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Chapter 4: Reservations

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Chapter 4: Reservations

  1. 1. Chapter 4: Reservations 1. Discuss the sales dimension of the reservations process, outline the different types of reservations, and describe reservation inquiries and their distribution channels. 2. Describe the process of taking group reservations and discuss group reservation issues. 3. Identify the tools managers use to track and control reservations availability, and discuss reservation records. 4. Describe policies and procedures surrounding the confirmation, modification, and cancellation of different types of reservations. 5. Explain the function of typical reservation reports, and summarize other reservation considerations. Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 1 Competencies for Reservations
  2. 2. Chapter 4: Reservations • Prior to front office automation, reservations agents focused on basic room availability; they could not reserve specific types of rooms • Automation provides accurate and current room and rate information • Due to automation, much of the responsibility for room sales, revenue projections, and profitability analyses has shifted to the reservations department • Reservations agents are now salespeople • Many reservations are now made online; hotels need websites that are designed to make it easy for guests to make reservations Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 2 Reservations and Sales
  3. 3. Chapter 4: Reservations • The sales department is a primary source of group reservations, typically from corporations and trade associations • The sales department may also go after the SMERF market, business traveler market, and travel agent market • The sales department must familiarize distribution channels with the hotel’s characteristics and surrounding areas • Sales managers are often given financial or other incentives to meet or exceed sales goals Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 3 Role of the Sales Department in Reservations
  4. 4. Chapter 4: Reservations • The sales department can book business many months or years in advance • The reservations manager should be involved in every decision affecting the hotel’s occupancy and revenue opportunities • The mix of group and transient business is carefully planned for and monitored by hotels • The sales department is given a specific number of guestrooms it can sell to groups, called a “group allocation” • To go over the group allocation, the sales staff needs an approval from the hotel’s sales director or general manager • The reservations manager typically evaluates requests to adjust the group allocation Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 4 The Reservation Sales Planning Process
  5. 5. Chapter 4: Reservations Guaranteed Reservations • Prepayment • Payment card • Advance deposit • Voucher or MCO • Corporate Non-Guaranteed Reservations Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 5 Types of Reservations
  6. 6. Chapter 4: Reservations • Requires that a payment in full be received prior to the guest’s day of arrival • Generally the most desirable form of guaranteed reservation for the hotel • Commonly used at resort hotels Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 6 Guaranteed Reservations—Prepayment
  7. 7. Chapter 4: Reservations • The most common form of guaranteed reservation • Unless the payment card guaranteed reservation is properly canceled before a stated cancellation hour, the hotel charges the guest’s payment card account for one night’s room rate plus tax; the card company then bills the cardholder • Resort hotels may charge for more than one night, since their typical length of stay is longer and it is more difficult for them to fill rooms at the last minute Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 7 Guaranteed Reservations—Payment Card
  8. 8. Chapter 4: Reservations • Requires that the guest pay the hotel a specified amount of money prior to arrival (typically enough to cover one night’s stay plus tax for non-resort hotels, more for resort hotels) • If a guest fails to register or cancel, the hotel retains the deposit and cancels the remainder of the reservation • Most common at destination resorts and convention center hotels • Some hotels apply the deposit to the last night of the guest’s stay; this is intended to ensure collection of room revenue should the guest depart earlier than scheduled Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 8 Guaranteed Reservations—Advance Deposit
  9. 9. Chapter 4: Reservations • With travel agency vouchers and miscellaneous charge orders (MCOs), the guest prepays the amount of the deposit to a travel agent • The travel agent forwards the voucher or MCO to the hotel as proof of payment and a guarantee that the prepaid amount will be sent to the hotel when the voucher is returned to the travel agency for payment • MCOs are issued by the Airline Reporting Corporation (ARC) • Many hotels prefer MCOs over travel agency vouchers because ARC guarantees payment if the travel agency defaults Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 9 Guaranteed Reservations—Voucher or MCO
