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Art history SHORT (KU)

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Art history SHORT (KU)

  1. 1. History of Art
  2. 2. Visual Literacy
  3. 3. ‘What you see is what you see., -- Frank Stella, 1990
  4. 4. “Seeing comes before words. The child looks and recognizes before it can speak.”
  5. 5. What is ‘Art’?
  6. 6. Artis a primarily visual medium that is used to express ideas about our human experience and the world around us.
  7. 7. A human phenomenon
  8. 8. Art is strictly a human phenomenon.
  9. 9. But they do not consider the aesthetics of their tools, or attempt to carve beautiful handles for them.
  10. 10. They do it out of natural instinct.
  11. 11. 1. to better understand their life experience 2. to communicate ideas about the world to others
  12. 12. Towards a definition of art
  13. 13. Art has a visual form.
  14. 14. Materials from which the artwork is made Formal elements, such as line, shape, color, texture, mass, volume, space, and so on. Overall composition, size, internal balance, and so on.
  15. 15. Art functions.
  16. 16. 1. Art assists us in rituals that promote our spiritual or
 physical well-being. 2. Art communicates thoughts, ideas, and emotions. 3. Art gives us pictures of deities, or helps us conceive
 what divinity might be. 4. Art serves and/or commemorates the dead. 5. Art makes evident the power of the state and its rulers. 6. Art celebrates war and conquest, and sometimes also peace. 7. Art is a means for protesting political and social injustice. 8. Art promotes cohesion within a social group. 9. Art records the likenesses of individuals and the context in which the individuals exist. 10. Art educates us about ourselves and the world around us. 11. Art entertains.
  17. 17. O lowe of Ise. Veranda Post: Female Caryatid and Equestrian Figure, 1930. Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, Rome, c. 175 CE. Bronze, approx. 11’6” H Musei Capitlini, Rome.
  18. 18. Even though they are from different traditions from different parts of the world, they are both performing the same function that is to visually reinforcing the rulers’ power, be it a local king or an emperor.
  19. 19. Art has content.
  20. 20. 1. art's imagery 2. art’s surroundings where it is used or displayed 3. symbolic meaning 4. customs, beliefs, and values of the culture that uses it 5. text incorporated in the work, or writings about the work
  21. 21. Sandro Botticelli, The Birth of Venus, C. 1482. Tempera on Canvas, approx. 5’8” x 9’1”, Uffizi, Florence.
  22. 22. Art is an aesthetic experience.
  23. 23. Art has has effects on individuals and cultures.
  24. 24. Formal Elements Art’s Early Manifestation
  25. 25. Paleolithic Period 30000 - 10000 B.C.
  26. 26. paleolithic primitive humanity emerged and manufactured unpolished stone tools
  27. 27. SOCIETY: bands of edible-plant gatherers and hunters (25–100 people) ECONOMY: hunting and gathering DWELLING: nomadic Lifestyle— caves or huts, mostly by rivers or lakes TECHNOLOGY: handmade tools and objects found in nature RELIGION: religious and spiritual behavior such as burial and ritual
  28. 28. The first artists were the Cro-Magnon people who were the ancestors of modern Europeans.
  29. 29. “Venus” of Willendorf Limestone, 30,000-25,000 B.C., 11.1 cm (Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria)
  30. 30. gridded design = elaborate hairstyle face lacks description arms strategically crossed on enormous bosom navel is a natural cavity of stone bulging stomach and prominent genitalia might hint at fertility lower legs only sketchily indicated
  31. 31. • bulbous roundness of the form that recalls an egg-shaped “sacred pebble” • an image of fertility, as some kind of magic charm, perhaps to be held in hands
  32. 32. Neolithic Period c. 8000- 3000 B.C.
  33. 33. During this time, humans learned to raise crops and keep domestic livestock, and were thus no longer dependent on hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plants.
  34. 34. Neolithic cultures made more useful stone tools by grinding and polishing relatively hard rocks, rather than merely chipping softer ones down to the desired shape.
