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"You Have Not Taught Until They Have Learned" - Learning From The Greats

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This Keynote Presentation was delivered at the 2017 NBSCA Conference in conjunction with the NBA Combine. This presentation focuses on three personas of a coach as it relates to skill development.

_Coach as a teacher
_Coach as a facilitator
_Coach as a motivator

Publicada em: Educação

"You Have Not Taught Until They Have Learned" - Learning From The Greats

  2. 2. Concentrate on what will produce results rather than on the results, the process rather than the prize … The score takes care of itself ““ The score takes care of itself ””
  3. 3. As much as we pump iron and we run to build our strength up, we need to build our mental strength up so we can focus so we can be in concert with one another ““ ””
  4. 4. “The mechanism by which our brain registers information is what we call attention” - Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi “You dispose of a limited budget of attention that you can allocate to activities, and if you try to go beyond your budget, you will fail” ~ Daniel Kahneman
  5. 5. Focus - Attention - Coaching Adapted from Magill, R. (2011) Motor Learning and Control – Concepts and Applications 9th edition
  6. 6. Making our Message memorable Personal Novel Less = More
  7. 7. The thing I loved the most - and still love the most about teaching - is that you can connect with an individual or a group, and see that individual or group exceed their limits ““ ””
  8. 8. 01 | Coach As A Teacher
  9. 9. Attentional Focus The conscious effort of an individual to focus their attention through explicit thoughts and feelings in an effort to execute a task with superior performance
  10. 10. External Focus Explode Off The Ground Internal Focus Explode Through Your Hips External Focus Focus on the RIM Internal Focus Extend your arms as high as you can Wulf, 2013
  11. 11. Internal cues constrain the motor system by asking the person to focus on a Simple part at the expense of the complex whole. . Wulf, 2013 External cues Direct attention towards relevant movement features, allowing the body to self-organize a preferred movement solution.
  12. 12. Focusing externally … Al-Abood et al. (2002) Improves Free Throw Shot Accuracy Zachry et al. (2005) Improves Shot Coordination via ↓ EMG Kalkhoran and Shariati (2014) Improves Transfer Between Dominate & Non-Dominate Dribbling Hand Maurer and Munzert (2013) Focusing on Familiar Cues Supports Performance to a Greater Degree than Focusing on Unfamiliar Cues
  13. 13. The biggest thing is just routine. I think that's the biggest correlation between golfers & basketball players ““ ””
  14. 14. If we don’t focus on something, then we can become distracted by anything Focus Routines & Physical Routines
  15. 15. DLPFC PMC SMC M1 Novice Expert 01: Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) 02: Premotor Cortex (PMC) 03: Supplementary Motor Cortex (SMC) 04: Primary Motor Cortex (M1) Song, 2009 | Beilock, 2010
  16. 16. The Learning Brain of a Novice looks very similar to the Choking Brain of an Expert – the key – minimizing conscious focus on “movement steps” during skill execution Song, 2009 | Beilock, 2010 Consider how shifting your players focus outward as opposed to inward could support learning & mental Robustness under pressure
  17. 17. ““There is a lot of pressure put on me, but I don't put a lot of pressure on myself. I feel if I play my game, it will take care of itself ””
  18. 18. External Focus cues have been shown to protect against choking & encourage an expert-like physiological state
  19. 19. Basketball is a game of mistakes “““ ”””
  20. 20. 02 | Coach As A Facilitator
  21. 21. In the end, it's about the teaching, and what I always loved about coaching was the practices. Not the games, not the tournaments, not the alumni stuff. But teaching the players during practice was what coaching was all about to me. ““ ””
  22. 22. Facilitating | Session Design
  23. 23. Skill1Skill2Skill3 S 1 S 1 S 1 S 1 S 2 S 2 S 2 S 2 S 3 S 3 S 3 S 3 BLOCKED Serial Random
  24. 24. A progressive increase in contextual interference from blocked to random has been shown to be superior to blocked or random only The Performance your players are prepared to deliver lives in the Context of the practice they experience Porter et al., 2010
  25. 25. No one plays this or any game perfectly. It's the guy who recovers from his mistakes who wins ““ ””
  26. 26. Skill retrieval drives learning. To strengthen retrieval we must first forget. Skill spacing & variability creates desirable difficulty.
  27. 27. Obstacles don't have to stop you. If you run into a wall, don't turn around and give up. Figure out how to climb it, go through it, or work around it ““ ””
  28. 28. ”” Facilitating | Drill Design
  29. 29. How DO You Correct This without words? Equipment Mini-band Around the Knees Body Correct any underlying physical Deficits Strength – Stability - mobility
  30. 30. Dribbling control in tight spaces? Space Use cones to constrain the space Time Use opponent to constrain the time
  31. 31. 31 PLAYER (BODY) CONSTRAINTS Position Power Pattern Athletes ability to attain proper stability and mobility relative to the movements being performed Athletes ability to express the appropriate strength qualities relative to the movements being performed Athletes ability to coordinate the limbs of the body relative to task and environment constraints
  32. 32. 32 TASK (SKILL) CONSTRAINTS Spatial Temporal Rules/ Equipment Manipulate the amount of space the movement can be performed in (e.g. small sided games) Manipulate the amount of time the movement can be performed in (e.g. number of players or racing) Change the rules to constrain choices and/or introduce equipment to constrain the movement options
  33. 33. I want to practice to the point where it’s almost uncomfortable how fast you shoot, so that in the game things kind of slow down ““ ””
  34. 34. Constraints, just like cues, encourage one pattern of movement over another without the explicit influence of the coach Constraints push the fringe of coordination, especially when the change is more complex than can be described in words
  35. 35. Leaders are made, they are not born. They are made by hard effort, which is the price all of us must pay to achieve any goal that is worthwhile ““ ””
  36. 36. 03 | Coach As A Motivator
  37. 37. Cultivating a Growth Mindset … Kanfer (1990) Improves self-efficacy and confidence Jourden, Bandura & Banfield (1991) Increased persistence and effort Lirgg et al., (1996) & Ommundsen (2003) Perform better in physical activities Wood & Bandura (1989) Improved management decisions Chase (2010) & Dweck (2006) | “Mindset”
  38. 38. Nothing is more effective than sincere, accurate praise, and nothing is more lame than a cookie-cutter compliment ““ ””
  39. 39. Provide feedback on the ‘Process’ not the ‘Person’ “I can see that your hard work is paying off, you’re technique has improved massively.” VS. “Great Job” “You’re a Natural” “You’re Very Talented” Mueller & Dweck (1998) and Kamins & Dweck (1999)
  40. 40. Choice & Autonomy As Motivational Fuel … (Mageau & Vallerand, 2003) More effort & persistence (Mageau & Vallerand, 2003) Improved physical performance (Mageau & Vallerand, 2003) Improved concentration & focus Wulf & Lewthwaite (2016) Improved motor skill learning The OPTIMAL Theory of Motor Learning & Self-Determination Theory
  41. 41. 04 | Take Home Message
  42. 42. 01 Say the most with the least 01 Use Language that is memorable and Interesting 01 Use external cues to optimize coordination & learning 02 The right level of session variability encourages deeper learning 02 Drills can be designed to constrain errors so a new pattern can emerge 03 Provide feedback and reinforcement on the process not the person 03 Involve the player in decision making around practice and feedback
  43. 43. It's what you learn after you know it all that counts. It's what you learn after you know it all that counts. ““ ”” @NickWinkelman