  10. 10. Chapter 4: Reservations • With this type of reservation, a corporation enters into an agreement with a hotel • The corporation may sign a contractual agreement stating that it will pay for any no-show business travelers the corporation sponsors • Corporate guaranteed reservations are popular in downtown or business center hotels catering to a large number of business travelers • The corporation may receive a single comprehensive invoice from the hotel for several stays, thereby simplifying the billing process Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 10 Guaranteed Reservations—Corporate
  11. 11. Chapter 4: Reservations • The hotel agrees to hold a room for the guest until a stated reservation cancellation hour (usually 4 or 6 p.m.) on the day of arrival • Does not guarantee that the hotel will receive payment for no-shows • If the guest does not arrive by the cancellation hour, the hotel can release the guestroom for sale Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 11 Non-Guaranteed Reservations
  12. 12. Chapter 4: Reservations • May be handled by a reservations agent or website • Information collected: guest’s name, address, e-mail address, and telephone number; company or travel agency name (if applicable); date of arrival and departure; type and number of rooms requested; room rate; number of people in party, method of payment or guarantee; and any special requests Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 12 Reservation Inquiries
  13. 13. Chapter 4: Reservations • Property reservations department • Central reservations systems • Cluster reservations office • Global distribution systems • Intersell agencies • Internet distribution systems Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 13 Distribution Channels
  14. 14. Chapter 4: Reservations • Handles direct requests for rooms, monitors any communication links with central reservations systems and intersell agencies, and maintains updated room availability information • Direct requests can reach the department in several ways: telephone, mail, property website, property-to-property, faxes, and text messaging Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 14 Property Reservations Department
  15. 15. Chapter 4: Reservations • Greet the caller • Identify the caller’s needs • Provide an overview of the hotel’s features and benefits, based on the caller’s needs • Propose a room recommendation, and adjust it according to the caller’s response • Close the sale • Gather the reservation information • Thank the caller Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 15 Reservations Agent Sales Process
  16. 16. Chapter 4: Reservations • Responsible for maintaining a room availability inventory for each property in the system • Two basic types: affiliate networks and non-affiliate networks Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 16a Central Reservations Systems Continued
  17. 17. Chapter 4: Reservations Central Reservations Systems Continued from previous slide… Affiliate Networks • A hotel chain reservation system • Typically, all participating hotels are contractually related • Some affiliate networks allow non-chain properties in the network as “overflow facilities” • Overflow facilities pay a commission for these referrals Non-Affiliate Networks • Connect independent (non-chain) properties • Examples: The Leading Hotels of the World, Preferred Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, and Distinguished Hotels Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 16b
  18. 18. Chapter 4: Reservations • Serves several hotels in a geographic area • Operates similarly to a hotel chain central reservations system, except that it serves one specific destination area instead of an entire hotel company • Eliminates the need to have separate reservations departments in each of the participating hotels • Advantages: labor costs are reduced, cross-selling opportunities are created, room rates and availabilities can be coordinated • Disadvantages: communication and coordination challenges Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 17 Cluster Reservations Office
  19. 19. Chapter 4: Reservations • Global distribution systems (GDSs) distribute hotel reservation information worldwide and provide a platform for selling hotel reservations worldwide • GDSs also support the worldwide distribution of airline tickets, automobile rentals, and other traveler services • GDSs directly link the reservation systems of hotels, airlines, car rental agencies, and travel agencies • Examples of GDSs: SABRE, Galileo International, Amadeus, and Worldspan Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 18 Global Distribution Systems
  20. 20. Chapter 4: Reservations • Businesses that contract to handle reservations for more than one product line • Intersell agencies typically handle reservation services for airline companies, car rental companies, and lodging properties • Intersell agencies typically channel room reservation requests to a hotel central reservations system, but they may also contact a destination hotel directly Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 19 Intersell Agencies
  21. 21. Chapter 4: Reservations • Internet distribution systems (IDSs) enable travelers from many different market segments to use desktop and mobile devices to reserve hotel rooms, book flights, and select rental cars • Examples of IDSs include Expedia, Hotels.com, Orbitz, Hotwire, Priceline, and Travelocity • Individual hotel websites commonly feature user-friendly and secure procedures for making and paying for reservations • Hotel websites also feature marketing tools such as links to hotel products and services, and photographs and virtual tours of the property Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 20 Internet Distribution Systems