  35. 35. The cultivation of cereal grains enabled Neolithic peoples to build permanent dwellings and congregate in villages,
  36. 36. The release from nomadism and a hunting-gathering economy gave them the time to pursue specialized crafts.
  37. 37. Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, England, Bluestone, C. 2500–1800 B.C., Diameter 29.6 m
  38. 38. What we see today is the result of series of distinct building campaigns, beginning in the New Stone Age and continuing into the Early Bronze Age.
  39. 39. First, a nearly continuous circle (henge) was dug into the chalk ground.
  40. 40. A silted ditch was added as was the avenue down to the Avon River.
  41. 41. The sandstone circle of evenly space trilithons, consisting of uprights (post) and horizontals (lintel), was created in the early Bronze Age.
  42. 42. Finally, this arrangement was echoed in two similarly marked circles and smaller horseshoe that enclose and altar-like stone at the center.
  43. 43. •It appears that Stonehenge was originally aligned with the major and minor northern moonrises. •Only later did the structure became oriented toward the sun when the heel stone and fallen slaughter stone along with other stones were rearranged with the axis.
  44. 44. Stonehenge probably served a worshipping ritual that must have been related to a large cosmology.
  45. 45. From Greek myths to Pax Romana
  46. 46. Greek Civilization 6th -1st Centuries B.C.
  47. 47. Accomplished sailors Maritime trade-based economy
  48. 48. ECONOMY based on agriculture, pottery and metal objects
  49. 49. RELIGION polytheism/ anthropomorphic gods / human-like personalities & conflicts / participate in human events
  50. 50. “Man is the measure of all things.” -- Protagoras, the Greek philosopher, 5th C. BC
  51. 51. Measurements related to human scale and organic forms
  52. 52. Artists signed their works, changing status
  53. 53. ART • Emphasis on the individual • Naturalistic and idealistic treatment of human and nature
  54. 54. HUMANISM the dignity and beauty of the individual human being
  55. 55. HUMANISM physical and psychological interplay among human beings are the subject, the goal, and the final determinant
  56. 56. Kallikrates & Iktinos, Parthenon, Athens, Greece, 447–432 B.C.
  57. 57. CELLA wide and short, so as to accommodate the large cult statue of Athena Parthenos (Athena the Virgin)
  58. 58. Statue of Athena Parthenos (Athena the Virgin)
  59. 59. Hellenistic Period 3rd – 1st Centuries B. C.
  60. 60. --, Laocoön, late 2nd century B. C., marble, 7' 11”, Vatican Museums, Rome
  61. 61. HUMAN PSYCHOLOGY The incredible agony and suffering is contained in the face of Laocoön with a head titled
  62. 62. HUMAN PSYCHOLOGY His hand reaching towards the sky, beckoning a reason for his suffering.
  63. 63. HUMAN PSYCHOLOGY The distended muscles show the intensity of his struggle against sea serpent biting his side.
  64. 64. The emotions and the excitement of the Laocoon’s struggle frozen in one single pose.
  65. 65. Roman Period 1st C. B.C. – 3rd C. A.D.
  66. 66. Map of Roman Empire from A.D. 14 – A.D. 284
  67. 67. “Caput Mundi” Encompass, govern, assimilate cultures by laws, religions, and language POLITICAL SUPREMACY SOCIAL CHARACTERS GLOBAL POLITICS GREEK 50 yrs Culturally unified Superiority over the world but never long-term political unity ROMAN 500 yrs Melting pot of different cultures & ideas
  68. 68. inconsistent RELIGION (S) ART STYLISTIC DEVELOPMENT GREEK Greek Idealization based on myths consistent ROMAN Roman based on Greek Christianity added commemorative& narrative based on history
  69. 69. ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 1st C. B.C. – 3rd C. A.D.
  70. 70. NEW TYPOLOGIES to accommodate increased population.
  71. 71. NEW TYPOLOGIES Empire supplied the citizens with everything they needed, from water to entertainment on a grand scale.
