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Human-in-a-loop: a design pattern for managing teams which leverage ML

Human-in-a-loop: a design pattern for managing teams which leverage ML

Big Data Spain, 2017-11-16

Human-in-the-loop is an approach which has been used for simulation, training, UX mockups, etc. A more recent design pattern is emerging for human-in-the-loop (HITL) as a way to manage teams working with machine learning (ML). A variant of semi-supervised learning called _active learning_ allows for mostly automated processes based on ML, where exceptions get referred to human experts. Those human judgements in turn help improve new iterations of the ML models.

This talk reviews key case studies about active learning, plus other approaches for human-in-the-loop which are emerging among AI applications. We'll consider some of the technical aspects -- including available open source projects -- as well as management perspectives for how to apply HITL:

* When is HITL indicated vs. when isn't it applicable?
* How do HITL approaches compare/contrast with more "typical" use of Big Data?
* What's the relationship between use of HITL and preparing an organization to leverage Deep Learning?
* Experiences training and managing a team which uses HITL at scale
* Caveats to know ahead of time
* In what ways do the humans involved learn from the machines?

In particular, we'll examine use cases at O'Reilly Media where ML pipelines for categorizing content are trained by subject matter experts providing examples, based on HITL and leveraging open source [Project Jupyter](https://jupyter.org/ for implementation).

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Human-in-a-loop: a design pattern for managing teams which leverage ML

  1. 1. Human-­‐in-­‐a-­‐loop:   design  pattern  for  managing  teams  that  leverage  ML Paco  Nathan    @pacoid   Director,  Learning  Group  @  O’Reilly  Media   Big  Data  Spain,  Madrid    2017-­‐11-­‐16
  2. 2. Framing Imagine  having  a  mostly-­‐automated  system  where  
 people  and  machines  collaborate  together…   May  sound  a  bit  Sci-­‐Fi,  though  arguably  commonplace.  
 One  challenge  is  whether  we  can  advance  beyond  just   handling  rote  tasks.     Instead  of  simply  running  code  libraries,  can  machines  
 make  difficult  decisions,  exercise  judgement  in  complex   situations?     Can  we  build  systems  in  which  people  who  aren’t  
 AI  experts  can  “teach”  machines  to  perform  complex  
 work  –  based  on  examples,  not  code?
  3. 3. Research  questions ▪ How  do  we  personalize  learning  experiences,  across  
 ebooks,  videos,  conferences,  computable  content,  
 live  online  courses,  case  studies,  expert  AMAs,  etc.   ▪ How  do  we  help  experts  (by  definition,  really  busy  
 people)  share  their  knowledge  with  peers  in  industry?   ▪ How  do  we  manage  the  role  of  editors  at  human  scale,  
 while  technology  and  delivery  media  evolve  rapidly?   ▪ How  do  we  help  organizations  learn  and  transform   continuously? 3
  4. 4. UX  for  content  discovery:   ▪ partly  generated  +  curated  by  people   ▪ partly  generated  +  curated  by  AI  apps
  5. 5. AI  in  Media ▪ content  which  can  represented  as  
 text  can  be  parsed  by  NLP,  then   manipulated  by  available  AI  tooling     ▪ labeled  images  get  really  interesting   ▪ assumption:  text  or  images  –  within  
 a  context  –  have  inherent  structure   ▪ representation  of  that  kind  of  structure   is  rare  in  the  Media  vertical  –  so  far 6
