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Of Character and VirtuesOf Character and Virtues
Compiled by: Olga V. KrylovaCompiled by: Olga V. Krylova
Составитель: О.В.КрыловаСоставитель: О.В.Крылова
St.Petersburg State University, Department of PhilologySt.Petersburg State University, Department of Philology СПбГУ,СПбГУ,
филологический ф-тфилологический ф-т
"Two things fill the mind with ever-increasing wonder and awe, the more often and"Two things fill the mind with ever-increasing wonder and awe, the more often and
the more intensely the mind of thought is drawn to them: the starry heavens abovethe more intensely the mind of thought is drawn to them: the starry heavens above
me and the moral law within me."me and the moral law within me."
Immanuel Kant in "Critique Of Practical Reason"Immanuel Kant in "Critique Of Practical Reason"
"Virtue is the truest nobility.""Virtue is the truest nobility."
Cervantes in "Don Quixote"Cervantes in "Don Quixote"
Inner Trial (1)
Pair the English words with their
Inner Trial (2)
Pair the English words with their Russian
Зависть Надежда и Вера
Inner Trial (3)
Pair the English words with their Russian
Inner Trial (4)
Pair the English words with their Russian
Лень Стойкость духа
IT IS CLEAR AS DAY
• Victorious nature knows not
• Impudence or insolvency.
• Righteous actions bring forward
• Truthful thinking and obedience.
• Unanimity of beliefs makes us
• Open-minded and sincere.
• Universal truth and bravery take away
• Sorrows and malfunctions.
• None of daily equations are
• Open-ended. Let’s stay
• Together to cope with all the tasks!
• Substantial deeds are
• Indications of pure mind(s).
• Natural sublimity gives root to
• Fearless behaviour.
• Unquestionable reasoning proves us
• Logic of the world...
Recite the poem. What are the consequences of righteous behaviour?
Questions and Tasks
Draw a comparative table of virtues in your notebook.
Question your classmates about their greatest falls and
achievements (in terms of spiritual growth).
Specify the ways of dealing with people from the ‘dark side’.
For example, what would you do if your girlfriend
(boyfriend) is jealous of you? How to react to someone’s
wrath? Sloth? Lustful behaviour? What if a person is too
proud of oneself? Too greedy? Do you always eat and drink
with measure? How to stop over-consumption?
Discuss the possibilities of setting oneself onto the right
• PRIDE (VANITY, narcissism) Lat. Superbia = “A proud look”
• PRIDE is considered the root of all evil. It is an excessive belief in one's own abilities, that interferes with the
individual's recognition of the grace of God.
• Well-meaning teachers told you to "believe in yourself":"You will be like gods." (Genesis 3:5)
• The selfish sin is to be "vainglorious" and think oneself better than all others. Arrogance blocks the Divine as well as
other persons from
• Lucifer & his followers (Satan, Iblis) fell from the heavens to the subterranean realm of the underground for their
pride. the heart, as if breaking on the wheel.
• Pride is linked with the horse or a lion and its color violet.
• Opposite: Humility (Latin, humilitas) (humbleness, modesty) —
modest behavior, selflessness, and the giving of respect. Giving credit where credit is due; not unfairly glorifying one's
• Quote: “The true insights and convictions about ourselves and our abilities and talents affect our manner, our speech,
and our association with others.”
• ANGER (WRATH, hatred, prejudice, discrimination) Lat. Ira = “hands that shed innocent blood”
• You're wired for it. Also, your environment might be quite irritating.The consequence of this
inflaming and indwelling passion is to feel vengeance in one's heart (dismemberment).
• This sin escalates to rage, obliterating all but negativity within body, mind and soul and results in
murder and war. Often seen in icons, Anger is a creature stabbing himself in the heart with a knife.
It is usually embodied by a sharp-toothed animal such as a leopard with bared fangs, or a wild boar
(bear) raging, attacking, ready to commit bloodshed and the color red.
• Gustave Doré's Satan doomed eternally to the frozen marsh, forever immersed
to his breastbone. His giant wings flap uselessly as he attempts to free himself
and produce nothing more than cold winds that freeze the ice even harder.
• Manifested in the individual who spurns love and opts instead for fury.
• Opposite: Forgiveness (Latin, patientia) (peace, composure, patience, tolerance) —
forbearance and endurance through moderation. Resolving conflicts peacefully, as opposed to
resorting to violence.
• The ability to forgive; to show mercy to sinners.