  72. 72. NEW TYPOLOGIES An unprecedented grand scale requires new forms be invented, cheaper materials, quicker construction methods had to be used.
  73. 73. ARCHES VAULTS New Construction System
  74. 74. NEW CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL Roman arch and vaulting systems are strong and self-sustaining
  75. 75. CONCRETE STRONG /CHEAP/FLEXIBLE New Construction Material
  76. 76. CONCRETE A mixture of mortar and gravel with rubble, was invented in the Middle East more than a thousand years earlier. But the Roman made it their chief building technique.
  77. 77. --, Colosseum, Rome, inaugurated in 80 A.D., 187.5 x 155.5m
  78. 78. The concrete cone, with its miles of stairs and barred and groin vaulted corridors, was concluded to ensure the smooth flow of traffic to and from the arena.
  79. 79. The exterior dignified and monumental reflects the interior circulation of the structure.
  80. 80. Exterior: balance between vertical (Columns) and horizontal (Entablature)
  81. 81. The framework of engaged columns and entablatures expresses balance between verticality and horizontality. Engaged columns Entablature } Engaged columns Engaged columns
  82. 82. CORINTHIAN IONIC DORIC LIGHTENING OF PROPORTIONS Structurally irrelevant Aesthetic function Human scale
  83. 83. The Secret and the Profane The Medieval, Romanesque and Gothic Art and Architecture
  84. 84. A new religion
  85. 85. Jesus Christ crucified in AD 33
  86. 86. 330 AD Constantine founded a new eastern capital, Constantinople, at Byzantium where Christianity was firmly established.
  87. 87. 380 AD Constantine became the first Christian emperor.
  88. 88. 5th century Christian hegemony had rapidly changed the Roman Empire's identity.
  89. 89. Spread of Christianity in Europe to AD 600 Spread of Christianity in Europe to AD 325
  90. 90. before 313 AD Christians worshiped in private homes to avoid prosecution.
  91. 91. after 313 AD They became free to construct places of worship.
  92. 92. The Age of Great Cathedrals Gothic Art and Architecture
  93. 93. HUMAN SPIRIT seemed to blossom with hope as Gothic cathedrals pushed upward to the heavens
  94. 94. ARCHITECTURAL & SPIRITUAL TRANSFORMATION Getting away from the dark, massiveness of Romanesque architecture, the new Gothic style opened and lifted up interior spaces
  95. 95. NEW ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES became more available in growing urban centers
  96. 96. CATHEDRAL SCHOOLS & UNIVERSITIES took the place of monasteries as center of learning
  97. 97. RIBBED VAULTGROIN VAULT NEW CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE A rib going across the top of each vault, giving the structure a lighter feel.
  98. 98. BUTTRESSES: STANDARD VS FLYING BUTTRESSES A. FLYING BUTTRESSES stand detached from the exterior walls, and are connected by only an arch. B. STANDARD BUTTRESSES hug the structure by butting directly up the exterior walls.
  99. 99. FLYING BUTTRESSES give cathedrals an "airy" and weightless feeling.
  100. 100. High Gothic Period Early 13th Century [French High Gothic]
  101. 101. --, Notre-Dame, Paris, 1163+
  102. 102. EMPHASIS ON LONG AXIS compact and unified DOUBLE AMBULATORY of the choir continues directly into the façade.
  103. 103. WEST FACADE the simple harmonic rhythm created by the four buttresses
  104. 104. TRIPARTITE PLAN Facade divided into thirds horizontally and vertically, representing the trinity
  105. 105. ROSE WINDOW In the middle of the facade, which keeps the eye focused on the Madonna in the center.
  106. 106. KING’S GALLERY a line of statues of the 28 Kings of Judah and Israel
  107. 107. PORTALS adorned with jam figures and detailed tympanums
  108. 108. Royal Portal “Last Judgment” Right Portal “Portal of St. Ann” Left Portal “Portal of the Virgin”
  109. 109. FLYING BUTTRESSES Flying buttresses and arches give the structure a weightless feeling
  110. 110. FLYING BUTTRESSES The weightlessness is also felt in the interior, where a tall, slender nave lifts our eyes upward.