  6. 6. {"graf": [[21, "let", "let", "VB", 1, 48], [0, "'s", "'s", "PRP", 0, 49], "take", "take", "VB", 1, 50], [0, "a", "a", "DT", 0, 51], [23, "look", "l "NN", 1, 52], [0, "at", "at", "IN", 0, 53], [0, "a", "a", "DT", 0, 54], [ "few", "few", "JJ", 1, 55], [25, "examples", "example", "NNS", 1, 56], [0 "often", "often", "RB", 0, 57], [0, "when", "when", "WRB", 0, 58], [11, "people", "people", "NNS", 1, 59], [2, "are", "be", "VBP", 1, 60], [26, " "first", "JJ", 1, 61], [27, "learning", "learn", "VBG", 1, 62], [0, "abou "about", "IN", 0, 63], [28, "Docker", "docker", "NNP", 1, 64], [0, "they" "they", "PRP", 0, 65], [29, "try", "try", "VBP", 1, 66], [0, "and", "and" 0, 67], [30, "put", "put", "VBP", 1, 68], [0, "it", "it", "PRP", 0, 69], "in", "in", "IN", 0, 70], [0, "one", "one", "CD", 0, 71], [0, "of", "of", 0, 72], [0, "a", "a", "DT", 0, 73], [24, "few", "few", "JJ", 1, 74], [31, "existing", "existing", "JJ", 1, 75], [18, "categories", "category", "NNS 76], [0, "sometimes", "sometimes", "RB", 0, 77], [11, "people", "people", 1, 78], [9, "think", "think", "VBP", 1, 79], [0, "it", "it", "PRP", 0, 80 "'s", "be", "VBZ", 1, 81], [0, "a", "a", "DT", 0, 82], [32, "virtualizati "virtualization", "NN", 1, 83], [19, "tool", "tool", "NN", 1, 84], [0, "l "like", "IN", 0, 85], [33, "VMware", "vmware", "NNP", 1, 86], [0, "or", " "CC", 0, 87], [34, "virtualbox", "virtualbox", "NNP", 1, 88], [0, "also", "also", "RB", 0, 89], [35, "known", "know", "VBN", 1, 90], [0, "as", "as" 0, 91], [0, "a", "a", "DT", 0, 92], [36, "hypervisor", "hypervisor", "NN" 93], [0, "these", "these", "DT", 0, 94], [2, "are", "be", "VBP", 1, 95], "tools", "tool", "NNS", 1, 96], [0, "which", "which", "WDT", 0, 97], [2, "be", "VBP", 1, 98], [37, "emulating", "emulate", "VBG", 1, 99], [38, "hardware", "hardware", "NN", 1, 100], [0, "for", "for", "IN", 0, 101], [ "virtual", "virtual", "JJ", 1, 102], [40, "software", "software", "NN", 1 103]], "id": "001.video197359", "sha1": "4b69cf60f0497887e3776619b922514f2e5b70a8"} AI  in  Media 7 {"count": 2, "ids": [32, 19], "pos": "np", "rank": 0.0194, "text": "virtualization tool"} {"count": 2, "ids": [40, 69], "pos": "np", "rank": 0.0117, "text": "software applications"} {"count": 4, "ids": [38], "pos": "np", "rank": 0.0114, "text": "hardware"} {"count": 2, "ids": [33, 36], "pos": "np", "rank": 0.0099, "text": "vmware hypervisor"} {"count": 4, "ids": [28], "pos": "np", "rank": 0.0096, "text": "docker"} {"count": 4, "ids": [34], "pos": "np", "rank": 0.0094, "text": "virtualbox"} {"count": 10, "ids": [11], "pos": "np", "rank": 0.0049, "text": "people"} {"count": 4, "ids": [37], "pos": "vbg", "rank": 0.0026, "text": "emulating"} {"count": 2, "ids": [27], "pos": "vbg", "rank": 0.0016, "text": "learning"} Transcript: let's take a look at a few examples often when people are first learning about Docker they try and put it in one of a few existing categories sometimes people think it's a virtualization tool like VMware or virtualbox also known as a hypervisor these are tools which are emulating hardware for virtual software Confidence: 0.973419129848 39 KUBERNETES 0.8747 coreos 0.8624 etcd 0.8478 DOCKER CONTAINERS 0.8458 mesos 0.8406 DOCKER 0.8354 DOCKER CONTAINER 0.8260 KUBERNETES CLUSTER 0.8258 docker image 0.8252 EC2 0.8210 docker hub 0.8138 OPENSTACK orm:Docker a orm:Vendor; a orm:Container; a orm:Open_Source; a orm:Commercial_Software; owl:sameAs dbr:Docker_%28software%29; skos:prefLabel "Docker"@en;
  7. 7. Knowledge  Graph ▪ used  to  construct  an  ontology  about   technology,  based  on  learning   materials  from  200+  publishers   ▪ uses  SKOS  as  a  foundation,  ties  into  
 US  Library  of  Congress  and  DBpedia  
 as  upper  ontologies   ▪ primary  structure  is  “human  scale”,  
 used  as  control  points   ▪ majority  (>90%)  of  the  graph  
 comes  from  machine  generated  
 data  products 8
  8. 8. AI  is  real,  but  why  now? ▪ Big  Data:  machine  data  (1997-­‐ish)   ▪ Big  Compute:  cloud  computing  (2006-­‐ish)   ▪ Big  Models:  deep  learning  (2009-­‐ish)   The  confluence  of  three  factors  created  a  business  
 environment  where  AI  could  become  mainstream   What  else  is  needed? 9
  9. 9. Background:  
 helping  machines  learn
  10. 10. Machine  learning supervised  ML:   ▪ take  a  dataset  where  each  element   has  a  label   ▪ train  models  on  a  portion  of  the   data  to  predict  the  labels,  then  
 evaluate  on  the  holdout   ▪ deep  learning  is  a  popular  example,  
 but  only  if  you  have  lots  of  labeled   training  data  available
