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  2. APOPTOSIS  apoptosis is defined as the pathway of cell death that is induced by a tightly regulated suicidal program in which cell distinate to die active intrinsic enzyme that degrade the cell on its nuclear DNA and the nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins .  Characteristics  1. apoptotic sale break into the small bodies fragments called the apoptotic bodies  2. integrity of cell is maintained does there is no licking of cell  3. however the structure is changed but the the plasma membrane remain intact.  4. however it is also said to be the genetically programmed cell death. 
  3. CAUSES OF APOPTOSIS  normally both during the growth and development throughout the adulthood and serves to remove the unwanted aged or potentially harmful cells. it may also be the pathological event when the diseased cells are damage during their repair repair.  physiological  Death of cell by the normal phenomenon during the growth and development and unwanted use of tissues  1. during embryogenesis organogenesis implantation development station metamorphosis….  cell served as a useful function example neutrophils in the acute inflammation lymphocyte at the end of immune response.  3. Cells loss in poliferating the cell population (example thymus)  4.involution of hormones -dependent issue on hormone withdrawal for example during the mensuration breakdown of the endrometrium cell  5. eliminationof potentially harmful self reactive lymphocytes that action organised on tissue. 
  4. PATHOLOGICAL:  begins in those cells in which there is no chance of repair.due to following condition  1. DNA damage; during the sunlight UV range injury hypoxia ischemia  2. regulation of the Miss World protein this lead to the year status which culminates in apoptotic cell.  3. cell death in certain infection due to theparticularly  viral infection .  4. pathological atrophy internal organs after the duct obstruction surgery in pancreas parotid gland kidney 
  5. MORPHOLOGY  1 .cell shrinkage  2. chromatin condensation most characteristic feature of apoptosis  3. formation of cytoplasmic bulb and apoptotic bodies  4. phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by the macrophages generall 
  6. MORPHOLOGY  result from the activation of enjoying called caspase  the mechanism of apoptosis is generally classified into two pages that is initiation phase and the execution phase  in the initiation phase there is a production of som catalytic caspase where in the execution phase there is the destruction that is triggered by by those caspase by converting into the education caspases  there are two different pathway for the caspase activation  1first is the mitochondrial pathway  2 the death receptor pathway 
  7.  1the mitochondrial pathway is a major mechanism of apoptosis in the mammalian cell it results from the increase in permeability of mitochondrial outer membrane with the consequent release of death inducing proapoptotic bodies molecules from the mitochondria intramembranous space into the cytoplasm  growth factors and other for survival signal stimulate the production of antiapoptotic bodies such as bcl2to prevent leakage of death inducing proteins from mitochondrial outer membrane  step 1; as soon as the living signal is not received  step 2 DNA damage and protein start to miss fold and endoplasmic reticulum get stress  step 3; this signal is received by only the Bh3
  8.  step 4 this Bh3 protein activates the the two protein call back and bags that are responsible for the production of pro-apoptotic bodies  step 5; they form an oligomer and enter the mitochondrial membrane and there is a leakage of mitochondrial protein include in the the cytochrome C with its harmful. bh3 protein also prevent function of bcl2.  step 6; the cytochrome C is released in the sight of it combined with the APAF1( Activating factor 1) which formed apoptosome.  step 7; this is the first initiator factor for the caspase activation later on cleavage occurs does the capapsaes are more active . 
  9.  death receptor pathway  Is initiated by the engagement of plasma membrane with receptor on the variety of cells  receptor are the membranes of tnf receptor family  this tnf1 receptor related protein call the fas  the ligand for the fas is called the fas legend 
  10.  when the first ligand binding to the fast two three molecules of pass are brought together and their cytoplasmic date domains a binding site for adaptor protein that that also consists of death domain called f a DD it is attached to the inactive 8,10 and multiple procaspase of its are formed by the cleavage  execution phase  this profound caspase 8 9 and 10 in the initiation phase are converted into the The executive caspase 3 and 6 that are responsible for promote fragmentation of nuclei degrade the structural component of nuclear Matrix and act on the cellular component and the in Activator of cytoplasmic DNase 
  11. REMOVAL OF DEAD CELL  some chemicals are expressed on the outer membrane of the apoptotic cell  dying cells secrete soluble factors special chemicals that has a recognised by the phagocytes the cells are by the process of apoptosis in the minute period of time 