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Transnational feminism <ul><li>Global feminism movements span across multiple nations and have at their core the belief that women are entitled to the same rights as men, regardless of where the women live, their ethnicity and their social class.
Global feminism recognizes diversity & acknowledges that there are diverse meanings of feminism, each responsive to the needs and issues of women in different regions, societies and times. </li></ul>
Women’s Rights as Human Rights <ul><li>Unequal status of women & abuses against women
are viewed as human rights violations . </li><ul><li>UNHRC declares, freedom from torture & slavery as basic human rights. Therefore, domestic violence is a human rights violation.
Holding Three World Women’s Conferences </li></ul>
UN World Conferences on Women <ul><li>Publicized the low status and power of women </li><ul><li>This led to increased grassroots activism </li></ul><li>Encouraged national commitment to increase the status of women through: </li><ul><li>Development of women’s bureaus and commissions
The Platform For Action </li><ul><li>For each critical area of concern, it specifies strategic objectives and actions to be undertaken by governments </li><ul><li>Identifies critical areas of concern </li><ul><li>The feminization of poverty
Inequalities in education, politics, the economy
Political participation and persecution abuses </li></ul></ul>
Challenges to Women’s Human Rights Agenda <ul><li>Moving From Visibility to Accountability
Bringing Women’s Rights into Mainstream Human Rights
Respecting Cultural Diversity While Promoting Universal Human Rights </li></ul>
1. Moving From Visibility to Accountability <ul><li>A lack of proper implementation machinery
Lack of women’s awareness of that machinery that would empower them
CEDAW committee monitors compliance with the conventions
But has not yet declared any government in violation of women’s human rights
Very little litigation Nationally & internationally concerning the violation of women’s human rights
Ideological resistance to human rights for women in local customs & laws
Talk about rights is not meaningful in some cultures
Viewed as another tool of the West to eradicate indigenous cultures </li></ul>
Bringing Women’s Rights into Mainstream Human Rights <ul><li>The long-term male domination of all-powerful political bodies nationally and internationally means that issues of concern to men are seen as general human concern whereas women’s concerns are relegated to a specialized & marginalized sphere.
The creation of specialized bodies for addressing women’s issues within the UN has contributed to their marginalization. So mainstream organs of the UN such as CHR have paid little attention to women’s human rights violation.
The specialized bodies are under funded. </li></ul>
Respecting Cultural Diversity While Promoting Universal Human Rights <ul><li>Notion of universality are frequently undermined by beliefs that respect for cultural & religious diversity provides exceptions to human rights law.
Claims for universality are rejected as imperialistic & a way to uphold Western economic interests.
Cultural diversity and human rights must be balanced.
Cultural relativism is the notion that rights and wrong are determined culturally.
Radical Cultural relativists suggest that Western condemnations of gender discrimination in other regions are insensitive and ethnocentric & are a version of cultural imperialism
Other Cultural relativists are more selective. </li><ul><li>Ex. The treatment of women is often prescribed by a culture’s religious practices, therefore calls for change are instances of religious intolerance.
When pressured about international HR, repressive government often hide behind insincere claim of Cultural relativism as a way to remove the pressure </li></ul></ul>