  11. 11. Machine  learning unsupervised  ML:   ▪ run  lots  of  unlabeled  data  through   an  algorithm  to  detect  “structure”   or  embedding   ▪ for  example,  clustering  algorithms   such  as  K-­‐means   ▪ unsupervised  approaches  for  AI  
 are  an  open  research  question
  12. 12. Active  learning special  case  of  semi-­‐supervised  ML:   ▪ send  difficult  decisions/edge  cases  
 to  experts;  let  algorithms  handle   routine  decisions  (automation)   ▪ works  well  in  use  cases  which  have   lots  of  inexpensive,  unlabeled  data   ▪ e.g.,  abundance  of  content  to  be   classified,  where  the  cost  of   labeling  is  the  expense
  13. 13. The  reality  of  data  rates “If  you  only  have  10  examples  of  something,  it’s  going
    to  be  hard  to  make  deep  learning  work.  If  you  have
    100,000  things  you  care  about,  records  or  whatever,
    that’s  the  kind  of  scale  where  you  should  really  start
    thinking  about  these  kinds  of  techniques.”   Jeff  Dean    Google
 VB  Summit  2017-­‐10-­‐23   venturebeat.com/2017/10/23/google-­‐brain-­‐chief-­‐says-­‐100000-­‐ examples-­‐is-­‐enough-­‐data-­‐for-­‐deep-­‐learning/
  14. 14. The  reality  of  data  rates Use  cases  for  deep  learning  must  have  large,  carefully   labeled  data  sets,  while  reinforcement  learning  needs   much  more  data  than  that.   Active  learning  can  yield  good  results  with  substantially   smaller  data  rates,  while  leveraging  an  organization’s   expertise  to  bootstrap  toward  larger  labeled  data  sets,   e.g.,  as  preparation  for  deep  learning,  etc. reinforcement learning supervised learning active learning deep learning data rates (log scale)
  15. 15. Case  studies:  
 practices  in  industry
  16. 16. On-­‐demand  humans 17
  17. 17. Active  learning Real-­‐World  Active  Learning:  Applications  and   Strategies  for  Human-­‐in-­‐the-­‐Loop  Machine  Learning
 radar.oreilly.com/2015/02/human-­‐in-­‐the-­‐loop-­‐ machine-­‐learning.html
 Ted  Cuzzillo
 O’Reilly  Media,  2015-­‐02-­‐05   Develop  a  policy  for  how  human  experts  select  exemplars:   ▪ bias  toward  labels  most  likely  to  influence  the  classifier   ▪ bias  toward  ensemble  disagreement   ▪ bias  toward  denser  regions  of  training  data 18
  18. 18. Active  learning Active  learning  and  transfer  learning
 safaribooksonline.com/library/view/oreilly-­‐ artificial-­‐intelligence/9781491985250/ video314919.html
 Luke  Biewald    CrowdFlower
 The  AI  Conf,  2017-­‐09-­‐17   breakthroughs  lag  algorithm  invention,  waiting  for   “killer  data  set”  to  emerge,  often  decade+ 19
  19. 19. Design  pattern:  Human-­‐in-­‐the-­‐loop Building  a  business  that  combines  human  experts   and  data  science
 oreilly.com/ideas/building-­‐a-­‐business-­‐that-­‐ combines-­‐human-­‐experts-­‐and-­‐data-­‐science-­‐2
 Eric  Colson    StitchFix
 O’Reilly  Data  Show,  2016-­‐01-­‐28   “what  machines  can’t  do  are  things  around  cognition,
    things  that  have  to  do  with  ambient  information,  or
    appreciation  of  aesthetics,  or  even  the  ability  to
    relate  to  another  human”
  20. 20. Design  pattern:  Human-­‐in-­‐the-­‐loop Strategies  for  integrating  people  and  machine   learning  in  online  systems
 safaribooksonline.com/library/view/oreilly-­‐ artificial-­‐intelligence/9781491976289/ video311857.html
 Jason  Laska    Clara  Labs
 The  AI  Conf,  2017-­‐06-­‐29   how  to  create  a  two-­‐sided  marketplace  where  machines   and  people  compete  on  a  spectrum  of  relative  expertise   and  capabilities
  21. 21. Design  pattern:  Human-­‐in-­‐the-­‐loop Building  human-­‐assisted  AI  applications
 oreilly.com/ideas/building-­‐human-­‐ assisted-­‐ai-­‐applications
 Adam  Marcus    B12
 O’Reilly  Data  Show,  2016-­‐08-­‐25   Orchestra:  a  platform  for  building  human-­‐ assisted  AI  applications,  e.g.,  to  create   business  websites
 https://github.com/b12io/orchestra   example  http://www.coloradopicked.com/ 22
  22. 22. Design  pattern:  Flash  teams Expert  Crowdsourcing  with  Flash  Teams
 hci.stanford.edu/publications/2014/ flashteams/flashteams-­‐uist2014.pdf
 Daniela  Retelny,  et  al.  
