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Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil.
Brasilia, the planned city of Brazil.
It lies between headwaters of TOCANTINS, PARANA and
SAO FRANCISCO rivers.
It has a population of 2,562,963),making it the fourth
largest city in Brazil.
Brasília is the largest city in the world that did not
exist at the beginning of the 20th century.
The city was planned & developed in 1956 with
LUCIO COSTA-- principal urban planner and OSCAR
NIEMEYER --principal architect.
In 1960 it formally became Brazil’s capital.
City’s shape resembles an airplane or a bird.
It is listed as world heritage site by UNESCO
It is the third capital of Brazil
Rio de Janeiro(1763-1960)
PURPOSE OF BRASILIA
For New Devlopment.
To Relieve The Pressure Of Over Population From The Old Capital Rio De Janeiro.
To Create A Renewed Sense Of National Pride. A Completely Modern 21st Century
The Average Temperature Is 20.5 °C
Highest Average Maximum Temperature, 28
°C (82 °F).
Dry and Humid Season.
From 1763 to 1960, Rio de Janeiro was the capital of Brazil.
At this time, resources tended to be centered in Brazil's south east region
near Rio de Janeiro. But geographically Brasilia is in central location.
Dating back to 1891 stated that the capital should be moved from Rio de
Janeiro to a place close to the centre of the country.
Plan was originally conceived in 1827 by José Bonifácio, an advisor to
Emperor Pedro I. He presented a plan to the General Assembly of Brazil for a
new city called Brasília with the idea of moving the capital westward from the
heavily populated south eastern corridor.
Juscelino Kubitschek , President of Brazil from 1956 to 1961, ordered the
construction of Brasília.
Lúcio Costa won a contest and was the main urban planner in 1957, with
5550 people competing. Oscar Niemeyer, a close friend, was the chief architect
of most public buildings and Roberto Brule Marx was the landscape designer.
Brasília was built in 41 months, from 1956 to April 21, 1960, when it was
Diverse Culture: Portuguese , Africans, Italian, German, Other European,
Architecture : Cubist ideas , abstract forms, baroque, colonial, modern,
combination of skills rather than one.
Portuguese legacy: language , religion and law.
1stPlace-LucioCosta 2ndPlace-BoruchMilman, JoãoHenriqueRocha
and NeyFontes Gonçalves
3rdplace-RinoLevi, RobertoCerqueiraCesar and L.
-M.M. M. Roberto Architects
Intended to provide Brasilia with the
diginity of a capital city.
BRASILIA has two axis crossing at right
angle; monumental axis(the fuselage of the
plane) intersecting in the centre of the city
with a residential axis( the wings of an
To adapt this design to the local
topography, the natural drainage of the area,
One of the axis war curved in order to make
it fit into equilateral triangle.
When seen from above, the city’s pilot plan (“Plano Piloto”) resembles the
shape of an airplane Others see it as a bird with open wings.
(Costa hated all comparisons). His original urban concept pointed to the shape of a cross,
to symbolize possession
Banking and commercial districts fell alongside the intersection of monumental and high
location of the entertainment centre is along the intersection of the monument and the
23 NOTES, presents the solution of Plano Pilato
Two axes crossing (one is curved)--a plane OR bird in flight.
local topography, natural drainage, best possible orientation.
Free principles highway engineering:
elimination of intersections, the curved axis.
Residential districts have been placed along the Curved axis.
civic and administrative centre, recreation centre, the municipal
administration facilities, the barracks, the storage and supply zones, small local
industries sites and the Railway station along the monumental axis
•Airplane, Monumental Axis
•Four Scales of Design:
–Gregarious scale (social)
–Bucolic scale(park city, rustic)
•Dignity of a capital city:
–Esplanade, where the ministries and public buildings are located
–the bus station, where the two axis cross
–the Plaza of Three Powers
•SUPERBLOCKS- uniform height of six stories, no high rises, and vast motorways
Ample parking, low population density, open green space for people to enjoy.
Plaza of Three Powers
House fundamental powers (equilateral triangle):-
Government & Supreme court-base of the triangle
Congress-at the Apex
Church-at the centre given own square.
Monumental Axis:-Government and Municipal Plaza evident.
Superblocks: surrounded by bands of greenery planted with trees
Strips of the Districts :Also planted with greenery
Park City: Filled with open areas, such as parks, squares, for flower and vegetable
gardens, orchards, Botanic garden
Cemetaries : end of residential highway axis.
Secondary Roads: controls heavy vehicular traffic
Traffic: controlled by roads that would either go on a platform, underground,
or under the platform.
Clover shaped Turn-offs: circulate in the different districts without creating
local pathway systems were created for each district (residential,
Separated from vehicular circulation.