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ASSESING WRITING
Siti Nur Asiyah fadilah
Nani Suryani
Nia Rosita
Nurul Iman
Fani Nurafiani Hakim
Assessing writing
• writing was a skill that was the exclusive domain of scribes and scholars in
educational or religious ...
Genre of written language
3 . Personal writing
 Letters, emails, greeting cards, invitations
 Messages, notes
 Calendar...
Types of writing performance
Extensive
Responsive
Intensive
Imitative
Types of writing performance
• Imitative: To produce written language, the learner must attain skills in the
fundamental, ...
Types of writing performance
• Responsive : assessment task require learners to perform at a limited
discourse level, conn...
MICRO AND MACROSKILLS
Microskills
 Produce graphemes and orthographic patterns of
English
 Produce writing at an efficie...
Designing assessment tasks :imitative writing
• Task in[hand]writing letters, words,
and punctuation
a) Copying. There is ...
Designing assessment tasks :imitative writing
• Task in[hand]writing letters, words,
and punctuation
b) listening cloze se...
Designing assessment tasks :imitative writing
• Task in[hand]writing letters, words, and punctuation
c) Picture-cued task:...
Converting numbers and abbreviations to
word
Designing assessment tasks :imitative writing
• Spelling tasks and detecting phoneme-grapheme correspondences
a) Spelling ...
Designing assessment tasks : intensive
(controlled) writing
• Dictation and Dicto-Comp: Dictation is simply the rendition ...
Designing assessment tasks : intensive
(controlled) writing
• Grammatical transformation task: in the heyday of structural...
Designing assessment tasks : intensive
(controlled) writing
• Picture-cued tasks
Short sentences. A drawing of some simpl...
Designing assessment tasks : intensive
(controlled) writing
• Vocabulary assessment tasks: the major techniques used to as...
ISSUES IN ASSESSING RESPONSIVE
AND EXTENSIVE WRITING
In the extensive writing, however, the writer has been given even mor...
ISSUES IN ASSESSING RESPONSIVE
AND EXTENSIVE WRITING
• Authenticity is a trait that is given special attention : if test t...
• Time yet another assessment issue surrounds the unique nature of writing it
is the only skill in which the language prod...
Designing assessment tasks : responsive and
extensive writing
• Paraphrasing
one of the more difficult concepts for second...
Designing assessment tasks : responsive and
extensive writing
• Guided Question and Answer
• is a guided question and answ...
Designing assessment tasks : responsive and
extensive writing
• Paragraph construction tasks
1.Topic sentence writing
Spe...
Designing assessment tasks : responsive and
extensive writing
3.Development of main and supporting ideas across paragraphs...
Designing assessment tasks : responsive and
extensive writing
• Strategic options
a). Attending to task : in responsive wr...
Designing assessment tasks : responsive and
extensive writing
• Test of Written English(TWE) Is one of a
number of interna...
Scoring method for responsive and extensive
writing
• Holistic scoring: each point on a holistic scale is given systematic...
Thankyou
Assesing writing
Assesing writing
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Assesing writing

  1. 1. ASSESING WRITING Siti Nur Asiyah fadilah Nani Suryani Nia Rosita Nurul Iman Fani Nurafiani Hakim
  2. 2. Assessing writing • writing was a skill that was the exclusive domain of scribes and scholars in educational or religious instituations. • Today, the ability to write has become an indispensable skill in our global literate community. • Writing skill at least at rudimentary levels, is a necessary condition for achieving employment in many walks of life and is simply taken for granted in literate cultures.
  3. 3. Genre of written language 3 . Personal writing  Letters, emails, greeting cards, invitations  Messages, notes  Calendar entries, shopping lists, reminders  Financial documents ( e,g., checks, tax forms )  Forms, questioners, medical reports, immigration documents  Diaries, personal journals  Fiction ( e,g,. Short stories, poetry )
  4. 4. Types of writing performance Extensive Responsive Intensive Imitative
  5. 5. Types of writing performance • Imitative: To produce written language, the learner must attain skills in the fundamental, basic task of writing letters, words, punctuation, and very brief sentences. • Intensive(controlled): Beyond the fundamental of imitative writing are skills in producing appropriate vocabulary within a context, collocations and idioms, and correct grammatical feature up to length of sentence.
