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<ul><li>Why Alaroma IMR: </li></ul>Because of global warming the distribution of mosquitoes has expanded from tropical regions to northern latitudes, and that leads to a spread in sources of viral infection from mosquitoes. Especially, the West Nile fever virus, which has infected many people around the world recently, has become a big issue. To ensure our security and safety from the future hazards, we need to equally develop the technology for our protection. With regard to textiles, the protective textile field of the smart textiles has to fulfill this requirement. A Mosquito repellent textile is one such textile product. It protects the human beings from the bite of mosquitoes and thereby promising safety from the diseases like malaria and Nile fever. To impart this character a finish of the mosquito repelling agent is given to the textile material using Alaroma IMR.
What problems can be caused by mosquito bites? Ordinarily, the bites of mosquitoes and other insects are just a nuisance, although the bite may cause itching or swelling. The symptoms of an insect bite can usually be treated with over-the-counter medications. However, in rare situations, an insect bite can transmit certain diseases such as West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis and California (LaCrosse) encephalitis. Insect-repellent textiles are considered by public health agencies worldwide to be an increasingly important component in the fight to reduce the incidence of insect-borne infectious diseases such as malaria, West Nile virus, encephalitis, dengue fever, Lyme Disease and numerous others. Insect-borne diseases afflict hundreds of millions of people each year and represent a significant portion of overall infectious diseases, which globally rank second among all causes of death. Vaccines and therapeutic drugs have yet to be developed to treat many of these diseases, so preventive measures must be taken to control these insects and avoid contact with them .
<ul><li>Mosquito Attractants </li></ul><ul><li>Mosquitoes have complex methods of detecting hosts and different types of mosquitoes react to different stimuli. Most mosquitoes are active at dawn and dusk, but there are also mosquitoes that seek hosts during the day. You can avoid being bitten by making sure you aren't attracting mosquitoes, using attractants to lure mosquitoes elsewhere, using a repellent, and avoiding actions that diminish the effectiveness of the repellent . </li></ul>
Mosquito Attractants Items and activities that attract mosquitoes as a list of things to avoid or that can be used as bait to lure mosquitoes away from you. Dark Clothing Many mosquitoes use vision to locate hosts from a distance. Dark clothes and foliage are initial attractants. Carbon Dioxide You give off more carbon dioxide when you are hot or have been exercising. A burning candle or other fire is another source of carbon dioxide. Lactic Acid You release more lactic acid when you have been exercising or after eating certain foods (e.g., salty foods, high-potassium foods). Floral or Fruity Fragrances In addition to perfumes, hair products, and scented sunscreens, watch for the subtle floral fragrance from fabric softeners and dryer sheets. Skin Temperature The exact temperature depends on the type of mosquito. Many mosquitoes are attracted to the slightly cooler temperatures of the extremities. Moisture Mosquitoes are attracted by perspiration because of the chemicals it contains and also because it increases the humidity around your body. Even small amounts of water (e.g., moist plants or mud puddles) will draw mosquitoes. Standing water also allows mosquitoes to reproduce.
What are DEET insect repellents? DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is a versatile and effective insect repellent. Insect repellents containing DEET have been used for more than 40 years by millions of people worldwide to repel mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, biting flies and chiggers. These products are available in many formulations, including lotions, creams, gels, aerosol and pump sprays, and towelettes. Insect repellents can reduce the risk of mosquito and tick bites, but products containing DEET must be used properly.
<ul><li>Mechanism of repellent action </li></ul><ul><li>Action of repellent agent for blood-sucking insects including mosquitoes can be broadly divided into two types which are actions to repel insects by acting on the olfactory and tactile senses. </li></ul><ul><li>Action of repellent on sense of smell is called transpiration repelling, and this has the effect of keeping insects away without them touching a surface processed with the repellent agent.How it works is that repellent molecules block insects’ humidity sensory holes, which makes humans inaccessible to insects by inhibiting the function of sensing moisture, while insects usually use warm and humid convection rising from the human body as a guide for contacting humans sensing an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. </li></ul><ul><li>Action of repellent stimulating sense of touch is called direct-contact repelling, and this drives insects off the processed surface before blood sucking even after touching the surface. Biting insects use chemical, visual, and thermal cues to locate hosts. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Mechanism of repellent action </li></ul><ul><li>DEET is believed to work by blocking the chemical receptors for carbon dioxide and lactic acid, two of the substances released by our bodies that serve as attractants. Although DEET helps keep insects from locating people, there is probably more involved in DEET's effectiveness, since mosquitoes won't bite through DEET-treated fabric. However, skin only a few centimeters away from DEET is susceptible to bites. </li></ul><ul><li>It is believed that repellent substances work on insects’ peripheral nervous systems when contact is made, causing a collaterally-expressed confusional state and inhibition under sublethal doses before knockdown and lethal action. </li></ul><ul><li>L.N. Chemical’s anti-mosquito finishing agent, “Alaroma IMR,” has excellent effects based on the mechanism of the direct-contact repelling type. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be effective mainly in outdoor-related textile products, promoted for garments/tents for mountain climbing and trekking and fishing wear for outdoors, bedroom curtains, towel blankets, pajamas, bedding, garments/gloves for gardening, and work clothes for farming. </li></ul>
What about using DEET repellents on children? No definitive studies exist in the scientific literature about what concentration of DEET is safe for children. No serious illness has been linked to the use of DEET in children when used according the product recommendations. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Committee on Environmental Health has recently updated their recommendation for use of DEET products on children, citing: "Insect repellents containing DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, also known as N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) with a concentration of 10% appear to be as safe as products with a concentration of 30% when used according to the directions on the product labels."