 Stanford  HCI   “A  flash  team  is  a  linked  set  of  modular  tasks  
    that  draw  upon  paid  experts  from  the  crowd,  
    often  three  to  six  at  a  time,  on  demand”   http://stanfordhci.github.io/flash-­‐teams/ 23
  23. 23. Weak  supervision  /  Data  programming Creating  large  training  data  sets  quickly
 oreilly.com/ideas/creating-­‐large-­‐training-­‐ data-­‐sets-­‐quickly
 Alex  Ratner    Stanford
 O’Reilly  Data  Show,  2017-­‐06-­‐08   Snorkel:  “weak  supervision”  and  “data   programming”  as  another  instance  of  
 github.com/HazyResearch/snorkel   conferences.oreilly.com/strata/strata-­‐ny/public/ schedule/detail/61849 24
  24. 24. Prodigy  by  Explosion.ai https://explosion.ai/blog/prodigy-­‐ annotation-­‐tool-­‐active-­‐learning 25
  25. 25. Problem:   disambiguating  contexts
  26. 26. Disambiguating  contexts Overlapping  contexts  pose  hard  problems  in  natural  language  understanding.   That  runs  counter  to  the  correlation  emphasis  of  big  data.
 NLP  libraries  lack  features  for  disambiguation.
  27. 27. Disambiguating  contexts 28 Suppose  someone  publishes  a  book  which  uses  the  term   `IOS`:  are  they  talking  about  an  operating  system  for  an   Apple  iPhone,  or  about  an  operating  system  for  a  Cisco   router?     We  handle  lots  of  content  about  both.  Disambiguating  those   contexts  is  important  for  good  UX  in  personalized  learning.   In  other  words,  how  do  machines  help  people  
 distinguish  that  content  within  search?   Potentially  a  good  case  for  deep  learning,  
 except  for  the  lack  of  labeled  data  at  scale.
  28. 28. Active  learning  through  Jupyter 29 Jupyter  notebooks  are  used  to  manage  ML  
 pipelines  for  disambiguation,  where  machines  
 and  people  collaborate:   ▪ ML  based  on  examples  –  most  all  of  the  feature   engineering,  model  parameters,  etc.,  has  been   automated   ▪ https://github.com/ceteri/nbtransom   ▪ based  on  use  of  nbformat,  pandas,  scikit-­‐learn
  29. 29. Active  learning  through  Jupyter 30 Jupyter  notebooks  are  used  to  manage  ML   pipelines and  people  collaborate:   ▪ ML  based  on  examples  –  most  all  of  the  feature   engineering,  model  parameters,  etc.,  has  been   automated   ▪ https://github.com/ceteri/nbtransom ▪ based  on  use  of   Jupyter  notebook  as…   ▪ one  part  configuration  file   ▪ one  part  data  sample   ▪ one  part  structured  log   ▪ one  part  data  visualization  tool   plus,  subsequent  data  mining  of  these  
 notebooks  helps  augment  our  ontology
  30. 30. Active  learning  through  Jupyter 31 ML#Pipelines Jupyter#kernel Browser SSH#tunnel
  31. 31. Active  learning  through  Jupyter ▪ Notebooks  allow  the  human  experts  to  access  the   internals  of  a  mostly  automated  ML  pipeline,  rapidly   ▪ Stated  another  way,  both  the  machines  and  the  people   become  collaborators  on  shared  documents   ▪ Anticipates  upcoming  collaborative  document  features   in  JupyterLab
  32. 32. Active  learning  through  Jupyter 1. Experts  use  notebooks  to  provide  examples  of  book  chapters,  video   segments,  etc.,  for  each  key  phrase  that  has  overlapping  contexts   2. Machines  build  ensemble  ML  models  based  on  those  examples,   updating  notebooks  with  model  evaluation   3. Machines  attempt  to  annotate  labels  for  millions  of  pieces  of  content,  
 e.g.,  `AlphaGo`,  `Golang`,  versus  a  mundane  use  of  the  verb  `go`   4. Disambiguation  can  run  mostly  automated,  in  parallel  at  scale  –  