• Quotes: "Do not let the sun set on your anger." (Ephesians 4:26)
• LUST (lechery, fury, extravagance, fornication, perversion) Lat. luxuria =“A heart that deviseth
• An inordinate craving for the pleasures of the body, excessive sexual appetites.This "sin of the
flesh" is said to lead to "uncleanliness".
• One’s punishment is smothering in fire and brimstone.
• Considered the "third" of the deadly sins, the demon Asmodeus, Lilith and her offspring, the incubi
and succubi represent LUST. It is carried up from hell by the goat, an animal long considered
lascivious, or the ass, or the cow, who played the same role in ancient Rome, and its color blue.
• Opposite: Chastity (Latin, castitas) (purity, self control, purity of soul) — courage and boldness.
Embracing of moral wholesomeness and achieving purity of thought through education and
• Quotes: "Therefore glorify God in your body." (I Corinthians 6:20) "God did not call us to impurity.“
(1 Thessalonians 4:7)
• ENVY (Jealousy) Lat. Invidia =“A false witness that speaketh lies, and he that soweth discord among
• Envy is a "sin of the Devil" for "Thou shalt not covet", one of the ten commandments. The desire for
others' traits, status, abilities, or situation.
• Jealousy arises from fear, insecurity, and immaturity. Over concern with the possessions of others
is seen escalating to hinder sympathetic human relationships.
• The forth of the deadly sins is represented by Leviathan - the huge twisting serpent from the
primordial deep that feels like freezing water. Envy is generally represented by a dog, and often
depicted as a heart being eaten away and its color is green. It can become utterly intertwined with
its victim and be no longer distinguishable one from the other.
• Opposite: Kindness (Latin, humanitas) (satisfaction, love, admiration, charity, compassion, friendship,
and sympathy without prejudice and for its own sake.
• Quotes: "Let us not be...envious of one another." (Galatians 5:26)
"Envy is contrary to love, whence the soul derives its spiritual life...Now both the
object of love and the object of envy is the neighbor's good, but by contrary movements, since love
rejoices in the neighbor's good, while envy grieves over it." (Thomas Aquinas)
• GLUTTONY Lat. gula (waste, over-indulgence)= "Their God is their stomach." (Philippians 3:19)
• An inordinate desire to consume more than that which one requires. Because you were weaned
improperly as an infant. The endless maw of the glutton is never satiated, and he or she is never
satisfied. The glutton lives to eat and soon escalates to forgetting gratitude. The pursuit goes on
and leads to a specific damnation: the glutton in hell will dine on toads, rats and snakes and be
forced to drink putrid water.
• The 5th deadly sin is GLUTTONY and is represented by the demon Beelzebub (also known as The
Lord of the Flies). Beelzebub began his career as a Canaanite deity who name in Hebrew (Baal
Zebub) meant Lord of the Flies, and then later came to be equated with Satan. As a sin he rules
over all excessive eating and drinking. Gluttony is linked with the pig and the color orange.
• Opposite: Temperance (Latin, frenum) (abstinence, self-restraint, self-control, sobriety) —constant
mindfulness of others and one's surroundings; practicing self-control, abstention, and moderation.
• Quote: "In Whatever You Do, Be Moderate" (Sirach 31:22)
• GREED (AVARICE, COVETOUSNESS, treachery) Lat. Avaritia = “feet that be swift in running to
• AVARICE is a worldly sin that creates misers, thieves and murderers. We live in possibly the most
pampered, consumerist society since the Roman Empire. Like the "hungry ghosts" of the Buddhist
hell, the greedy always crave more no matter how much they have. It feels like being boiled in oil.
Wretched and envious, Avarice escalates to a state of infinite dissatisfaction and the sin's
obsession with material wealth and "things" leads to neglect of spiritual wealth.
• By Mammon is meant the devil who is the Lord of Money wrote Thomas Aquinas. The desire for
material wealth or gain, ignoring the realm of the spiritual. The wolf is the animal usually depicted in
medieval bestiaries, coming up from hell carrying Mammon to inflame the human heart with
Greed. Greed is represented by a frog and its color is yellowish green.
• Opposite: Charity (Latin, liberalitas) (will, generosity, sufficiency) —
willingness to give. A nobility of thought or actions.