  111. 111. CLERESTORY WINDOWS Huge clerestory windows allow light to flood the floor of the nave, adding to the weightless atmosphere.
  112. 112. Gargoyle allowed rainwater to fall free of the cathedral, thus preventing damage to the masonry.
  113. 113. Gargoyle Warning to those who might underestimate the power of evil.
  114. 114. THE DAWN OF INDIVIDUALITY Qualities of the Renaissance and Mannerist Art
  115. 115. Florence: Birthplace of the Renaissance
  116. 116. The intellectual and culture- rich Florentines fought off more powerful Milan Athens defeated the more Persian army
  117. 117. A sense of civic pride blossomed, eventually it proclaimed itself the new “Athens” and the heir of ancient “Roman republicanism.”
  118. 118. The victory of the mind over the sword elevated the "liberal arts" (which included the visual arts) to a position of prestige and respect.
  119. 119. Artists and architects became the new heroes/celebrities of Florence.
  120. 120. * artist is seen as a part of the educated social elite * the gifted, temperamental genius who discovers truth in paint or stone.
  121. 121. The Age of Humanism
  122. 122. “Man is the measure of all things.”
  123. 123. * looked back to the Classical Greece and Rome for inspiration * revived the ideals embodied in the ancient Greek maxim
  124. 124. Greek: art as an imitation of the ideal Florentines: art becomes as expression of human emotion and ability
  125. 125. “ How great and wonderful is the dignity of the human body; secondly how lofty and sublime the human soul, and finally how great and illustrious is the excellence of man himself made up of these two parts. –Gianozzo Manetti
  126. 126. 1400 - 1600 a change of consciousness toward, a celebration of the ability of mankind to think, create and reason.
  127. 127. The Renaissance was an era of collective "high self- esteem" as people realized that they could not only reproduce the art and the ideals of Classical culture, but actually surpass them.
  128. 128. High Renaissance Period 1500 ‑ 1520 [Culture: Central Italy]
  129. 129. Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1452‑1519
  130. 130. Leonardo’s first and official position was that of a military engineer for the Duke of Milan.
  131. 131. da Vinci has both the interest and expertise in engineering, medicine, music, art and philosophy.
  132. 132. Proposed the idea of the centrally planned Church
  133. 133. Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, c.1495-1498, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
  134. 134. 184
  135. 135. The Last Supper is the first masterpiece of the High Renaissance because of the relationship between the figures and the visual space of the painting.
  136. 136. Figures look like a mere line-up or a frieze.
  137. 137. The perspective pulls you in
  138. 138. 1. The Position of Jesus * Jesus is placed right at the center of the picture * framed by the window, a separate portrait within the painting * separated from the apostles by grouping them in threes
  139. 139. 2. "One of you shall betray me." Chaos and Order * showing confusion while maintaining order in the composition. * Each disciple has a dynamic pose, an attitude of imbalance, but each is a part of a group of three in tight composition.
  140. 140. 3. The Triangle of Christ A triangle gives a subliminal effect of stability. Here, Jesus forms a triangle, while the disciples form high-tension shapes.
  141. 141. 4. What, No Halo? Leonardo made the halo look realistic; there's nothing unreal in this picture. He placed the sun behind Christ's head.
  142. 142. Michelangelo Buonarotti, David, 1502, marble, 4.34 m. (Accademia, Florence)
  143. 143. 195
  144. 144. Commissioned as a symbol of the Florentine Republic by civic leaders in 1501, at 14 feet tall, it was one of the first monumental sculptures of the Renaissance.
  145. 145. A moment before the battle.
  146. 146. The sling goes over David’s left shoulder
  147. 147. The stone lies in the hollows of his right hand but he is about to launch it.
  148. 148. He stands alert in body and spirit, every muscle vibrant with Michelangelo’s anatomical knowledge
  149. 149. ability to communicate the life of the spirit through the beauty of the body.