  6. 6. Types of writing performance • Responsive : assessment task require learners to perform at a limited discourse level, connecting sentence into paragraph, and creating a logically connected sequence of two or three paragraph. Task respond to pedagogical directives, list of criteria, outline, and other guidelines. • Extensive : extensive writing implies successful management of all the process and strategies of writing for all purposes, up to length of an essay, term paper, a major research project report, or even a thesis.
  7. 7. MICRO AND MACROSKILLS Microskills  Produce graphemes and orthographic patterns of English  Produce writing at an efficient of speed to suit the purpose  Produce an acceptable core of words and use appropriate word order patterns  Use acceptable grammatical system ( e,g., tense, agreement, pluralization), pattern and rules.  Express a particular meaning in different grammatical form.  Use cohesive devices in written discourse Macroskills • Use the rhetorical forms and conventions of written discourse • Appropriately accomplish the communicative function of written texts according to form and purpose • convey links and connections between events, and communicative such relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given information, generalizations, and exemplifications • Distinguish between literal and implied meanings when writing • Correctly convey culturally specific reference in the context of written texts
  8. 8. Designing assessment tasks :imitative writing • Task in[hand]writing letters, words, and punctuation a) Copying. There is nothing innovative or modern about directing a test taker to copy letters or words
  9. 9. Designing assessment tasks :imitative writing • Task in[hand]writing letters, words, and punctuation b) listening cloze selection tasks. This task combine dictation with a written script that has a relatively frequent deletion ratio(every fourth or fifth word, perhaps).
  10. 10. Designing assessment tasks :imitative writing • Task in[hand]writing letters, words, and punctuation c) Picture-cued task: familiar pictures are displayed, and test takers are told write the word that the picture represents. d) Form completion tasks: a variation on pictures is the use of a simple for(registration, application, etc) that ask for name, address, phone number and other data. e) Converting numbers and abbreviations to word: some test have section which numbers are written-for example, hours of the day, dates, or schedules and test takers are directed to write out the number.
  11. 11. Converting numbers and abbreviations to word
  12. 12. Designing assessment tasks :imitative writing • Spelling tasks and detecting phoneme-grapheme correspondences a) Spelling tests b) Picture-cued tasks c) Multiple-choice techniques d) Matching phonetic symbols
  13. 13. Designing assessment tasks : intensive (controlled) writing • Dictation and Dicto-Comp: Dictation is simply the rendition in writing of what one hears aurally. The task taker must listen to stretches of discourse and in the process insert punctuation, dictation of a paragraph or more can arguably be classified as a controlled or intensive form of writing. dicto- comp is a form of controlled writing related to dictation.
  14. 14. Designing assessment tasks : intensive (controlled) writing • Grammatical transformation task: in the heyday of structural paradigms of language teaching with slot-filler techniques and slot substitution drills, the practice of making grammatical transformation orally or in in writing. Numerous versions of the task: a. Change the tenses in a paragraph b. Change full forms of verbs to reduced forms c. Change statement to yes/no or wh question d. Change question into statement e. Change from active to passive voice f. Change direct speech to indirect speech
  15. 15. Designing assessment tasks : intensive (controlled) writing • Picture-cued tasks Short sentences. A drawing of some simple action is shown; the test taker writes a brief sentence. Picture description: test takers asked to describe the picture. Picture sequence description: a sequence of three to six pictures depicting a story line can provided a suitable stimulus for written production.