What about using DEET repellents on children The AAP and other experts suggest that it is acceptable to apply repellent with low concentrations of DEET to infants over 2 months old. Other guidelines cite that it is acceptable to use repellents containing DEET on children over 2 years of age. Repellent products that do not contain DEET are not likely to offer the same degree of protection from mosquito bites as products containing DEET. Non-DEET repellents have not necessarily been as thoroughly studied as DEET, and may not be safer for use on children. Is DEET safe for pregnant or nursing women? There are no reported adverse events following use of repellents containing DEET in pregnant or breastfeeding women .
Indoor tests: application tests under constant conditions This procedure complies with a protocol which was developed for the Stiftung Warentest, the German equivalent of the Consumer Reports in the United States. The test rooms are air conditioned, and the number, age, and species of the mosquitoes used in the study can be controlled. This test is a good alternative field tests: More realistic than cage tests, but possible at any time and at less expense.
Tests of insecticide-treated textiles and surfaces The effectiveness of insecticide-treated textiles (such as bed nets, canvas, etc.) or surfaces is usually studied in standardized cone bioassays with insecticide-susceptible strains of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae . The procedure is promoted by the WHO and other international and national organizations. In the case of the evaluation of insecticides with additional repellent properties, where exposed mosquitoes might spend more time resting on the cone and not on the treated surface, alternatives such as the wire-ball test (wrapping the textile around a wire frame and introducing mosquitoes into this ball), cylinder tests (the inside of a test cylinder is covered with the textile), and other methods are often applied. Tick tests Effective protection from ticks, the carriers of Lyme disease (borreliosis) and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), is becoming increasingly important. This is why, in collaboration with tick specialists, we also offer efficacy tests with ticks. We cater for all requirements – from basic in vitro lab tests (moving object assays) to lab tests with human subjects and field studies.
Cone test of an insecticide-treated textile. Mosquitoes (usually malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae ) are introduced into a standardized cone for a defined time span, then removed and transferred to small cages to determine the knock-down and knock-dead rates.
F ield tests: the most meaningful evidence for the efficacy of a treated textile: F ield studies are the ultimate verification of the performance of your product. The most realistic conditions deliver the most meaningful results. We perform field tests in Europe, North America, Brazil, and Australia. Testing repellent-treated textiles in the field near Regensburg: The location in which these tests were performed is especially rich in the floodwater mosquitoes Aedes vexans and Aedes/Ochlerotatus sticticus . Ae. vexans is distributed almost world-wide, Ae./Oc. sticticus in Europe, northern Asia, and North America.
ALAROMA-IMR Application: By Pad: 50-80 g/l of ALAROMA-IMR disperse in water, then add 5.0 g/l of Fixer-ALN and stir well. This dilution should be set at 80-100% of pick-up ratio, dry-100-105ºC & cure at 170-180ºC for 40 -60 secs. By exhaust On 100% PE & PV(70-30/80-20 etc): MLR 1:10 Alroma-IMR 10-12 g/l pH 5.0 Temperature 120-130ºC Time 30-45 mins Hot Water wash, Cold wash, dry
Mosquito repellency Results: Fabric Substrate: P/V(65/35) & 100 % Polyester Dosage: P/V(65/35) : Alaroma-IMR+ Fixer-ALN : (80+5) g/l 100% PE : Alaroma-IMR : 50 g/l Test Method 1: Modified WHO/CTD/WHO PES/IC/96.1 Mosquitoes Used: Male & Female – Culex Species No Of Mosquito used: 10 Excito Repellency Test Chamber: Metal chamber measuring 26 x 26 cms with flexible sides & top window for viewing Size of the fabric: 1 meter Duration of test: 30 minutes
<ul><li>Observations: </li></ul>Fabric No of Mosquitoes released in treated fabric chamber No of Mosquitoes on treated fabric No of Mosquitoes on untreated fabric No of Mosquitoes Showing mobility % Repellency Initial 10 mins After 30 mins Initial10 mins After 30 mins Initial 10 mins After 30 mins Initial 10 mins After 30 mins 100% PE 10 10 Nil Nil 5 6 5 4 100 P/V [65/35] 10 10 Nil Nil 6 8 4 2 100
<ul><li>Test Method 2 : </li></ul><ul><li>Results of US Patent 5, 198, 287 & USDA laboratory Method </li></ul><ul><li>Insect used : Female mosquito Culex species </li></ul><ul><li>No. of insects released in laboratory tent : </li></ul><ul><li>12 per 10 – 20 gms of fabric/½ a meter </li></ul><ul><li>No. of hours of incubation : 3 hrs intermittent </li></ul><ul><li>3 hrs exposure of mosquito was carried out in a tent made by the provided </li></ul><ul><li>fabric. Every 1 hour, observations were made about the movements, biting </li></ul><ul><li>tendency and survival of mosquitoes. Following observations have been made </li></ul><ul><li>as mean average of experiment conducted two times: </li></ul>Fabric Total No. Knock Down Total No. Unable to fly Bite counts per 3 mins Exposure % Repellency Efficiency Untreated Nil Nil 1-2 0 100% PE Nil 12 0 100 P/V [65/35] Nil 6 0 70