  150. 150. APPREHENSION Creased forehead and strained neck muscles portray apprehension as he sighted his opponent.
  151. 151. proportions & psychology correspond more to the Hellenistic than to classical style.
  152. 152. David’s hands are oversized and his veins and muscles seem to be bulge from beneath his skin.
  153. 153. more relaxedtense and watchful
  154. 154. David was meant to illicit a sense of determined fortitude and civic-patriotism, and therefore put in Florence's main square, in front of the seat of Florentine government.
  155. 155. NEW HUMANISM takes root during the Renaissance. * an individual who accomplished the unthinkable, overcoming a Giant. * a metaphor of the increased awareness of the accomplishments and the possibilities that surround mankind.
  156. 156. THE MAKING OF THE MODERN WORLD European art in the late-19th and early-20th Centuries
  157. 157. Impressionism Period Zenith in the 1870's [Culture: French]
  158. 158. idealized “grande genre” Historicism classical, religious, mythological, allegorical subjects sober colors glossy, finished surface IMPRESSIONISM Société anonyme des artistes peintres, sculpteurs et graveurs ACADEMIC PAINTING Académie des Beaux-Arts loose imagery modern life common, contemporary subjects bright, unblended colors unfinished, sketch-like appearance
  159. 159. Painted indoor Painted outdoor ACADEMIC PAINTING Académie des Beaux-Arts IMPRESSIONISM Société anonyme des artistes peintres, sculpteurs et graveurs
  160. 160. SUBJECT MATTERS landscape or scenes depicting the modern contemporary daily life
  161. 161. SUBJECT MATTERS Depicting the bourgeoisie's leisurely activities + artists as urban flâneur
  162. 162. WORKING METHODOLOGY working outdoors, depicting the effects of sunlight, shadows, and direct and reflected light on natural objects, surfaces, and atmospheric spaces.
  163. 163. PAINTING TECHNIQUE * Loose imagery constructed with visible brushstrokes * paint applied directly and spontaneously on canvas, rather than finely delineated pictures
  164. 164. COLOR USAGE *Pure, vibrant color palettes *Contrasting colors rather than mixing hues
  165. 165. PHOTOGRAPHIC INFLUENCE unusual visual angles+ “Snapshot” “for the first time pictures created by light and light alone could be made permanent”
  166. 166. Japanese Woodblock Prints Edo Period 1600-1868 [Japanese]
  167. 167. The Paris Universal Exposition 1867
  168. 168. Japanese Pavilion, The Paris Universal Exposition, 1867
  169. 169. Katsushika Hokusai, Great Wave of Kanagawa, from the series Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji, 1831. Woodblock print; 25x37.1cm. (Victoria and Albert Museum, London)
  170. 170. A series of similar views of Mt. Fuji at different times of day and in different seasons
  171. 171. * Prussian blue in this print enhances the wave’s naturalism * Dramatic rise and nearness of the wave to the picture plane create impressive effect.
  172. 172. a convincing portrayal of the rhythmic power of a swelling wave, even though the wave is flat, patternistic quality seems to arrest its movement.
  173. 173. NATURALISM In the distance, Mt. Fuji is small and insignificant by comparison.The foaming water rises to embrace the mountain.
  174. 174. NATURE VS HUMAN The fishermen are tossed about by the sea that wells up in a giant claw but somehow they seem respectful of nature’s power.
  175. 175. Claude Monet (1840‑1926, Impression, Sunrise, 1873, Musée Mannottan, Paris.
  176. 176. A mere sketch or "impression," not a finished painting.
  177. 177. Technique: 1. short, broken brushstrokes that barely convey forms giving an effect of spontaneity and effortlessness that masks their carefully constructed compositions. 2. an emphasis on the effects of light, rather than neutral white, grays, and blacks, shadows and highlights rendered in color. 3. pure unblended colors
  178. 178. Photographic Influence painting intended to correspond to the image the eye sees in an instantaneous glimpse, a new language with which to depict modern life.
