o v a t i o n i s d r i v e n b y u s e r s , a n d i t i s t h e r e s u l t o f a b a l a n c i n g a c t o f b u s i n e s s , p e o p l e a n d t e c h n o l o g y a e s t h e t i c d e s i g n , a n d m a r ke t a n d b u s i n e s s s u c c e s s , o f t h e p r o d u c t .
  8. 8 The project 1. Design project • From concept to reality • Is not open-ended and ongoing • It has a beginning, a middle, and an end 2. Restrictions • Forces us to articulate a clear goal at the outset • Review progress ,make midcourse corrections, and redirect future activity 3. Level of creative energy • The clarity, direction, and limits of a well defined project are vital Getting Under your Skin
  9. 9 The brief • A design brief that is too abstract risks leaving the project team wandering about in a fog. • One that starts from too narrow a set of constraints, however, almost guarantees that the outcome will be incremental and, most likely, mediocre. Design thinking needs to be practiced on both sides of the table: by the design team, obviously, but by the client as well.The difference between a design brief with just the right level of constraint and one that is overly vague or overly restrictive can be the difference between a team on fire with breakthrough ideas and one that delivers a tired reworking of existing ones. Getting Under your Skin
  10. 10 Team ofTeams • All of us are smarter than any of us • In an interdisciplinary team there is collective ownership of ideas and everybody takes responsibility for them. • The inspiration phase requires a small, focused group. Getting Under your Skin
  11. 11 Cultures of innovation Environment (social and spatial) in which people know they can experiment, take risks, and explore the full range of their faculties. Environment must be: • Collaborative • Focused • Flexible • Responsive • Balanced Getting Under your Skin
  12. 12 D e s i g n p a r a d i g m : m i g r a t i o n o f d e s i g n e r s t o w a r d s o c i a l a n d b e h a v i o r a l p r o b l e m s t o r e c o g n i z e u n m e t n e e d s These are more likely to be triggered by observing the odd practices of an amateur carpenter or the incongruous detail in a mechanic’s shop than by hiring expert consultants or asking “statistically average” people to respond to a survey or fill out a questionnaire. Insight: learning from the lives of others Converting need into demand, or putting people first O b s e r v a t i o n : w a t c h i n g w h a t p e o p l e d o n ’ t d o , l i s t e n i n g t o w h a t t h e y d o n ’ t s a y By concentrating solely on the bulge at the center of the bell curve, however, we are more likely to confirm what we already know than learn something new and surprising. For insights at that level we need to head for the edges, the places where we expect to find “extreme” users who live differently, think differently, and consume differently—a collector who owns 1,400 Barbies, for instance, or a professional car thief.
  13. 13 It’s possible to spend days, weeks, or months conducting research of this sort, but at the end of it all we will have little more than stacks of field notes, videotapes, and photographs unless we can connect with the people we are observing at a fundamental level. We call this “empathy,” and it is perhaps the most important distinction between academic thinking and design thinking.We are not trying to generate new knowledge, test a theory, or validate a scientific hypothesis— that’s the work of our university colleagues and an indispensable part of our shared intellectual landscape.The mission of design thinking is to translate observations into insights and insights into products and services that will improve lives. Empathy is the mental habit that moves us beyond thinking of people as laboratory rats or standard deviations. If we are to “borrow” the lives of other people to inspire new ideas, we need to begin by recognizing that their seemingly inexplicable behaviors represent different strategies for coping with the confusing, complex, and contradictory world in which they live. Empathy: standing in the shoes (or lying on the gurneys) of others Converting need into demand, or putting people first
  14. 14 T h e p r o c e s s o f t h e d e s i g n t h i n k e r : l o o k s l i k e a r h y t h m i c e x c h a n g e b e t w e e n t h e d i v e r g e n t a n d c o n v e r g e n t p h a s e s Convergent and divergent thinking A mental matrix, or “these people have no process!” Diverge Converge New options emerg e Make choices
  15. Without optimism—the unshakable belief that things could be better than they are —the will to experiment will be continually frustrated until it withers. Positive encouragement does not require the pretense that all ideas are created equal. It remains the responsibility of leadership to make discerning judgments, which will inspire confidence if people feel that their ideas have been given a fair hearing.
  16. Post-it Visual Thinking Some very useful methods … Brainstorming
  17. The power of prototyping David Kelley calls prototyping “thinking with your hands,” and he contrasts it with specification-led, planning-driven abstract thinking. Both have value and each has its place, but one is much more effective at creating new ideas and driving them
  18. 18 Quick and dirty Building to think, or the power of prototyping ContentQuality Process Prototyping generates results faster We will be able to evaluate them, refine them (ideas) Early prototypes should be fast, rough, and cheap
  19. 19 Enough is enough Building to think, or the power of prototyping • Give form to an idea • Strengths and weaknesses • New direction • More detailed • More refined • Achieve enough resolution • Pick what we want to learn about Enough Feedback Prototype
  20. Index Design Thinking Lean UX Digital Entity “The Hive” Usability
  21. 21 Lean product development Brief history WhenToyota started developing cars, there was a difference between its context in Japan and its competitors in the USA. Toyota had few educated engineers and little prior experience. Car companies in US had the benefit of engineering schools and a well-educated work force in the cities.To tackle this shortfall in knowledge and experience,Toyota conducted an incremental approach to development that built on this knowledge and became the basis of the lean systems Toyota uses today.