  22. 22. Chapter 4: Reservations • Revenues vary widely, depending on the the hotel (supplier) and agent (seller) relationship • Central reservations offices typically charge affiliate properties either a fixed rate per room per night, or a transaction fee based on reservation activity, or both • Global distribution systems and Internet distribution systems receive revenues from hotels through commissions, by charging transaction fees or transmission fees, and/or by selling hotel rooms that have been discounted • When hotels sell rooms via distribution channels, the goal is to offset associated commissions and other fees with an increase in occupancy and overall room revenue Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 21 Distribution Channel Revenues
  23. 23. Chapter 4: Reservations • Group reservations can involve a variety of contacts: guests, meeting planners, convention and visitors bureaus, tour operators, and travel agents • Group reservations typically involve intermediary agents and require special handling • A group’s representative deals with the hotel’s sales or reservations department • If enough rooms are available for the group, an agreed-upon number of guestrooms, called a block, is set aside for the group’s members Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 22a Group Reservations Continued
  24. 24. Chapter 4: Reservations Group Reservations Continued from previous slide… • Group members may be given a special reservation identification code or reservation web address to use to reserve their rooms within the group’s assigned block • As group members reserve rooms, the rooms in the group block are moved from “blocked” status to “booked” status • Unbooked rooms in the group block may be released to the hotel’s available rooms inventory at a predetermined date—the cut-off date Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 22b
  25. 25. Chapter 4: Reservations • A contract must be created specifying the exact number of rooms required, room rates, group arrival and departure dates, special considerations (suites, comp rooms, group vs. individual billing arrangements, etc.), early arrival and late departure dates, and cut-off date • The reservations manager should double-check to be sure that the rooms are available before confirming a room block • If the group will take away rooms from transient business, the reservations manager should notify the sales or general manager of this non-group displacement • The reservations manager should check the group’s history with the hotel (if available) before finalizing the block; it may be possible to reduce a room block, based on the group’s history (termed a “wash down” or a “wash”) Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 23a Creating a Group Block Continued
  26. 26. Chapter 4: Reservations Creating a Group Block Continued from previous slide… • The reservations manager must monitor the room availability in the block as reservations come in and adjust the room block as needed • A “definite group” has signed a sales contract; a “tentative group” has been sent a contract, but the signed contract has not been returned; the reservations manager must make sure a group is not allowed to remain in the “tentative” status for too long, jeopardizing other business • Some groups allow attendees to make reservations directly with the hotel, while others do not; reservations agents must honor whatever arrangements the hotel has made with the group in question Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 23b
  27. 27. Chapter 4: Reservations • Know the convention group’s profile • Review all relevant hotel reservation policies with the convention planner • Inform reservations agents that the convention has been scheduled, and go over the group’s reservation process • Produce regular reports to update the status of the convention block • Generate an up-to-date list of registrants at regular intervals • Correct errors found by the convention planner immediately • Confirm reservations from attendees as soon as they are received • Return rooms to the group’s block when cancellations are received and inform the convention planner • Distribute a final rooming list to the convention planner and all hotel staff involved with the convention Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 24 Dealing with Convention Groups
  28. 28. Chapter 4: Reservations • Large conventions sometimes require the use of rooms at more than one hotel • In these cases, the room requirements at the various hotels often are coordinated by a separate convention and visitors bureau • Convention and visitors bureaus may use special software to help monitor and coordinate the room reservations in the various hotels in the city/local area Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 25 Convention and Visitors Bureaus