  179. 179. Post-impressionism 1880's ‑ c.1900 [Culture: French]
  180. 180. Contention: dissatisfied with the limitations of impressionism
  181. 181. Continuation: 1. using vivid colors 2. thick application of paint 3. distinctive brush strokes 4. real-life subject matter.
  182. 182. Innovations 1. Emphasis on geometric forms 2. Distorting forms for expressive effect 3. Using unnatural or arbitrary colors
  183. 183. Vincent Van Gogh (1853‑1890, Dutch - Holland until 1886; France: Arles, S. Remy, Auvers)
  184. 184. Vincent Van Gogh, Starry Night, 1889, Museum of Modern Art (MOMA), N.Y. [Dutch]
  185. 185. - Impressionism did not provide the artist with enough freedom to express his emotions - Painting as a vessel for personal emotions
  186. 186. - Art alone made his life worth living.
  187. 187. Dynamism: landscape filled with ecstatic movement: earth and sky pulsate with an overpowering turbulence; the trees spring flamelike from the ground; hills and clouds heave with the wavelike motion.
  188. 188. Brushstroke: Dynamism in every brushstroke makes of each one not merely a deposit of color but an incisive graphic gesture.
  189. 189. Color: determined the expressive content: Yellow = faith/triumph/love; Carmine = spiritual color; Cobalt = divine; Red & Green = terrible human passions
  190. 190. Religion  Sukhothai    
  191. 191. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Religion  Sukhothai     Sukhothai:  The  capital  of  the  first  Thai  Kingdom  and  center  of  communi;es  along  the  Ping  and  lower  Yom  river  basins  during   the  late  13th  to  15th  C.
  192. 192. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Religion  Sukhothai     Sukhothai:  The  emergence  of  Sukhothai  and  its  satellite  towns  represented  a  shi>  from  a  small  community  to  a  cluster  of   towns  with  dis;nc;ve  poli;cal  and  cultural  organiza;on.  
  193. 193. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Religion  Sukhothai     Hinayana  Buddhism  In  the  fourteenth  century,  Sri  Lanka  sent  monks  to  Sukhothai    to  spread  Lankavamsa  sect  of  Hinayana   Buddhism.  During  the  15th  and  16th  Centuries,  Hinayana  Buddhism  flourished  in  Burma,  Thailand,  and  Laos.  
  194. 194. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Hinayana  Buddhism  The  role  of  religion  was  no  longer  confined  to  a  spiritual  sense.  Religion  defined  a  town’s  stance  and   legi;macy  of  the  ruler. Religion  Sukhothai    
  195. 195. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Hinayana  Buddhism  Rulers  who  asserted  their  role  as  religious  patrons  could  more  easily  win   flavor  from  the  subjects  as  ideal  leaders.  The  rulers  are  natural  protectors  and  promoters  of   Buddhism.   Religion  Sukhothai    
  196. 196. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Lankavamsa  Buddhism  The  prac;ce  of  Lankavamsa  Buddhism  gave  rise  to  religious  structures   and  works  of  art.     Religion  Sukhothai    
  197. 197. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Stabilizing  Buddhism:  Wat  Chang  Lom Religion  Sukhothai    
  198. 198. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Wat  Chang  Lom:  The  construc;on  of  the  chedi  with  elephant  sculptures  surrounding  its  base  followed  Lankavamsa  Buddhist  tradi;on  in  that   the  elephants  are  considered  auspicious  animals,  symbols  of  stability,  and  thus  supporters  of  Buddhism. Religion  Sukhothai    
  199. 199. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Wat  Chang  Lom:  Wat  Chang  Lom  exemplifies  the  style  of  wat  architecture  that  is  characteris;cs  of  Sukhothai  style.   Religion  Sukhothai    
  200. 200. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Lotus-­‐bud  Chedi:  The  defini;ve  style  of  Sukhothai  architecture.  The  origin  of  this  type  of  chedi  remains  unknown  as  the  it  did   not  appear  in  any  pre-­‐  or  post-­‐Sukhothai  period.   Religion  Sukhothai    
  201. 201. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Lotus-­‐bud  Chedi:  The  chedi  rests  on  a  high  square  base  with  indented  corners.  The  top  part  of  the  chedi  is  shaped  like  a  lotus   bud,  from  which  the  name  is  derived.       Religion  Sukhothai     Top   Middle   Base  
  202. 202. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Religion  Sukhothai     Lotus-­‐bud  Chedi:  Wat  Mahatat.      