  22. 22 Lean product: high level concepts 1. Creation of re-usable knowledge 2. Set-based concurrent engineering. 3. Teams of responsible experts. Lean product development organizations develop cross-functional teams and reward competence building in teams and individuals. 4. Cadence and pull. Managers of lean product development organizations develop autonomous teams, where engineers plan their own work and work their own plans. 5. Visual management.Visualization is a main enabler of lean product development. 6. Entrepreneurial system designer.The lean product development organization makes one person responsible for the engineering and aesthetic design, and market and business success, of the product.
  23. 23 LEAN UX by Jeff Gothelf Reference Book Lean UX is deeply collaborative and cross- functional, because we no longer have the luxury of working in isolation from the rest of the product team.We can’t continue to ask our teams to wait for us to figure it all out.We need daily, continuous engagement with our teams if we are going to be effective.This continuous engagement allows us to strip away heavy deliverables in favor of techniques that allow us to build shared understanding with our teammates.
  24. d i g i t a l e n t i t y The method principles 1. Cross-FunctionalTeams, Small, Dedicated, Co-located. 2. Progress = Outcomes, Not Output 3. Problem-FocusedTeams 4. Small Batch Size 5. Continuous Discovery 6. Getting Out Of the Building:The New User-Centricity 7. Shared Understanding 8. Anti-Pattern: Rockstars, Gurus, and Ninjas 9. ExternalizingYour Work 10. Making over Analysis 11. Learning over Growth 12. Permission to fail 13. Getting Out of the Deliverables Business
  25. 25 Continuous discovery is the ongoing process of the customer during the design and development process. This engagement is done through regularly scheduled activities, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The goal is to understand what the users are doing with your products and why they are doing it. Research is done on frequent and regular schedules. Research involves the entire team. Iterative process LEAN UX 2 5 1. Declare Assumptions 2. Create an MVP 3. Run an experiment 4. Feedback and research
  26. 26 Vision, Framing and Outcomes 1. Assumptions • A high-level declaration of what we believe to be true. 2. Hypotheses • More granular descriptions of our assumptions that target specific areas of our product or workflow for experimentation. 3. Outcomes • The signal we seek from the market to help us validate or invalidate our hypotheses.These are often quantitative but can also be qualitative. 4. Personas • Models of the people for whom we believe we are solving a problem. 5. Features • The product changes or improvements we believe will drive the outcomes we seek. 1. Declare Assumptions
  27. 27 Collaborative Design 1. Design Studio • Away to bring a cross-functional team together to visualize potential solutions to a design problem. It breaks down organizational silos and creates a forum for your fellow teammates’ points of view. 2. Define a Framework for Style guide • A styleguide is a broadly accepted pattern library that codifies the interactive, visual, and copy elements of a user interface and system. Style guides (also known as pattern libraries) are a living collection of all of your product’s customer-facing components.. 1. Declare Assumptions
  28. 28 MVP’S 1. MinimumViable Product (MVP) • Create the smallest thing you can to determine the validity of each of the hypothesis statements: that is your MVP.You will use your MVP to run experiments.The outcome of the experiments will tell you whether your hypothesis was correct and thus whether the direction you are exploring should be pursued, refined, or abandoned.. • These MVP could be: • paper prototypes • clickable wireframes • high Fidelity Prototypes • coded prototypes 2. Create an MVP
  29. 29 Experiments: Collaborative discovery Collaborative discovery is a way to get out into the field with your team. • As a team, review your questions, assumptions, hypotheses, and MVPs. Decide as a team what you need to learn. • Create an interview guide that you can all use to guide your conversations. • Have one team member conduct interviews while the other takes notes. • Start with questions, conversations, and observations. • Demonstrate the MVP later in the session and allow the customer to interact with it. • Collect notes as the customer provides feedback. • At the end of the interview, ask the customer for referrals to other people who might also provide useful feedback. 3. Run an experiment
  30. 30 Feedback and Research 1. Continuous and Collaborative Research • Research activities and responsibilities are distributed and shared across the entire team. By eliminating the handoff between researchers and team members, we increase the quality of our learning 2. MonitoringTechniques for Continuous, Collaborative Discovery • Customer Service • Onsite Feedback Surveys 4. Feed and research
  31. the HIVE Design Thinking Lean UX Usabiliy
  32. 32 the HIVE D E S I G N T H I N K I N G digital entity MODERATED BY The Hive is our methodology to help clients in shaping innovation through design thinking and multidisciplinary teams, a mixture of experts from digital entity and our clients The hive COLLABORATION FOR NEW IDEAS
  35. 35 The hive BENCHMARKING
  36. 36 The hive PERSONAS
  39. 39 The hive UX CONCEPT
  40. 40 E X P E R I E N C E D E F I N I T I O N S O L U T I O N A R C H I T E C T U R E R E Q U I R E M E N T S MACROmicro
  41. 41 E X P E R I E N C E D E F I N I T I O N S O L U T I O N A R C H I T E C T U R E R E Q U I R E M E N T S MACROmicro
  42. MACROmicro
  43. 43 MACROmicro it’s the digital entity approach, it merges a service design culture influenced by design thinking with a meticulous attention to the design of microinteractions that bring the brand’s values to a customer experience level
  44. 44 MACROmicro A i m s t o d e s i g n t h e s e r v i c e m o d e l a l o n g w i t h s o m e s e l e c t e d m i c r o i n t e r a c t i o n s , i n o r d e r t o d e f i n e t h e m a i n e x p e r i e n c e g u i d e l i n e s i n l i n e w i t h t h e b r a n d p r i n c i p l e s a n d t h e v a l u e s t h e y r e p r e s e n t
  45. 45 Defining the MACRO
  46. 46 Stakeholder interviews Stakeholder workshops Personas Scenarios Experience maps Concept sketches Visual brand exploration User journeys UI concept sketching Screen flows Concept prototype Experience principles Visual language Interaction principles Conceptual architecture Visual moodboard Iconography Wireframes Asset production User trials User testing D E F I N I N G T H E M A C R O
  47. 47 B U S I N E S S / T E C H N I C A L D E F I N I T I O N We ran a workshop or a Kick Off with key people from all participating countries and relevant part of the organization to set the business requirements, analyze any threat and opportunity of the specific part of the product we will develop.
