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WRITING COMMAND-LINE TOOLS WITH IRONPYTHON AND VISUAL STUDIONoah Gift Including PowerShell, and F#
Talk Objectives¤ Freak you out a bit.¤ Teach you something you didn’t know. (Not covered in any book).¤ Be controversial.¤ Entertain you.
Monty Hall Problem¤ You are invited to a game show.¤ Game show host shows you three doors.¤ Behind two doors there is a goat, and behind one door is a $50,000 dollar sports car.
Monty Hall Problem¤ You choose a door.¤ Instead of opening your door. The game show host then opens up another door, to reveal a goat.¤ Do you switch your choice?
Monty Hall Problem¤ You always switch doors: 2/3 probability versus ½ probability.¤ Bayes Rule shows us this: (Think Spam classification).
Monty Hall Takeaway¤ This isn’t intuitive to most people¤ The human brain’s intuition is often broken.¤ What else is your brain wrong about?
Windows Is The Great Satan? ¤ Command-line is feeble ¤ People on twitter say it sucks ¤ Nothing COOL ever happens on Windows ¤ This isn’t “their” conference. ¤ What if your brain’s intuition is wrong about this too?
I Used To Hate Windows ¨ I Grew Up ¨ New Philosophy: Write Code in any language, in any environment. ¨ If it is innovative, I don’t care who made it. ¨ Sorry Stallman, we disagree.
What do most developers and adminsthink of when they hear Linux?¨ Power ¨ The Shell¨ Flexibility ¨ Command-tools¨ Bash ¨ Man Pages¨ SSH ¨ Awk/Sed
What Is The Unifying Theme Around This?¨ String Output is King ¨ Tim O’Reilly in Unix¨ Small Tools Power Tools, “A new¨ Flexibility user by stringing together simple¨ Geek Power. pipelines….”
The Hardest Part of Writing a *NixCommand-line tool in Python¨ Remote Administration: ¨ Religious war in your Pyro vs SSH vs ??? company over using¨ Dealing with *Nix tools optparse, getargs, that pass you back or argparse unstructured text.
How To Write A Classic IronPython CLI¨ I needed to upgrade 100’s of thousands of lines of C# to .NET 4.0.¨ I wrote a quick and dirty Command-line tool in IronPython.
Project Upgrader: Validate Version Step 1 def validate_vsver(slnfile): """Validates whether a .sln file has already been upgraded to VS 2010""" try: project_file = open(slnfile) for project_version_line in project_file.readlines(): if "Visual Studio 2010" in project_version_line: log.debug("Found VS 2010 project line: %s" % project_version_line) log.debug("Project file already upgraded....skipping: %s" % slnfile) return False return True finally: project_file.close()
Project Upgrader: Walk A TreeStep 2 def walk_tree(path, extension="sln", version_control_type=".svn", exclude_path=None): """Walks a tree, if there is a match to an extension, it returns a fullpath. Skips version_control_type directories, which by default is set to .svn """ for dirpath,dirname,filename in os.walk(path): #The walk should skip version control directories for dir in dirname:
Project Upgrader: Convert Project Step 3 def convert_project(filename): """Converts a project to VS2010 using deven via .NET Process Class""" p = Process() p.StartInfo.UseShellExecute = False p.StartInfo.RedirectStandardOutput = True p.StartInfo.RedirectStandardError = True p.StartInfo.FileName = """C:Program Files (x86)Microsoft Visual Studio 10.0Common7IDEdevenv.exe""" print "Stdout: %s| Stderr: %s" % (stdout, stderr) p.WaitForExit() return p.ExitCode
Project Upgrader: Convert Tree Step 4 def convert_tree(path, exclude_path): """Recursively modifies a tree of sln files, if they havent been upgraded to VS 2010""" for file in walk_tree(path, exclude_path=exclude_path): if not validate_vsver(file): #we should pass upgrading if validate_vsver returns False continue exit_code = convert_project(file) log.info("%s, %s" % (exit_code, file))
Python is like Kudzu ¤ Itsstrength is that it can embed itself into any project, any operating system. ¤ Not always the best tool, but often good enough.