  29. 29. Chapter 4: Reservations • Specify the number and types of rooms to be held in a tour group block, including rooms for drivers and guides • Clearly state a cut-off date • On or before the cut-off date, the tour operator should supply the hotel with a guarantee on the number of rooms the group will need, or a final rooming list if that is available • Specify the date by which the tour operator will provide a final rooming list (if this date is different from the cut-off date) Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 26a Dealing with Tour Groups Continued
  30. 30. Chapter 4: Reservations Dealing with Tour Groups Continued from previous slide… • Monitor the amount of advance deposits required and their due date • Note on the reservation record any services and amenities the property will provide as part of the group package • Include on the reservation record the name and telephone number of the tour group’s representative or agent • Note any special group arrangements (early arrival, baggage handling, registration, and check-out procedures) Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 26b
  31. 31. Chapter 4: Reservations • Automates and simplifies the group reservations and registration process • Relies on the Internet to communicate with potential attendees • Provides information about the group event and reservations availability • Allows the group leader to load e-mail and postal addresses so that the leader can more quickly and easily send out e-mails and letters to prospective attendees • Captures the attendee’s name, mailing address, e-mail address, payment card information, guestroom request, etc. when the attendee makes a reservation • May provide reservations reports for manual processing by the hotel, or may interface directly with the hotel’s reservations system Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 27 Attendee Management and Housing Systems Software
  32. 32. Chapter 4: Reservations • Whenever a reservation is received, a hotel can: (1) accept the reservation as requested; (2) suggest alternative room types, dates, and/or rates; or (3) suggest an alternative hotel • Reservations must be closely monitored to control overbooking • Overbooking is a strategy aimed at helping a hotel achieve 100- percent occupancy by hedging against guests who do not arrive or cancel their reservations Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 28 Reservation Availability
  33. 33. Chapter 4: Reservations • An automated reservation management module in a property management system can keep close track of reservation activities • Reservation systems can tightly control room availability and automatically generate many reservation-related reports • The biggest advantage of an automated reservation system is the improved accuracy of room availability and rate information • Once all rooms in a specific category are sold, the system can be programmed to refuse any further reservations in that category; some systems automatically suggest alternative room types to help reservations agents still make the sale • Reservation systems can create waiting lists for high-demand periods Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 29 Reservation Systems
  34. 34. Chapter 4: Reservations • Guest name (and group name, if applicable) • Home/billing address • E-mail address • Telephone number • Company name and telephone number (if appropriate) • Name of person making the reservation (if not the guest) • Number in party Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 30a Reservation Record Continued
  35. 35. Chapter 4: Reservations Reservation Record Continued from previous slide… • Arrival date and time • Number of nights required or expected departure date (depending on the system) • Type of reservation (guaranteed, non-guaranteed) • Special requirements • Additional information as needed (late arrival, room preference, and so on) Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 30b
  36. 36. Chapter 4: Reservations • With a reservation confirmation, a hotel acknowledges and verifies a guest’s room request and personal information • A written confirmation states the intent of both parties and confirms important points of agreement (name, dates, rate, room type, etc.) • Confirmed reservations may be guaranteed or non-guaranteed • Confirmations are sent out via e-mail or letter soon after the reservation request is matched with availability • Confirmations may also include a request for a deposit or prepayment, or a request for updated information, depending on the nature of the reservation • Confirmations are especially important for guests with disabilities Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 31 Reservation Confirmation/Cancellation
  37. 37. Chapter 4: Reservations • A confirmation number helps assure a guest that a reservation record exists; a cancellation number assures a guest that a cancellation has been properly processed • Confirmation/cancellation numbers helps a hotel to quickly reference a specific reservation record • Confirmation/cancellation numbers protect both the guest and the hotel, and can reduce misunderstandings • Confirmation/cancellation numbers should be stored in separate files for quick referencing Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 32 Confirmation/Cancellation Numbers