  48. 48 W O R K S H O P During the workshops we work with our clients with the dynamics of design thinking using analog and immediate instruments such as paper and pen, using templates already ready we come to define together: • Personas • Service blueprint • High level design of the interfaces. The work done during the workshop is then streamlined and becomes the basis for developing the concept.
  49. 49 I N T E R A C T I O N M O D E L D E F I N I T I O N Wireframes are a key deliverable in our process, highlighting the main user interactions and software functionalities. We prepare interactive prototypes and we share with project stakeholders.
  50. 50 Modelling the micro
  51. 51 E V O L V I N G T H E D E S I G N B Y F O C U S I N G O N T H E D E T A I L SK I C K O F F : 1 ° I t e r a t i o n 8 ° I t e r a t i o n 1 6 ° I t e r a t i o n
  52. 52 I C O N O G R A P H Y, C O L O R P A L E T T E a n d C O R P O R A T E G U I D E L I N E S
  53. 53 ✓ from hand sketch to prototype for approval ✓ annotated wireframes to detail all requirements ✓ design experiences not interfaces
  54. 54 Index Design Thinking Lean UX Digital Entity “The Hive” Usability
  55. Jakob Nielsen's 10 general principles for interaction design. They are called "heuristics" because they are broad rules of thumb and not specific usability guidelines.
  56. 56 10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design (1/3) Web Usability 1.Visibility of system status The system should always keep users informed about what is going on, through appropriate feedback within reasonable time. 2.Match between system and the real world The system should speak the users' language, with words, phrases and concepts familiar to the user, rather than system-oriented terms. Follow real-world conventions, making information appear in a natural and logical order. 3. User control and freedom Users often choose system functions by mistake and will need a clearly marked "emergency exit" to leave the unwanted state without having to go through an extended dialogue. Support undo and redo. 4. Consistency and standards Users should not have to wonder whether different words, situations, or actions mean the same thing. Follow platform conventions.
  57. 57 10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design (2/3) Web Usability 5. Error prevention Even better than good error messages is a careful design which prevents a problem from occurring in the first place. Either eliminate error-prone conditions or check for them and present users with a confirmation option before they commit to the action. 6. Recognition rather than recall Minimize the user's memory load by making objects, actions, and options visible. The user should not have to remember information from one part of the dialogue to another. Instructions for use of the system should be visible or easily retrievable whenever appropriate. 7. Flexibility and efficiency of use Accelerators — unseen by the novice user — may often speed up the interaction for the expert user such that the system can cater to both inexperienced and experienced users. Allow users to tailor frequent actions.
  58. 58 10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design (3/3) Web Usability 8. Aesthetic and minimalist design Dialogues should not contain information which is irrelevant or rarely needed. Every extra unit of information in a dialogue competes with the relevant units of information and diminishes their relative visibility. 9.Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors Error messages should be expressed in plain language (no codes), precisely indicate the problem, and constructively suggest a solution. 10.Help and documentation Even though it is better if the system can be used without documentation, it may be necessary to provide help and documentation. Any such information should be easy to search, focused on the user's task, list concrete steps to be carried out, and not be too large.
  59. d i g i t a l e n t i t y T h a n k s !

Notas do Editor

  1. Designers, then, have learned to excel at resolving one or another or even all three of these constraints. Design thinkers, by contrast, are learning to navigate between and among them in creative ways. They do so because they have shifted their thinking from problem to project.
  2. The goal of prototyping is not to create a working model. It is to give form to an idea to learn about its strengths and weaknesses and to identify new directions for the next generation of more detailed, more refined prototypes. “Just enough prototyping” means picking what we want to learn about and achieving just enough resolution to make that the focus. An experienced prototyper knows when to say “Enough is enough.”