 through  integration  with  Apache  Spark   5. In  cases  where  ensembles  disagree,  ML  pipelines  defer  to  human   experts  who  make  judgement  calls,  providing  further  examples   6. New  examples  go  into  training  ML  pipelines  to  build  better  models   7. Rinse,  lather,  repeat
  33. 33. Nuances ▪ No  Free  Lunch  theorem:  it  is  better  to  err  on  the   side  of  less  false  positives  /  more  false  negatives   in  use  cases  about  learning  materials   ▪ Employ  a  bias  toward  exemplars  policy,  i.e.,  those   most  likely  to  influence  the  classifier   ▪ Potentially,  “AI  experts”  may  be  Customer  Service   staff  who  review  edge  cases  within  search  results   or  recommended  content  –  as  an  integral  part  of   our  UX  –  then  re-­‐train  the  ML  pipelines  through   examples  
  34. 34. Management  strategy  –  before Generally  with  Big  Data,  we  are  considering:   ▪ DAG  workflow  execution  –  which  is  linear   ▪ data-­‐driven  organizations   ▪ ML  based  on  optimizing  for  
 objective  functions   ▪ questions  of  correlation  
 versus  causation   ▪ avoiding  “garbage  in,  garbage  out” Scrub token Document Collection Tokenize Word Count GroupBy token Count Stop Word List Regex token HashJoin Left RHS M R 35
  35. 35. Management  strategy  –  after HITL  introduces  circularities:   ▪ aka,  second-­‐order  cybernetics   ▪ leverage  feedback  loops  
 as  conversations   ▪ focus  on  human  scale,  
 design  thinking   ▪ people  and  machines  
 work  together  on  teams   ▪ budget  experts’  time  on  
 handling  the  exceptions AI team content ontology ML models attempt to label the data automatically Expert judgement about edge cases, provides examples ML models trained using examples Expert decisions to extend vocabulary ML models have consensus, confidence labels 36
  36. 36. Essential  takeaway  idea:   Depending  on  the  organization,  key  ingredients   needed  to  enable  effective  AI  apps  may  come   from  non-­‐traditional  “tech”  sources  …   In  other  words,  based  on  human-­‐in-­‐the-­‐loop   design  pattern,  AI  expertise  may  emerge  from   your  Sales,  Marketing,  and  Customer  Service   teams  –  which  have  crucial  insights  about  your   customers’  needs.
  37. 37. Looking  ahead:   some  trends  at  work
  38. 38. Looking  ahead  2018:  hardware  trends Indications:    progressively  more  advanced  mathematics   moves  into  hardware  and  low-­‐level  software,  as  use   cases  and  ROI  become  established  over  time  –  optimizing   for  the  speed  of  calculations  and  capacity  of  data  storage   Contra:    programming  languages  which  use  abstraction   layers  that  obscure  access  to  hardware  features,  aka  Java 39 … … … … …
  39. 39. Indications: moves  into  hardware  and  low-­‐level  software,  as  use   cases  and  ROI  become  established  over  time  –  optimizing   for  the  speed  of  calculations  and  capacity  of  data  storage Contra: layers  that  obscure  access  to  hardware  features,  aka  Java Looking  ahead  2018:  hardware  trends 40 … … … … … Realistically,  current  use  of  math  in  ML  suffers  from  some   “legacy  software”  aspects:    underlying  libraries  generally   focus  on  linear  algebra,  optimizing  for  1-­‐2  variables,  etc.     Meanwhile  our  use  cases  require  graphs,  multivariate   problems,  and  other  compelling  cases  for  more  advanced   math.  We  will  see  these  eventually  move  into  hardware  
 and  low-­‐level  libraries:    tensor  decomposition,  homology,   hypervolume  optimization,  etc.