  38. 38. Chapter 4: Reservations • Guests sometimes make non-guaranteed reservations but later modify them (because of a delayed flight, road-construction bottlenecks, bad weather conditions, etc.) to guaranteed reservations, to avoid having their non-guaranteed reservations canceled at the hotel’s reservation cancellation hour • When changing a non-guaranteed reservation to a guaranteed reservation, a system would typically: (1) access the correct non-guaranteed reservation record; (2) capture the guest’s payment card information; (3) assign a new reservation confirmation number; and (4) complete the change from non-guaranteed to guaranteed reservation status Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 33 Modifying Non-Guaranteed Reservations
  39. 39. Chapter 4: Reservations • A prospective guest does the hotel a service when he or she takes the time to cancel a reservation • A canceled reservation allows the hotel to return a room to inventory for possible resale • Hotels should make processing a reservation cancellation as easy and efficient as possible for guests Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 34a Canceling a Reservation Continued
  40. 40. Chapter 4: Reservations Canceling a Reservation Continued from previous slide… • Canceling a non-guaranteed reservation: may require the guest’s name and address, number of reserved rooms, scheduled arrival and departure dates, and reservation confirmation number (if available) • Canceling a payment card guaranteed reservation: the employee must access the correct reservation record, assign a cancellation number, and add the cancellation number to the reservation cancellation file • Canceling an advance deposit reservation: policies vary among hotels; deposits are normally returned to guests who properly cancel their reservations; very important to assign and record a cancellation number with this type of reservation Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 34b
  41. 41. Chapter 4: Reservations • Reservation transactions report • Commission agent report • Regrets and denials report • Revenue forecast report • Expected arrival and departure lists Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 35 Typical Reservation Reports
  42. 42. Chapter 4: Reservations • Indicate the number and names of guests expected to arrive, depart, or stay over • May be generated according to a pre-determined schedule or on demand • May be displayed or printed in the reservations department or via any connected device • Facilitates guest registration and check-out Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 36 Expected Arrival and Departure Lists
  43. 43. Chapter 4: Reservations • Advance deposits for reservations should be processed by employees who do not have direct access to reservation records • A designated employee (the hotel’s general cashier, for example) should endorse and record deposit payments immediately after they arrive • Information that should be recorded in a deposits-received system file include: form of payment, identifying payment number, amount of payment, date received, guest name, arrival date, and reservation confirmation number; this file should be accessible by the reservations department Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 37a Processing Deposits Continued
  44. 44. Chapter 4: Reservations Processing Deposits Continued from previous slide… • Each reservation record should be updated with the status of its deposit information • A transaction report should verify that the recorded deposits balance with the total reservation deposits entered for the day • Guests should be discouraged from sending cash; checks are better, but payment card deposits are almost always preferred Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 37b
  45. 45. Chapter 4: Reservations • Include statistics on all aspects of the reservations process: number of guests, occupied rooms, reservations organized by distribution channel, no-shows, walk-ins, overstays, and understays • Helpful in tracking individual groups and their booking patterns Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 38 Reservations Histories
  46. 46. Chapter 4: Reservations • Legal implications • Waiting lists • Promotional packages • Potential reservation problems • E-commerce Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 39 Other Reservation Considerations
  47. 47. Chapter 4: Reservations • The reservation agreement between the hotel and a guest begins at the time of guest contact • This agreement may be oral or written • Confirming a reservation by stating that the guest will be accommodated on a particular date may constitute a contract binding the hotel • If the confirmation is a response to a reservation request from the prospective guest, it may bind both the hotel and the guest to fulfill the reservation Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 40 Legal Implications
  48. 48. Chapter 4: Reservations • Advise the guest that no rooms are currently available for the requested date(s) • Offer to take the guest’s name, telephone number, and e-mail address • Agree to notify the prospective guest immediately if a room becomes available • Help the guest find alternative dates or accommodations if no rooms become available Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 41 Waiting Lists
  49. 49. Chapter 4: Reservations • Always include a guestroom plus other features, such as meals, golf, tennis, sports lessons, limousine service, and sight-seeing or other activities in or near the property • Typically, properties provide guests with a discount for purchasing a promotional package • Guests often consider a promotional package a bargain and a convenience • Reservations personnel and website content must be very informative about all the packages a property offers Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 42 Promotional Packages