Who Is The Target Audience ForCommand-line Tools? ¤ Systems Administrators ¤ Power Users ¤ Developers ¤ Systems Integrators/OEM ¤ Young Geeky Stallman
What Does It Really Mean To Write ACommand-line tool on Linux ¤ You have an executable that runs in the context of, most likely, Bash. ¤ You output a string, which you can then pipeline into our Unix tools, sed, awk, grep. ¤ If your nice you create –help
What Does It Really Mean To Write ACommand-line tool on Modern Windows ¤ Itis going to run inside of PowerShell. PowerShell is your bash. ¤ You have a unified interface to .NET and every possible high level automation API you can think of. ¤ PowerShell tools expect OBJECTS not strings.
PowerShell is Secure By Default ¤ Default File Association is Notepad or ISE. ¤ Remoting is disabled. ¤ No execution of scripts. ¤ Script Signing
Learning To Properly Write IronPythonCommand-Line Tools: “A two minute affair” ¤ Actually no, not even close. ¤ Forget “most” of what you know from linux. ¤ PowerShell changes everything.
PowerShell Object Passing Changes HowShells Work ¤ Fundamental change to understand ¤ You need to understand this to write command-line tools on Windows ¤ Game changer
We’re not in a flyover state anymore ¤ String output is lame! ¤ PowerShell wants objects ¤ What to do…what to do…
Fight the ecosystem and you will die ¤ Command-line tools should run in PowerShell not cmd.exe. ¤ The bash/linux CPython way, won’t cut it here. ¤ You must think the way .NET thinks. ¤ Everything takes and returns an Object.
PowerShell Endgame: We didEVERYTHING for you. ¤ Encrypted, paranoid secure, transactional, asynchronous remoting of serialized objects ¤ High level automation API to everything. ¤ Ignore at your own peril.
Writing a PowerShell Module In IronPython: The“real” way to write Command-line tools?¨ Create a New Visual Studio Project¨ Thinks Objects¨ Use PowerShell SDK¨ Write a Binary Module
Installing the PowerShell SDK¤ Download the SDK¤ Add a reference to the DLL in your Visual Studio Project¤ C:ProgramFiles (x86)Reference AssembliesMicrosoftWindowsPowerShell v1.0System.Management.Automation
Finding and Loading PowerShell Modules¨ Get-Module –all¨ When you create a .dll in IronPython, could then simply integrate it into the PowerShell workflow.
What is a Binary Module?¤ A .NET assembly compiled against PowerShell libraries.¨ For IronPython folks, this is one way to integrate into PowerShell¨ In a lot of documentation it will refer to C# code.¨ You can also write a PowerShell, non-compiled, module.
Creating a Binary Module For Powershell in IronPython¤ http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2094694/launch- powershell-under-net-4¤ You need to tweak some registry settings to support .NET 4.0 in PowerShell.
Creating a Binary Module For Powershell in IronPython: Continued¤ Should follow C# example code for best implementation advice.¤ Note, Argparse, Optparse, etc, aren’t used. They don’t make sense.¤ These are objects being passed into other cmdlets, and methods are being called on those objects.
IronPython PowerShell Module HelloWorldVisual Studio import clr Project: clr.AddReference(System.Management.Automation) print Hello World Step 1
IronPython PowerShell Module Hello WorldVisual Studio ¨ Build the project to create a .dllProject: ¨ In PowerShell Import ModuleStep 2 ¨ Import-Module MyModule.dll ¨ You can know interact with it from inside of .Net. Is this a commandline tool???
Setting Up A PowerShell Profile For IronPython¨ Just like in Bash or ZSH, aliases are your friend.¨ Edit your $profile with the ISE, and add interactive IronPython to it.
Creating Standalone IronPython executables¨ Make sure you can pass objects in and out of them.¨ Use the IronPython on codeplex: Pyc-Python Command-line compiler
F#: The Elephant in the Room ¤ Type inference ¤ Immutable data structures ¤ Run as script or compiled ¤ Tail recursion ¤ Fully integrated with Visual Studio ¤ Sexier then Python?
F# and Python: A Sexy Beast ¤ Mixing .dll files written in F# into IronPython modules, loaded into Powershell. ¤ Calling IronPython/CPython from inside of F# ¤ “A statically typed Python…” (Note, this will come up..just preparing you…)
Credit Some Excellent Books ThatReference PowerShell ¤ PowerShell in Action, Manning (The Bible) ¤ PowerShell Cookbook, O’Reilly ¤ IronPython in Action, Manning
Conclusion ¤ PowerShell isn’t a competing language, it IS THE ECOSYSTEM. ¤ Windows Systems Admins are using PowerShell for everything ¤ Get your head wrapped around object based pipelines. ¤ Why doesn’t Linux have this?