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The language of coaching / Nick Winkelman, PhD
The coaching communication loop…
-00:02:00
DESCRIBE
-00:00:30
CUE
-00:00:00
DO
+00:00:30
DEBRIEF
-00:00:60
DEMONSTRATE
Ext...
ATTENTION
LANGUAGECUEING
To understand the impact of coaching cues on skill
learning, we must first understand the role of attention
WE CAN ONLY LEARN FROM THE EXPERIENCES WE PAY ATTENTION TO,
THUS A COACH’S CHIEF RESPONSIBILITY IS TO FIRST…
CAPTURE KEEP ...
ATTENTION IS A LIMITED CAPACITY RESOURCE
COACHES, LIKE BANKERS, GUIDE ATHLETES’ ATTENTIONAL INVESTMENTS
WE CAN ONLY ‘PAY A...
Say the most with the least, provide
athletes with ONE CUE, one major
focus point at a time
Now that we know how much to say, the next
question we need to address is what to say.
Narrow | Internal
Broad | Internal
Close | External
Far | External
The continuum of coaching cues…
ANALOGY
Narrow | Internal
Broad | Internal
Close | External
Far | External
The continuum of coaching cues…
ANALOGY
No evidence to ...
Yeah…Yeah…Where’s the proof?
WHAT IS THE STANDARD COMMUNICATION PRACTICE?
67%INT
22%EXT
11%
85%INT
15%EXT
NEUROMUSCULAR
Halperin et al., 2016
STRENGTH – FORCE PRODUCTION
CON: “go as hard & fast as you can”
INT: “contract your legs as hard & f...
Porter et al., 2010
POWER – EXPLOSIVE FORCE PRODUCTION
INT: “Extend your knees as rapidly as possible”
EXT: “Jump as far p...
MOVEMENT SKILL
SOCCER…
INJURY & TECHNIQUE
L
R
WHAT DO INJURED ATHLETES FOCUS ON?
L
WHAT DO INJURED ATHLETES FOCUS ON?
L
R
INT: ‘‘Jump as far as you can. I want you to think about extending your knees as rapidly as possible’’
EXT: ‘‘Jump as far ...
PRESSURE & CHOKING
Experiment 1 | Streak
Gray, R. (2004 & 2006)
Hitting Streak ↑ Errors
Hitting Slump ↓ Errors
Experiment 2 | Pressure
Gray, R. (2004 & 2006)
No Pressure 39% Error
Pressure 18% Error
THE FUTURE OF INTERNAL
EMG & ACTIVATION…
The last idea we put in our athlete’s
head before they move should be
an EXTERNAL CUE
APPLICATION
Cue Anatomy
Distance
Proximal
(Close)
Distal
(Far)
Direction
Toward/
Away
Up/
Down
Description
Action Word
(Verb)
Analogy
...
The anatomy of a cue…
Focus on being quick
off the ground
Descriptor “HOW”
Direction “AWAY”
Distance “CLOSE”
Focus on driv...
DISTANCE
"Push the ground back with
as much force as possible"
"Explode through the finish with
as much speed as possible"
DIRECTION
"Drive the (GREEN) tape away from
the start line as fast as you can"
"Drive the (GREEN) tape toward
the finish a...
DESCRIPTION
"Explode out like a cheetah is
two steps behind you"
"Explode out and up like a jet taking
off from an aircraf...
SUMMARY
The coaching communication loop…
-00:02:00
DESCRIBE
-00:00:30
CUE
-00:00:00
DO
+00:00:30
DEBRIEF
-00:00:60
DEMONSTRATE
Ext...
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The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 1 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 2 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 3 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 4 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 5 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 6 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 7 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 8 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 9 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 10 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 11 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 12 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 13 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 14 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 15 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 16 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 17 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 18 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 19 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 20 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 21 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 22 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 23 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 24 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 25 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 26 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 27 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 28 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 29 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 30 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 31 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 32 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 33 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 34 The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning Slide 35
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You can pre-order "The Language of Coaching: The Art & Science of Teaching Movement" on Amazon.com now (book ships in April)

This presentation was delivered in 2019 at the Perform Better Summits. This talk focused on the impact coaching language (instructions, cues, and feedback) has on the way people learn to move. Profiling many of the topics covered in my forthcoming book, "The Language of Coaching," this presentation will help anyone who teaches movement elevate HOW they coach to the same level as WHAT they coach.

