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Opening History Education

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Opening History Education

  1. 1. Opening History Education: An Introduction to Open Educational Resources Michelle Reed, @LibrariansReed Open Education Librarian | UTA Libraries | 2.21.17 https://www.slideshare.net/oelib/opening-history-education
  2. 2. Openness is the only means of doing education. If there is no sharing, there is no education. Successful educators share most thoroughly with the most students. - David Wiley “Be a champion of a cause and don't give up.” - TJ Bliss “Research provides the foundation of modern society. Research leads to breakthroughs, and communicating the results of research is what allows us to turn breakthroughs into better lives—to provide new treatments for disease, to implement solutions for challenges like global warming, and to build entire industries around what were once just ideas. However, our current system for communicating research is crippled by a centuries old model that hasn’t been updated to take advantage of 21st century technology.” - Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) “Isn’t it amazing that what serves social justice also serves effective pedagogy and is empirically supported?” - Rajiv Jhangiani
  3. 3. How much does it cost your students to purchase the textbook(s) required in your course?
  4. 4. The average student budgets $1,249 - $1,364 on textbooks and course materials in 2015-16. Source: College Board
  5. 5. 2012 2016 63.6% 66.5% Not purchase the required textbook 49.2% 47.6% Take fewer courses 45.1% 45.5% Not register for a specific course 33.9% 37.6% Earn a poor grade 26.7% 26.1% Drop a course 17.0% 19.8% Fail a course In your academic career, has the cost of required textbooks caused you to:
  6. 6. Beware the DRM
  7. 7. Estimates, Spring 2017 Course Sections Students (per section) Course Materials (per student) Total Cost HIST 1311 13 146 $100 $189,800 HIST 1312 15 146 $100 $219,000 Total student expenses per semester for 2 required history courses: $408,800
  8. 8. OER Defined “Open Educational Resources are teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and repurposing by others. OER include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge.” - William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
  9. 9. What do you know about ©opyright?
  10. 10. The U.S. Constitution “The Congress shall have the power…to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors exclusive Right to their respective writings and discoveries.” Article 1, Section 8
  11. 11. Copyright (Section 106) Copyright protects “original works of authorship” that are fixed in a tangible form of expression: • literary works • musical works • dramatic works • pantomimes & choreographic works • pictorial, graphic, & sculptural works • motion pictures & other audiovisual works • sound recordings • architectural works
  12. 12. Copyright is a bundle of rights Rights are held by the OWNER of the work (not necessarily the creator/author). Owners may: • Reproduce - Make copies of their works publicly or privately. • Adapt - Prepare additional works derived from their copyrighted work, (aka, derivative works). • Distribute - Disseminate copies of their works, to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, lending. • Perform - Perform their work publicly (at location open to the public or to persons other than close family and social acquaintances). • Display - Display their work publicly (applies to all works except sound recordings and architectural works).
  13. 13. Length/Term of Copyright • Life of author plus 70 years • Joint work – 70 years after last surviving author’s death • Works made for hire – 95 years from year of first publication or 120 years from year of creation, whichever expires first • Works published before 1923 are in the public domain • Copyright slider to determine whether the work is in the public domain - http://librarycopyright.net/resources/digitalslider/
  14. 14. Also Consider Fair Use & the Public Domain • Purpose and character of the use: including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; • Nature of the copyrighted work: Fiction vs. Non-Fiction. Creative vs. Factual. • Amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and • Effect on the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.
  15. 15. Open Educational Resources: 5 Rs 1. Retain 2. Reuse 3. Revise 4. Remix 5. Redistribute
  16. 16. www.americanyawp.com
  17. 17. http://library.uta.edu/ usmexicowar/index.php
  18. 18. Filter for CC-licensed material
  19. 19. Much more information here: http://libguides.uta.edu/oer/educators
  20. 20. More open access publishing A change in how we allocate spending Increased engagement Improved retention Improved completion rates Improved pedagogy Ownership of course content New partnerships and collaborative opportunities Beyond Affordability
  21. 21. Open Textbooks, Open Pedagogy “I’ve spent some time talking about open pedagogy at several universities this Spring, and in each of those presentations and workshops, I have usually mentioned The Open Anthology of Earlier American Literature, an OER anthology that my students and I produced last year for an American literature survey course I taught. When I talk about the anthology, it’s usually to make a point about open pedagogy. I began the project with the simple desire to save my students about $85 US, which is how much they were (ostensibly) paying for the Heath Anthology of American Literature Volume A. Most of the actual texts in the Heath were a public domain texts, freely available and not under any copyright restrictions. As the Heath produced new editions (of literature from roughly 1400- 1800!), forcing students to buy new textbooks or be irritatingly out of sync with page numbers, and as students turned to rental markets that necessitated them giving their books back at the end of the semester, I began to look in earnest for an alternative.” - Robin DeRosa
  22. 22. OER in Texas Require disclosure of OER as textbook & searchable list of OER only courses Establish OER grant program to encourage development of OER only courses Conduct feasibility study of statewide OER repository
  23. 23. Questions?
  24. 24. Thank You http://www.slideshare.net/oelib Michelle Reed michelle.reed@uta.edu