  203. 203. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Religion  Sukhothai     Buddha  images  The  excep;onal  beauty  of  Sukhothai  Buddhist  is  the  product  of  the  years  the  ar;sts  spent  honing  their  skills   and  crea;vity  to  uphold  Buddhism,  coupled  with  relentless  patronage  from  the  monarch.
  204. 204. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Religion  Sukhothai     Buddha  images  Sukhothai  Buddhas  have  an  oval  face,  arched  eyebrows,  hook-­‐shaped  nose,  long  ears,  and  thin  lips  with  hint   of  a  faint  smile.  The  face  is  kind  and  the  eyes  looking  down  on  the  worshippers  below;  the  overall  features  imply  calmness   and  self-­‐contentedness.  
  205. 205. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Religion  Sukhothai     Buddha  images  Sukhothai  Buddha  images  are  mostly  in  the  medita;on  and  “subduing  mara”  posi;on.  However,  the  unique   and  most  famous  form  of  Buddha  images  is  the  walking  Buddha.  
  206. 206. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Religion  Sukhothai     Walking  Buddhas  represent  a  walking  pose  of  the  Buddha  as  he  descended  from  a  visit  with  his  mother  in  heaven.
  207. 207. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Religion  Sukhothai     Walking  Buddhas  of  Sukhothai  period  were  the  first  free-­‐standing  Buddha  images  in  Thailand.
  208. 208. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Religion  Sukhothai    
  209. 209. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Religion  Sukhothai    
  210. 210. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Absolute  monarchy  AyuGhaya     Fusing  secular  power  with  religious  a8ainment  is  evident  in  the  Phra  Wichitmarnmolee  si  Sanpetch  Borommatrailokanat,   the  adorned  Buddha  image  in  the  ordina;on  hall  of  Wat  Na  Phra  Men.  According  to  AyuGhaya’s  belief,  the  image  portrays  a   posture  of  the  Buddha  when  manifes(ng  himself  as  an  emperor.
  211. 211. Raja  Secular  Leader
  212. 212. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Absolute  monarchy  AyuGhaya     Secular  Leader:  The  lo>y  status  of  the  Kings  of  AyuGhaya  was  reflected  in  regalia,  utensils  and  costumes,  which  were  made   of  precious  materials  with  intricate  embellishment  by  skilled  workmen.  
  213. 213. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Absolute  monarchy  AyuGhaya     Secular  Leader:  The  grandeur  of  the  royal  barge  procession,  featuring  several  hundred  boats  of  exquisite  decora;on,   cap;vated  foreign  visitors  who  had  a  chance  to  witness  it.  Many  of  them  actually  recorded  the  fascina;ng  scene  in  pain;ngs
  214. 214. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Absolute  monarchy  AyuGhaya     Secular  Leader:  The  mural  on  the  wall  of  Wat  Pradu  Songdharma’s  vihara  shows  a  royal  procession.
  215. 215. Faculty  of  Architecture  and    Planning   Thammasat  University   Absolute  monarchy  AyuGhaya     Secular  Leader:  Pa  lai  yang  paGerns  feature  designs  that  Thai  people  made  and  then  sent  to  India  for  produc;on   The  chintz  would  then  be  sent  back  for  sale  in  Siam.  The  pa-­‐lai-­‐yang  paGerned  tex;le  was  expensive  and  considered  a  luxury   fit  only  for  royals  or  nobles.