  50. 50. Chapter 4: Reservations • Errors in the reservation record • Misunderstandings due to industry jargon • Miscommunication with central reservations systems • Online reservation failures Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 43 Potential Reservation Problems
  51. 51. Chapter 4: Reservations • E-commerce is online commerce via the Internet • E-commerce extends the reach of hotels far beyond the traditional distribution channels of a hotel reservations office, call center, and global distribution system • E-commerce allows hotels access to multiple distribution channels • E-commerce gives hotels direct access to consumers • Guests can search for hotels and make reservations online Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 44a E-Commerce Continued
  52. 52. Chapter 4: Reservations E-Commerce Continued from previous slide… • Some hotels assign a manager to oversee online content and transactions (the revenue manager, for example) • E-commerce must be carefully monitored, to be sure that hotel information and pricing are properly presented • Single image inventory: all online distribution channels draw from the same room availability, pricing, rate rules, services, and amenities information Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 44b
  53. 53. Chapter 4: Reservations • Merchant model • Wholesaler model • Opaque sites • Transparent sites Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 45 E-Commerce Site Categories
  54. 54. Chapter 4: Reservations • Also called the “markup model” • An online intermediary negotiates a discount for the guestrooms it will sell on its site (for example, 20 to 30 percent off the hotel’s lowest published room rate) • The discounted rate is called the “net rate” and represents the amount the intermediary will pay the hotel for every room it sells at the agreed-upon discount Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 46a Merchant Model Continued
  55. 55. Chapter 4: Reservations Merchant Model Continued from previous slide… • The intermediary marks up the net rate to achieve the room rate it will charge guests; this is termed the “gross rate” • The gross rate minus the net rate represents the profit that the intermediary makes on selling a room on its site • Merchant-model sites tend to rank hotels based on their discounts, from highest discounts to lowest • Examples of merchant-model sites include Hotels.com and Travelocity Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 46b
  56. 56. Chapter 4: Reservations • With the wholesaler model, the hotel sets the selling price for the rooms it will give to the online wholesaler; the wholesaler receives an agreed-upon sales commission (i.e., percentage of the price) for selling the rooms • Online sellers using the wholesaler model typically earn less than sellers using the merchant model • Hotels tend to favor the wholesaler model, because they maintain more control over their rooms’ final price to guests; online sellers tend to favor the merchant model, because they can earn more money per room sale Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 47 Wholesaler Model
  57. 57. Chapter 4: Reservations • Hotel rooms are marketed by online sellers by a price and/or rating category; there is no reference to a hotel brand or property specifics • The brand of the hotel and its features are hidden from the buyer until the transaction is completed • Hotel rooms are treated as a commodity • Examples of opaque sites include Priceline and Hotwire Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 48 Opaque Sites
  58. 58. Chapter 4: Reservations • Hotel rooms are marketed by online sellers by a price and/or rating category; however, unlike with opaque sites, transparent sites reveal the identify of the hotels before purchase • Transparency allows buyers to select a preferred brand or property among competing hotels • Examples of transparent sites include Expedia, Hotels.com, and Travelocity Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 49 Transparent Sites
  59. 59. Chapter 4: Reservations • Hotels have learned to exercise caution in selecting e-commerce sites to partner with, and have developed distinct strategies for each online partner • Most hotel branded websites offer a best rate guarantee • Hotel websites over the years have become more sophisticated in the services they offer to groups, making it easier to process group room reservations and group meetings Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 50a E-Commerce Trends Continued
  60. 60. Chapter 4: Reservations E-Commerce Trends Continued from previous slide… • More hotels and other online travel service providers are offering affinity or loyalty club points • More hotels are offering dynamic package pricing, which allows online shoppers to select from a menu of hotel products and services and create their own custom package at a special price • Online booking sites can create “virtual” hotel brands by grouping a proprietary set of preferred hotels at a destination site (for example, Expedia’s Bargain Hotels) Managing Front Office Operations PowerPoint 50b

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