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The Language of Coaching - A Story About Learning

  1. 1. The language of coaching / Nick Winkelman, PhD
  2. 2. The coaching communication loop… -00:02:00 DESCRIBE -00:00:30 CUE -00:00:00 DO +00:00:30 DEBRIEF -00:00:60 DEMONSTRATE Extended description of the activity Physical demonstration of the activity Brief phrase used to bring focus to the activity Player focuses and performs activity Player & coach feedback is considered
  3. 3. ATTENTION LANGUAGECUEING
  4. 4. To understand the impact of coaching cues on skill learning, we must first understand the role of attention
  5. 5. WE CAN ONLY LEARN FROM THE EXPERIENCES WE PAY ATTENTION TO, THUS A COACH’S CHIEF RESPONSIBILITY IS TO FIRST… CAPTURE KEEP DIRECT
  6. 6. ATTENTION IS A LIMITED CAPACITY RESOURCE COACHES, LIKE BANKERS, GUIDE ATHLETES’ ATTENTIONAL INVESTMENTS WE CAN ONLY ‘PAY ATTENTION’ TO #1 THING AT A TIME
  7. 7. Say the most with the least, provide athletes with ONE CUE, one major focus point at a time
  8. 8. Now that we know how much to say, the next question we need to address is what to say.
  9. 9. Narrow | Internal Broad | Internal Close | External Far | External The continuum of coaching cues… ANALOGY
  10. 10. Narrow | Internal Broad | Internal Close | External Far | External The continuum of coaching cues… ANALOGY No evidence to support its effectiveness Possible benefit compared to narrow Internal Conclusive evidence confirming effectiveness Conclusive evidence confirming effectiveness Conclusive evidence confirming effectiveness
  11. 11. Yeah…Yeah…Where’s the proof?
  12. 12. WHAT IS THE STANDARD COMMUNICATION PRACTICE? 67%INT 22%EXT 11% 85%INT 15%EXT
  13. 13. NEUROMUSCULAR
  14. 14. Halperin et al., 2016 STRENGTH – FORCE PRODUCTION CON: “go as hard & fast as you can” INT: “contract your legs as hard & fast as you can” EXT: “push the ground as hard & fast as you can” Force: EXT (9i% | 3c%) > CON (5i%) > INT “Research consistently shows that external cues improve muscular force, endurance, speed, and efficiency”
  15. 15. Porter et al., 2010 POWER – EXPLOSIVE FORCE PRODUCTION INT: “Extend your knees as rapidly as possible” EXT: “Jump as far past the start line as possible” DISTANCE: EXT (187.37 +/- 42.66 cm) INT (177.33 +/- 40.97 cm) “Research consistently shows that external cues improve vertical and horizontal jump performance”
  16. 16. MOVEMENT SKILL
  17. 17. SOCCER…
  18. 18. INJURY & TECHNIQUE
  19. 19. L R WHAT DO INJURED ATHLETES FOCUS ON?
  20. 20. L WHAT DO INJURED ATHLETES FOCUS ON? L R
  21. 21. INT: ‘‘Jump as far as you can. I want you to think about extending your knees as rapidly as possible’’ EXT: ‘‘Jump as far as you can. I want you to think about pushing yourself off as hard as possible from the floor.’’ WHAT ABOUT TECHNIQUE?
  22. 22. PRESSURE & CHOKING
  23. 23. Experiment 1 | Streak Gray, R. (2004 & 2006) Hitting Streak ↑ Errors Hitting Slump ↓ Errors
  24. 24. Experiment 2 | Pressure Gray, R. (2004 & 2006) No Pressure 39% Error Pressure 18% Error
  25. 25. THE FUTURE OF INTERNAL
  26. 26. EMG & ACTIVATION…
  27. 27. The last idea we put in our athlete’s head before they move should be an EXTERNAL CUE
  28. 28. APPLICATION
  29. 29. Cue Anatomy Distance Proximal (Close) Distal (Far) Direction Toward/ Away Up/ Down Description Action Word (Verb) Analogy (Metaphor) Winkelman, 2016 (Dissertation)
  30. 30. The anatomy of a cue… Focus on being quick off the ground Descriptor “HOW” Direction “AWAY” Distance “CLOSE” Focus on driving hard toward the finish Descriptor “HOW” Direction “TOWARD” Distance “FAR”
  31. 31. DISTANCE "Push the ground back with as much force as possible" "Explode through the finish with as much speed as possible"
  32. 32. DIRECTION "Drive the (GREEN) tape away from the start line as fast as you can" "Drive the (GREEN) tape toward the finish as fast as you can"
  33. 33. DESCRIPTION "Explode out like a cheetah is two steps behind you" "Explode out and up like a jet taking off from an aircraft carrier"
  34. 34. SUMMARY
  35. 35. The coaching communication loop… -00:02:00 DESCRIBE -00:00:30 CUE -00:00:00 DO +00:00:30 DEBRIEF -00:00:60 DEMONSTRATE Ext + Int language (WHAT) External Cues + Analogies (HOW) Question Comment Collaborate
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You can pre-order "The Language of Coaching: The Art & Science of Teaching Movement" on Amazon.com now (book ships in April) This presentation was delivered in 2019 at the Perform Better Summits. This talk focused on the impact coaching language (instructions, cues, and feedback) has on the way people learn to move. Profiling many of the topics covered in my forthcoming book, "The Language of Coaching," this presentation will help anyone who teaches movement elevate HOW they coach to the same level as WHAT they coach.

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