Gender is a very complex topic in our society.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining
to, and differentiating between, masculinity and
Depending on the context, these characteristics
may include biological sex, sex-based social
structures (i.e., gender roles), or gender identity.
4. For example, the concept of gender was first developed by Iill
Matthews in 1984 in her study of the construction of
According to Mathews, the concept of gender gives
recognition to the fact that every known society distinguishes
between women and men.
gender is a analytical category that is socially constructed to
differentiate the biological difference between men and
The term gender is also used to describe the differences in
behaviour between men and women which are described as
„masculine‟ and „feminine‟.
5. Some theorists suggest that the biological differences
between men and women also result in their mental and
They argue that biologically, men are physically and
mentally superior to women.
Other theorists suggest that the biological difference
between men and women are exaggerated.
The differences are socially constructed by the patriarchal
system of society by which men are described as superior
Therefore women become subordinate to men in the
7. The term implies “male domination”, “male prejudice (against women)”,
or more simply “male power”.
The term means “the absolute rule of the father or the eldest male
member over his family”.
Patriarchy is thus the rule of the father over all women in the family and
also over younger socially and economically subordinate males.
Patriarchy has been a fundamentally important concept in gender
8. Patriarchy automatically privileges men over
women such that women have little or no claims
to material, sexual and intellectual resources of
That is, in a patriarchal society women have to
struggle to be educated, to have property or to
make choices regarding marriage and other
aspects of life.
For men, these resources are a matter of right
and can make choices that affect their lives.
9. If a women complains of sexual harassment at
her work place, and all the men in her office
deny that this could ever happen. The
reasoning of men can be described as being
When a man raises his voice in the course of
an argument and insects on his point of view,
without letting others especially women get to
utter a single word, his actions are likely to be
described as “aggressively patriarchal”
These examples explain the many different and subtle ways through which
patriarchy is expressed in the society.
10. Patriarchy has both productive and punitive
aspects. Thus women who wish to remain
single and refuse marriage and treated with
disdain by the society.
Similarly, women who are not fertile or
those who cannot bear children especially
male are ridiculed and held in contempt and
their position in the family is a non-existent
12. Gender bias is behavior that
shows favoritism toward one
gender over another.
Most often, gender bias is the act
of favoring men and/or boys over
women and/or girls.
Bias can be conscious or
unconscious, and may manifest in
many ways, both subtle and
Androcentrism means being centred on,
or dominated by males and can be
conscious (the individual knows they are
behaving this way) or unconscious.
In the past most psychologists were
male, and the theories they produced
tended to represent a male view of the
Hare-Mustin and Marecek
(1988) argued for there being two types
of gender bias:
o alpha and
o beta bias.
14. Alpha Bias
Alpha bias refers to theories which
exaggerate the differences between
males and females.
For example, in his psychoanalytic
approach, Freud argued that because
girls do not suffer the same oedipal
conflict as boys, they do not identify with
their mothers as strongly as boys identify
with their fathers, so develop weaker
15. Beta Bias
Beta bias theories have traditionally ignored or minimised sex
These theories often assume that the findings from males can
apply equally to females.
o Kohlberg’s stage theory of moral development was based on extensive
interviews that he conducted with boys aged 10-16.
o The same all male sample was then re-interviewed at intervals of 3-4 years
over a 20- year period.
o His classification system is based on a morality of justice and some
researchers, such as Carol Gilligan (1982), have found that women tend to be
more focused on relationships when making moral decisions and therefore
often appear to be at a lower level of moral reasoning when using Kohlberg’s
o Therefore Kohlberg’s approach meant that a real difference was ignored.
17. Gender stereotyping involves how
men and women are expected to act,
speak, dress, and conduct
themselves, based on their sex.
These preconceived gender roles
can limit men’s and women’s
capacity to pursue professional
careers and prevent them from
making individual choices about their
19. There are four basic kinds of gender
•Personality traits — For example, women
are often expected to be accommodating
and emotional, while men are usually
expected to be self-confident and
•Domestic behaviors — For example,
some people expect that women will take
care of the children, cook, and clean the
home, while men take care of finances,
work on the car, and do the home repairs.
20. •Occupations — Some people are quick to
assume that teachers and nurses are
women, and that pilots, doctors, and
engineers are men.