  40. 40. Looking  ahead  2018:  software  trends Indications:    cognitive  subsystems  progressively  becoming   automated,  e.g.,  sensory  perception,  pattern  recognition,   decisions,  gaming,  mimicry,  optimization,  knowledge   representation,  language,  complex  movements,  planning,   scheduling,  etc.   Contra:    merely  incremental  changes  for  practices  in  
 software  engineering  and  product  management  –  within  the   context  of  AI  apps  –  which  has  suffered  from  being    too“linear” 41
  41. 41. Indications: automated,  e.g.,  sensory  perception,  pattern  recognition,   decisions,  gaming,  mimicry,  optimization,  knowledge   representation,  language,  complex  movements,  planning,   scheduling,  etc. Contra: software  engineering  and  product  management  –  within  the   context  of  AI  apps  –  which  has   Looking  ahead  2018:  software  trends 42 Enormous  upside  from  AI,  across  verticals;  however,  to  be  
 in  the  game,  an  organization  must  already  have  Big  Data   infrastructure  and  related  practices  in  place:  (1)  cloud  and   SRE;  (2)  eliminating  data  silos;  (3)  cleaning  data  /  repairing   metadata;  (4)  embracing  contemporary  data  science.   Those  are  prerequisites,  there  are  no  short  cuts  in  AI.  
 Plus,  there’s  an  ongoing  talent  crunch.   –  consensus  among  major  consulting  firms,  
      Strata  2017  Exec  Briefings
  42. 42. Looking  ahead  2018:  people  trends Indications:    organizations  embracing  circularities,  focused   on  optimizing  for  fitness  functions  (populations  of  priorities,   longer-­‐term  ROI)  in  lieu  of  optimizing  for  objective  functions   (singular  goals,  linear  cognition,  short-­‐term  ROI)   Contra:    conflict  defined  by  “confident  personalities  vs.   confidence  intervals”,  see  goo.gl/GPYZ6v 43
  43. 43. Indications: on  optimizing  for   longer-­‐term  ROI)  in  lieu  of  optimizing  for   (singular  goals,  linear  cognition,  short-­‐term  ROI) Contra: confidence  intervals”,  see   Looking  ahead  2018:  people  trends 44 Peter  Norvig:    disruptions  in  software  process  for  uncertain   domains  –  the  workflow  of  the  AI  researcher  has  been  quite   different  from  the  workflow  of  the  software  developer    
 goo.gl/XcDCZ2 François  Chollet:    “casting  the  end  goal  of  intelligence  as   the  optimization  of  an  extrinsic,  scalar  reward  function”    
  44. 44. Summary Ahead  in  AI:  hardware  advances  force  abrupt   changes  in  software  practices  –  which  has   lagged  due  to  lack  of  infrastructure,  data   quality,  outdated  process,  etc.   HITL  (active  learning)  as  management  strategy   for  AI  addresses  broad  needs  across  industry,   especially  for  enterprise  organizations.   Big  Team  begins  to  take  its  place  in  the  formula   Big  Data  +  Big  Compute  +  Big  Models.
  45. 45. Summary The  “game”  is  not  to  replace  people  –  instead  it   is  about  leveraging  AI  to  augment  staff,  so  that   organizations  can  retain  people  with  valuable   domain  expertise,  making  their  contributions   and  experience  even  more  vital.   This  is  a  personal  opinion,  which  does  not   necessarily  reflect  the  views  of  my  employer.   However,  the  views  of  my  employer…
  46. 46. Why  we’ll  never  run  out  of  jobs 47
  47. 47. Strata  Data   SG,  Dec  4-­‐7
 SJ,  Mar  5-­‐8
 UK,  May  21-­‐24
 CN,  Jul  12-­‐15   The  AI  Conf   CN  Apr  10-­‐13
 NY,  Apr  29-­‐May  2
 SF,  Sep  4-­‐7
 UK,  Oct  8-­‐11   JupyterCon   NY,  Aug  21-­‐24   OSCON   PDX,  Jul  16-­‐19,  2018 48
  48. 48. 49 Get  Started  with   NLP  in  Python Just  Enough  Math Building  Data   Science  Teams Hylbert-­‐Speys How  Do  You  Learn? updates,  reviews,  conference  summaries…   liber118.com/pxn/