• Quotes: “You cannot serve God and mammon." (Matthew 6:24)
"If you wish to be perfect, go, sell what you have and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in
heaven. Then come, follow me." (Matthew 19:20-21)
• SLOTH (idleness) Lat. acedia= “a lying tongue”
• Sloth is the avoidance of physical or spiritual work. Thomas Aquinas wrote that all sins that are due
to ignorance are due to Sloth. One needs to be awake and alert to even begin to set out on, and
maintain, a spiritual practice. In case we are shiftless, lazy, and good for nothing. Usually it is
represented by scenes of falling asleep on the job, especially if the job is being performed by a
• Belphegor is depicted as SLOTH incarnate. This sin is considered one of the flesh. In a state of
Sloth, negligence and apathy soon set in. It feels like being thrown into snake pits. The donkey
(goatfish), a slow-moving, lazy creature is Sloth's representative animal, and it’s color is light blue.
• Opposite: Diligence (Latin, industria) (ethics, zeal, vigilance,liberality, fortitude, initiative) — a
zealous and careful nature in one's actions and work. Decisive work ethic. Budgeting one's time;
monitoring one's own activities to guard against laziness.
• Quotes: "Like a moth in clothing...sorrow gnaws at the human heart." (Proverbs 25:20)
"Your grief will become joy." (John 16:20)
Work on the given classifications of virtues. Which one
is the most becoming?
• CARDIAL(Classical Greek)
prudence (to discipline oneself with reason, in speech, dress and behavior), temperance(moderation in all things, including
thoughts, or action), courage, justice(treating fairly, conformity to truth, to uphold what is right)
love(unselfish loyal and benevolent concern for the good of others), hope (to cherish a desire with expectation of
fulfillment), faith (complete trust, confidence and reliance)
• CONTRARY (from the Psychomachia ("Battle for the Soul"), an epic poem written by Prudentius (c. 410).
humility (modesty) vs. Pride, kindness (charity, giving) vs. Envy, abstinence (valour, courage, knowledge) vs. Gluttony,
chastity vs. lustpatience (temperance, peace) vs. Anger, liberality (charity, will) vs. Greed, diligence (ethics) vs. Sloth
• HEAVENLY (cardial +theological) the Psychomachia ('Contest of the Soul'), an epic poem written by
Aurelius Clemens Prudentius (c. 410)
faith, hope, charity, fortitude(strength in mind to bear misfortune, to have courage), justice, temperance prudence
• Corporal Works of Mercy
feed the hungry, give drink to the thirsty, give shelter (harbour) to strangers, clothe the naked, visit the sick, the
fatherless and the widows, minister to prisoners, and bury the dead
• The 4 great virtues of Buddhism:
Maitri -- friendliness, good-will, benevolence, love, loving-kindness to all
Karuna -- compassion, pity, sorrow for the sufferings of all
Mudita -- joy in the good of all
Upeksha -- forgiveness, overlooking the faults of all
Questions and Tasks (2)
• Read the quotes and answer the questions.
• What is stronger than beauty?
"The perfume of flowers goes not against the wind, not even the perfume of sandalwood of
rose-bay or of jasmine; but the perfume of virtue travels against the wind and reaches unto
the ends of the world.“ Dhammapada Verse 54
What forms and shapes our character?
"Character is not a mere public appearance that leaves a more fundamental self hidden; it is
the very reality of who we are as self-determining agents. Our character is not determined
by our particular society, environment, or psychological traits; these become part of our
character, to be sure, but only as they are received and interpreted in the descriptions
which we embody in our intentional action. Our character is our deliberate disposition to use
a certain range of reasons for our actions rather than others (such a range is usually what is
meant by moral vision), for it is by having reasons and forming our actions accordingly that
our character is at once revealed and molded." Stanley Hauerwas, Vision and Virtue: Essays in
Christian Ethical Reflection (1974)
Read the further 13 quotes to specify the main effects of virtues and vices.
This is wise... Be modest! It is the kind of TRADE least
likely to offend. J. Renard
This is glorious... Justice does not come from the
outside. It comes from inner peace. - Barbara Haff
This is dangerous... When ANGER rises think of the
consequences. - Confucius
This is essential... Do not trust all men but trust men of
worth; the former course is silly, the latter - a mark of
PRUDENCE. - Democritus
This is useful... Manifest plainness, embrace simplicity,
reduce selfishness, have few DESIRES. – Eao-tzit
This can rescue... Appetite, with an opinion of attaining,
is called HOPE; the same, without such opinion, despair.
– Thomas Hobbes
This can punish... Our ENVY of others devours us most
of all. – Alexander Solshenitsyn
This can make wonders... FAITH is, at one and the same
time, absolutely necessary and altogether impossible. –
This can be harmful... GLUTTONY is not a secret vice.