Notas do Editor

  • This presentation is licensed under an Attribution 4.0 International license (CC-BY): https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ It was presented to students enrolled in UTA’s HIST 5347.
  • About me: I am an open advocate.
  • Question: How much does it cost your students to purchase the textbook(s) required in your courses?
  • Source: http://trends.collegeboard.org/college-pricing/figures-tables/average-estimated-undergraduate-budgets-2015-16
  • Source: http://www.openaccesstextbooks.org/pdf/2012_Florida_Student_Textbook_Survey.pdf
    Slide from David Ernst’s “Open Textbooks” presentation at University of Texas at Arlington: https://www.slideshare.net/djernst/university-of-texas-at-arlington-72016692
  • Syllabi for History 1311:

    Of the People (3rd ed), new = ~$60 (Used $45, Rent range: $25 – 50)
    Autobiography & Other Writings, new = $11 (Used $8, Rent range: $5 – 10)
    Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (Blight), new = $22 (Used $16.50, Rent ~$10)

    ~$100 v $0
  • Syllabi for History 1312

    American Promise, new = $71.50 (Used $54, Rent range: $30– 50, digital $36.71)
    American Crucible, used = $30 (rent $16)

    ~$100 v $0
  • American Promise (digital edition) = $36.71
  • Note: These numbers are a rough estimate used in a hypothetical scenario.
  • Source: http://www.hewlett.org/strategy/open-educational-resources/#overview

  • What do you know about copyright? Today we’ll discuss four facts about copyright.
  • Fact 1: Copyright is a legal right granted by the US Constitution. It was intended as a limited-term monopoly to incentivize creation and innovation.

  • Fact 2: Copyright is automatic when a work is fixed in a tangible form.

    These categories should be viewed broadly. For example, computer programs and most “compilations” may be registered as “literary works”; maps and architectural plans may be registered as “pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works.”

    Some things may not be protected by copyright: ideas, symbols, ingredients and processes (recipes), ideas, phrases, names, titles, and slogans. However, other types of IP may apply (e.g., trademark, patent, or trade secret). Also, government documents are in the public domain.

    Copyright happens automatically and without any further action on your part when you fix an idea in a tangible form. Example: lyrics on a bar napkin. Making the copyright ownership and status of work easily visible is a good idea but not legally required. Registration is a procedural necessity in order to litagate a copyright claim but this can be done at any point and costs money. It would indicate to the court that you were aware of your ownership rights and intended to protect them. But again, not necessary to establish copyright; the act of expression brought the copyright into existence.
  • Fact 3: Copyright is a bundle of rights that can be debundled.

    Rights may be transferred in whole or licensed collectively or individually. Exclusive rights must be transferred in writing.
  • Fact 4: Copyright lasts a really long time-- continues beyond creator’s death.

    Original Copyright Term:
    1790 – 14 yrs. + 14 renewal (28)

    1831 – 28 yrs. + 14 renewal (42)
    1909 – 28 yrs. + 28 renewal (56)
    1976 – life of author + 50 yrs. (fair use formalized, registration not required)
    1998 – life of author + 70 yrs.

    Source: http://www.arl.org/focus-areas/copyright-ip/2486-copyright-timeline

    The Disney influence: Steamboat Willie (1928)
    - set to expire in 1984
    - 1976 changes set new expiration at 75 years (2003)
    - 1998 changes set new expiration at 95 years (2023)
  • Two additional considerations are very important: public domain and fair use. Fair use is a balance of four factors. The only way to *know* if your use is fair is to take it to court.
    See Fair Use Checklist: https://copyright.columbia.edu/content/dam/copyright/Precedent%20Docs/fairusechecklist.pdf
    More on public domain: http://copyright.cornell.edu/resources/publicdomain.cfm
    University of Kansas offers a great copyright decision tree: https://openaccess.ku.edu/copyright-decision-tree
  • OER are free for anyone to access and include permission to engage in the 5R activities. Frequently communicated via CC license, which provides alternatives to “all rights reserved” copyright. More at http://creativecommons.org/about

  • Let’s practice. Slide from David Ernst’s “Open Textbooks” presentation at University of Texas at Arlington: https://www.slideshare.net/djernst/university-of-texas-at-arlington-72016692
  • Open Textbook Library: https://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/
  • Open Textbook Library: https://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/BookDetail.aspx?bookId=206
    OpenStax: https://openstax.org/details/us-history
  • www.americanyawp.com
  • Free, not open: http://library.uta.edu/usmexicowar/index.php
  • Use the advanced search option. Some sites with “open” content are not licensed with Creative Commons but include licensing language that allows for less restricted uses. For example, http://www.freeimages.com/

  • Much more information on finding open and affordable course content: http://libguides.uta.edu/oer/educators
  • Source: Sarah Faye Cohen. “Barriers to Open Textbook Adoption.” April 29, 2016. http://www.slideshare.net/thesheck
  • Read more about the project at http://umwdtlt.com/open-textbook-pedagogy-practice/
    Current anthology: https://openamlit.pressbooks.com/
    In the spirit of open = sharing, work on revision of the anthology has been picked up by the Rebus Community. Info here: https://forum.rebus.community/topic/66/lit-the-open-anthology-of-earlier-american-literature-lead-tim-robbins-graceland-university
  • SB No. 810 introduced by Lois Kolkhorst
  • Questions?
  • Portions of these slides have been reproduced or modified from “Ethical Conduct of Research: Stewardship of Digital Information” by Ada Emmett and “Copyright & Scholarly Communication: The Digital (and Ethical) Difference” by Jennifer Church-Duran and Ada Emmett.