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INSTRUMENTS USED IN ENDODONTIC TREATMENTWhen the pulp suffers irreversible pulpitis, the only way to retain the natural tooth is bycomplete removal of the pulp.NameDG16 probe/root canal explorerFunctionUsed to probe and detect canal openings within the pulp chamber
NameBarbed broachesFunctions and precautions• Finger instruments• Disposed of in the sharps’ container•Used to remove the intact pulp• ‘Barbs’ on the broach snag the pulp to facilitate removal• They need to be used cautiously as they can bind and break in the canalVarietiesAvailable in different sizes and widths
NameGates Glidden drillsFunction, features and precautions•To enlarge the coronal third of the canal during endodontic treatment• Small ﬂame-shaped cutting instrument used in the conventional handpiece• Different sizes – coded by rings or coloured bands on shank•Are slightly ﬂexible and will follow the canal shape but can perforate the canal if usedtoo deeply• Dispose of in sharps’ container• Should be used only in the straight sections of the canal
NamePeeso reamer drillsFunction, features and precautions•To remove gutta percha during post preparation• Small ﬂame-shaped cutting instrument used in the conventional handpiece• Different sizes – coded by rings or coloured bands on shank• Peeso reamers are not ﬂexible or adaptable, if not used with care can perforate canal• Dispose of in sharps’ containerName
Endodontic K ﬁles. Also called: Root canal hand ﬁlesFunction, features and precaution• Finger instrument• Colour coded by size. The 6 colours used most often are: size 15 (white); 20 (yellow);25 (red); 30 (blue); 35 (green); 40 (black). Also available in size 6 (pink), 8 (grey) and 10(purple)• Operator gradually increases the size of the ﬁle to smooth, shape and enlarge canal• The larger the number of the ﬁle, the larger the diameter of the working end• Disposed of in the sharps’ containerVarieties• Different lengths: 21 mm, 25 mm and 30 mm• Hedström ﬁles, FlexoﬁlesNameNiTi (Nickel titanium) rotary instrumentsFunction, features and directions for use• Used to clean and shape the canals• Used with endodontic handpiece and motor• NiTi is ﬂexible and instruments follow the canal outline very well• Several varieties of systems with different sequences of instruments are used• Important to follow the manufacturer’s recommended speeds and instructions for useVarietiesDifferent lengths: 21 mm and 25 mm
NameLentulo spiral ﬁller/rotary paste ﬁllerFunction and features• Small ﬂexible instrument used to place materials into the canal• Fits into the conventional handpiece• Use with caution as it can be easily broken• Different sizes availableMany of these ﬁnger instruments should be disposed of in the sharps’ container after oneuse – this is best practice, but would not be done routinely in private surgeries.
NameFinger spreaderFunction, features and precaution• Used to condense gutta percha into the canal during obturation• Finger instrument with a smooth, pointed, tapered working end• Disposed of in the sharps’ containerVarietiesCan be of the hand instrument type (lateral condenser)NameEndodontic pluggerFunctionWorking end is ﬂat to facilitate plugging or condensing the gutta percha after the excess
has been removed by melting off with a heated instrumentVarieties• Different sizes of working ends are available•Available as hand or ﬁnger instruments NameAbsorbent paper pointsFunctions•To absorb any moisture in the canal (i.e. blood, pus and saliva)•To carry medicaments into the canalVarietiesCan be packaged in unidose (sterile) or bulk packaging (once package is open they arenot sterile)
NameGutta percha pointsFunction and features•Non-soluble, non-irritant points that are condensed into the pulp chamber duringobturation• Standardised type: follows same ISO classiﬁcation as endodontic ﬁles• Non-standardised: have a greater taper than the standard ISO typeVarieties• Can be packaged in single dose or bulk packages• Different sizes with different tapers available
Name Endodontc ring, Endodontic block, Endodontic rulersFunctions• An endodontic block is a sturdy block used to organise and hold endodontic ﬁnger androtary instruments during procedures; allows easy and accurate measurement of thelength of ﬁnger instruments (measuring device incorporated)• Reduces the possibility of percutaneous injuries when handling endodontic ﬁnger androtary instruments• Special endodontic rulers are available for measuring the length of ﬁnger instrumentsVarietiesDifferent varieties available
NameApex locatorFunctions• An electronic instrument used to determine the distance to the apical foramen• The screen allows the operator to visualise the ﬁle movement during instrumenta-tionVarieties• Different manufacturers provide different varieties•Available with a pulp tester incorporated in the machine
NameElectric pulp testerFunction and directions for use•Used to test the vitality of a tooth using electric stimulus•Electric stimulus is increased in small increments until the patient can feel the stimulus•Toothpaste or prophy paste is used to conduct the current from the pulp tester to thetoothVarieties•Available with an apex locator incorporated in the machine• Different manufacturers supply different varieties of pulp testers• Can use a cold substance to test the vitality of the pulp, i.e. ethyl chloride or Endo ColdSpray