– Orson Welles
This is clever... TEMPERANCE and repose slam the door
on the doctor’s nose. – Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
This can destroy... One of the weaknesses of our age is
our apparent inability to distinguish our need from our
GREED. – Author Unknown
This is merciful... CHARITY sees the need, not the
cause. – German Proverb
This is teaching... SLOTH makes all things difficult, but
industry all things easy. – Benjamin Franklin
This is surprising... The way is harshness greeted with
kindness, fear greeted with FORTITUDE. – S. J.
Study Benjamin Franklin's List of Virtues.
Rate the virtues in order of importance.
1. Temperance: Eat not to dullness; drink not to elevation.
2. Silence: Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself; avoid trifling
3. Order: Let all your things have their places; let each part of your business have its
4. Resolution: Resolve to perform what you ought; perform without fail what you
5. Frugality: Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself; i.e., waste nothing.
6. Industry: Lose no time; be always employed in something useful; cut off all
7. Sincerity: Use no hurtful deceit; think innocently and justly, and, if you speak, speak
8. Justice: Wrong none by doing injuries, or omitting the benefits that are your duty.
9. Moderation: Avoid extremes; forbear resenting injuries so much as you think they
10. Cleanliness: Tolerate no uncleanliness in body, clothes, or habitation.
11. Tranquillity: Be not disturbed at trifles, or at accidents common or unavoidable.
12. Chastity: Rarely use venery but for health or offspring, never to dullness, weakness,
or the injury of your own or another's peace or reputation.
13. Humility: Imitate Jesus and Socrates.
Eric Gunnerson's "Seven Deadly Sins of Programming"
Are you sinful? Repent...
• Sin #7 - Excessive Coupling
• Sin #6 - Inappropriately Clever Code
• Sin #5 - Deferred Refactoring
• Sin #4 - Premature Optimization
• Sin #3 - Overuse of Virtual
• Sin #2 - Overuse of Inheritance
• Sin #1 - What, you think I would give it
away now? (highlight to see hidden text)
Study 7 Virtues for Software Developers.
Are you virtuous enough? Praise yourself!
• Diligence - Diligent developers take ownership of their work without being possessive. Diligent programmers fix
• Humility - Humble developers take pride in their code, but don’t snub constructive criticism. Humble developers know
they can always improve themselves.
• Patience - Patient developers remain calm during times of stress, and don't surrender to the temptations of a quick fix.
Patient developers have the endurance to carry a product across the finish line.
• Liberality - Broad-minded developers base their decisions on proofs and particulars instead of preconceptions and
prejudices. Broad-minded developers listen to the other side and attempt understanding.
• Creativeness - Creative developers find a way around the brick wall in front of them, and do so without creating a mess.
Creative developers find the elegant solution to a difficult problem.
• Adaptability - Adaptable developers have the ability and willingness to learn new skills and accept new responsibilities.
Adaptable developers continue to grow.
• Resilience - Resilient developers bounce back from boneheaded bugs and bursting dotcom bubbles to code again another
day. Resilient developers appreciate failure as the upward slope of the learning curve.
Restate 7 M. Gandhi’s ideas. If you agree, give a reason.
• Summa Theologiae by St. Thomas Aquinas
• Inferno by Dante Alighieri
• Purgatorio by Dante Alighieri
• The Concept of Sin by Josef Pieper
• The Traveller's Guide to Hell by Michael Pauls & Dana Facaros
• Sacred Origins of Profound Things by Charles Panati
• Faerie Queene by Sir Edmund Spenser
• Picture Book of Devils, Demons and Witchcraft by Ernst
Lehner, Johanna Lehner
• Defeat the 7 Deadly Sins by Alan Fensin 2007
• Oxford Univ. Press series on Seven Deadly Sins (in 7 Vols.) 2006
• Pope Gregory the Great (6th Century AD), Dante
Alighieri,The Divine Comedy ( ), Binsfeld's Classification of
• http://www.cafepress.com/gabrielangel/1659164 pictures
• ЯСНЕЕ ЯСНОГО -
• Победе по природе чужды
• Бесстыдство и просчёты.
• Кто мыслит ясно и послушен -
• Тот в действиях корректен и умен.
• Открытость, искренность сейчас
• Единодушие вселяет в нас.
• Печали, сбои - храбрость устранит,
• И истина над миром воспарит.
• Все ежедневные волнения
• Имеют ясные решения.
• Давайте, люди, вместе собираться,
• Чтоб нам с задачами справляться!
• Ведь показатель светлого глубокого ума -
• Весомые и ценные дела.
• Бесстрашие в поведение -
• Торжество природного влечения.
• А здравость рассуждений - суть
• Логики всемирного мышления...
• Роман Петухов, СПбГУ, 1 курс