•Physical appearance — For example,
women are expected to be thin and
graceful, while men are expected to be tall
and muscular. Men and women are also
expected to dress and groom in ways that
are stereotypical to their gender (men
wearing pants and short hairstyles, women
wearing dresses and make-up.
21. Hyperfemininity is the
exaggeration of stereotyped
behavior that’s believed to be
Hyperfeminine folks exaggerate
the qualities they believe to be
This may include being passive,
naive, sexually inexperienced,
soft, flirtatious, graceful, nurturing,
22. Hypermasculinity is the exaggeration
of stereotyped behavior that’s believed
to be masculine.
Hypermasculine folks exaggerate the
qualities they believe to be masculine.
They believe they’re supposed to
compete with other men and dominate
feminine folks by being aggressive,
worldly, sexually experienced,
insensitive, physically imposing,
ambitious, and demanding.
23. •Lower your self-acceptance: By believing in gender roles, men and women are
equally vulnerable to experience low self-acceptance. They often don’t feel
comfortable in their bodies.
•Lower your self-esteem: Men and women who live in a society with strong
gender stereotypes suffer from low self-esteem.
•Lead to health problems: To maintain a stereotypical image, people might starve
themselves or push themselves too hard, putting their entire wellbeing at risk.
•Spark violence: Physical ability is commonly considered crucial for the
stereotypical male. Men might feel the need to physically prove they’re “real” men,
which can sometimes lead to violence.
How do gender stereotypes affect people?
24. How can I fight gender stereotypes?
o You probably see gender stereotypes all around you.
o You might also have seen or experienced sexism, or
discrimination based on gender.
o There are ways to challenge these stereotypes to help
everyone — no matter their gender or gender identity —
feel equal and valued as people.
Be a living example.
Give it a try
25. Be a living example — Be a role model for your friends and
family. Respect people regardless of their gender identity.
Speak up — If someone is making sexist jokes and comments,
whether online or in person, challenge them.
Give it a try — If you want to do something that’s not normally
associated with your gender, think about whether you’ll be safe
doing it. If you think you will, give it a try. People will learn from
Education: Everyone, especially young boys and girls, needs to be
educated on the topic of gender stereotypes and gender roles.
Teachers can help students see the harmful effects of believing in
28. BASIS FOR COMPARISON EQUITY EQUALITY
Meaning Equity is the virtue of being
just, even-handed and
Equality is described as a state,
where everyone is at the same
What is it? Means End
Distribution Fair Even
Recognizes Differences, and attempts to
counteract unequal individual
Sameness and treats everyone
Ensures People have what they need. Providing everyone, the same
29. The term equity refers to the system of justice and
fairness, where there is an even-handed treatment
of all the people.
Equity demands fairness in every situation, i.e.
whether it is the distribution of benefits or
It seeks to provide all the individuals an equal
opportunity, to let them attain their maximum
In this way, equity ensures that all the individuals
are provided the resources they need to have
access to the same opportunities, as the general
30. Equality is when everyone is treated in the same way, without
giving any effect to their need and requirements.
It is a situation where each and every individual is granted same
rights and responsibilities, irrespective of their individual
Equality is the lifeline of the democratic society; that aims to
prevent discrimination and provides an equal opportunity to all.
It can be racial equality, equality between rich and poor, men and
All the individuals gets equal treatment in the society and are not
discriminated on the basis of race, sex, caste, creed, nationality,
disability, age, religion and so forth.
34. There was caste discrimination. The
upper caste people would torture the
lower caste people.
Lower caste people weren’t allowed
in certain places and occasions.
Religious and social functions were a
prohibition for them.
The lower castes were punished if
they touched any upper caste person
or even if they were under the
shadow of an upper – caste person.
Upper – caste people didn’t accept
food or water from a lower caste
35. Reformers in India
Periyar E.V. Ramaswamy tried to destroy the
inequality against untouchables.
Social reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy,
Dayanand Saraswati, Veeraslingam Pantulu,
Pandita Ramabai, Mumtaz Ali, Ishwarchandra
Vidyasagar, etc supported equality for women
and eradicate problems like social problems like
Sati, child marriage, dowry, etc.