  16. 16. Designing assessment tasks : intensive (controlled) writing • Vocabulary assessment tasks: the major techniques used to assess vocabulary are (a) definding and (b) using a word in a sentence. • Ordering tasks: one tasks at the sentence level may appeal to those who are fond of word games and puzzle:ordering (or reordering) a scramble set of words into a correct sentence • Short-Answer and sentence completion tasks
  17. 17. ISSUES IN ASSESSING RESPONSIVE AND EXTENSIVE WRITING In the extensive writing, however, the writer has been given even more freedom to choose : topics, length, style, and perhaps even conventions of formatting are less constrained than in the typical responsive writing exercise.
  18. 18. ISSUES IN ASSESSING RESPONSIVE AND EXTENSIVE WRITING • Authenticity is a trait that is given special attention : if test takers are being asked to perform a task, its face and content validity need to be assured in order to bring out the best in the writer. The teacher becomes less of an instructor and more of a coach or facilitator. Assessment therefor is typically formative not summative and positive washback is more important than practicality and reliability • Scorring is the thorniest issue as these final two stages of writing. with so many options available to a learners, each evaluation by a test administrator needs to be finely attuned not just to how the writer strings words together( the form) but also to what the writer is saying the function of the texts.
  19. 19. • Time yet another assessment issue surrounds the unique nature of writing it is the only skill in which the language producer is not necessarily constrained time, which implies the freedom to process multiple drafts before the text become a finished product. virtually all real writing of prose text presupposes an extended time period for it to reach its final form, and therefore the revising and editing process are implied.
  20. 20. Designing assessment tasks : responsive and extensive writing • Paraphrasing one of the more difficult concepts for second language learners to grasp is paraphrasing. the initial steps in teaching paraphrasing is to ensure that learners understand the important of paraphrasing: to say something in one's own words, to avoid plagiarizing, to offer some variety in expression.
  21. 21. Designing assessment tasks : responsive and extensive writing • Guided Question and Answer • is a guided question and answer format in which the test administrator poses a series of question that essentially serve as an outline of the emergent written text. in the writing of the narrative that the teacher has already covered in a class discussion, the following kinds of question might be posed to stimulated a sequence of sentences.
  22. 22. Designing assessment tasks : responsive and extensive writing • Paragraph construction tasks 1.Topic sentence writing Specifying the writing of the topic sentence Scoring point for its presence or absence, and Scoring and/or commenting on its effectiveness instating the topic. 2.Topic development within the paragraph The clarity of expression of ideas The logic of the sequence and connections The overall effectiveness or impact of the paragraph as a whole
  23. 23. Designing assessment tasks : responsive and extensive writing 3.Development of main and supporting ideas across paragraphs Addressing the topic, main idea, or principal purpose Organizing and developing supporting idea Using appropriate detail to undergird supporting ideas Showing facility and fluency in the use of language Demonstrating syntactic variety
  24. 24. Designing assessment tasks : responsive and extensive writing • Strategic options a). Attending to task : in responsive writing, the context is seldom completely open-ended: a task has been defined by the teacher or test administrator, and the writer must fulfill the criterion of the task. b). Attending to genre: assessment of any writing necessitates attention to the conventions of the genre in question.
  25. 25. Designing assessment tasks : responsive and extensive writing • Test of Written English(TWE) Is one of a number of internationally available standardized tests of writing ability. • The TWE is in the category of a timed impromptu test in the test-takers are under a 30 minute time limit and are not able to prepare ahead of time for the topic that will appear. Topics are prepared by a panel of experts following specifications for topics that represent commonly used discourse and thought patterns at the university level.
  26. 26. Scoring method for responsive and extensive writing • Holistic scoring: each point on a holistic scale is given systematic set of descriptors, and the reader-evaluator match overall impression with the descriptors to arrive at a score. • Primary trait scoring: this type of scoring emphasizes the task at hand and assigns a score based on the effectiveness of the text’s achieving that one goal. • Analytic scoring: Brown and Bailey designed an analytic scoring scale that specified five major categories and a description of five different levels in each categories, ranging from “unceptable” to “excellent.
  27. 27. Thankyou

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