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Rf network design

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Rf network design

  1. 1. 1 Procedure of CDMA RF Engineering (RF Network Design) 2001. 5. Jongwoo@netsgo.com
  2. 2. 2 1. Network Design Objective……………….…..3P 2. RF Network Design Procedure……...……..5P Stage 1: Preparations …...………………………...6P Stage 2: Wireless Environment Analysis …….21P Stage 3: Coverage Design ………………………36P Stage 4: Parameter Design ……………………..50P Stage 5: Dimensioning …………………………..59P Contents
  3. 3. Acceptable Coverage Forward & Reverse Link Quality Capacity  To Resolve  To Manage  To Ensure Engineering Requirement vs. Available Equipment Customer Complaints Pilot Pollution Cell Overlap / Handoff Regions 1. Network Design Objectives
  4. 4. Design Value Design Criteria ? % FER (Frame Error Rate) ? % GOS (Blocking Rate) ? % Coverage Probability - Demand for Service Coverage? - Demand for Service Quality? - Demand Service Capacity? - Usable Frequency Bandwidth? - Service Criteria? - Call Completion Rate? - Handoff Success Rate? Design Objectives 1. Network Design Objectives
  5. 5. 5 2. Network Design Procedure Basic Data Collection & analysis Design Criteria Setup GIS Data Conversion Preparations Competition Coverage Measurement Plan Setup Region Clustering Site Survey Plan Site Acquisition Site Coverage Simulation Link Budget Analysis Base Station Design On the Map Positioning Site survey & Field measurement Measurement data integration Path loss calculation RF Environment Analysis Outdoor/Underground Coverage design In-building and underground Coverage Design Pilot Assignment Paging Capacity & Paging zone Handoff neighbor list, etc. Parameter Design Required BTS Required FA Required CHC / CE Dimension & Report STAGE 1 STAGE 2 STAGE 3 STAGE 4 STAGE 5
  6. 6. 6 Target Objective Setup Competitor’s Info. Analysis Sheet Detail Design Criteria - Service Target Area(In Building/In car) - Traffic & Coverage data - FER(Frame Error Rate) - Coverage hole(If possible) - GOS(Grade Of Service) - Coverage reliability General Statistic Data for Design Scope - Population and Area - Traffic and BTS info./ GIS MAP - Telecommunication regulation Competitor’s Service Information - Service Area and Quality (GSM,CDMA) - BTS Info.(Lon/Lat, Traffic & antenna) Design Objective - GOS/FER/Coverage Reliability - FA capacity - Cell coverage criteria - Soft Handoff region ratio, etc. General Statistics Data gathering & Analysis - RF Engineering Scope Analysis (Area, Population, Building Density, etc) - Traffic Information(Traffic Distribution analysis) (Traffic volume, call success/completion rate) - BTS Information(Lon/Lat, coverage, etc) Competition company Traffic Volume and Quality Analysis(If Possible) - BTS and antenna type, position - Traffic analysis per each cell/sector - Overall BTS coverage analysis Detail Design Criteria Setup Required Data/Tool Main Activity Accomplishment Stage 1: Preparations Overview
  7. 7. 7 Setup the Design Criteria GOS vs. Capacity 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0.0% 0.1% 0.5% 1.0% 1.5% 2.0% 2.5% 3.0% 3.5% 4.0% 4.5% 5.0% 5.5% 6.0% 6.5% 7.0% 7.5% 8.0% 8.5% 9.0% 9.5% 10.0% GOS Erlang 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% CapacityIncreaseRatio Erlang Capacity Increase Ratio Traffic Model : Soft Blocking Model BTS Type : 3 Sector Channel : 84 Maximum User : 33 Sector Load Ratio : 1.5 GOS(Grade of Service), Blocking Probability Stage 1: Preparations
  8. 8. 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 % FER MeanOpinionScore MOS • PSTN = MOS 4 • CDMA = 3.6 (FER 1%) MOS Vs. FER Graph (8K Vocoder) Setup the Design Criteria Stage 1: Preparations
  9. 9. Setup the Design Criteria  Coverage Area and Contour Reliability(FADE MARGIN) 95% Area Reliability 95% Contour Reliability 15% Contour failure < 10% < 5% < 1% Percent Failure 4-6% Contour failure < 3% < 2% < 1% Percent Failure 85% contour reliability 97% area reliability Stage 1: Preparations
  10. 10. 10 Setup the Design Criteria Stage 1: Preparations 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 σ/n FractionofTotalAreawithSignalabove Threshold.Fu 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 PX0 (R) = 0.95 0.9 0.85 0.8 0.75 0.7 0.65 0.6 0.55 0.5 Area Reliability Fu Contour Reliability σ = Standard deviation[dB] n = Path slope Path Loss varies as 1/rn , PX0 (R) = Coverage Probability on area boundary (r = R)
  11. 11. 11 Setup the Design Criteria Stage 1: Preparations 0 5 10 15 20 25 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 Location Probability at Cell Edge FadeMarginindB 12 dB 11 10 9 8 7 6 Standard Deviation Fade Margin -----> 10 dB
  12. 12. Setup the Design Criteria  Coverage Area and Contour Reliability(FADE MARGIN) Item Dense Urban Urban Suburban Rural Slow Fading 10 dB 8 dB 8 dB 6 dB Slow Fading It follows the log-normal distribution with standard deviation It depends on a variety of morphology To obtain the exact slow fading value, must perform the field measurement which consumes the high cost and time Stage 1: Preparations
  13. 13. 13 Setup the Design Criteria FA Capacity(based on IS-95A reverse link) • Limited by Interference From Other users • Based on minimum required [Eb/It]minimum • Relationship between [Eb/It]minimum and Number of user N based on Perfect Power Control, No Thermal Noise, and Isolated Single Cell RSN RS It Eb /)1( / − = 1 / / += ItEb RWN • S: Received signal at the base station(from power controlled mobiles) • R: Data rate • W: CDMA Bandwidth(1.2288 Mbps) • Eb: Bit energy, It: Spectral Density of the total interference • N: Number of active users Stage 1: Preparations
  14. 14. 14 Setup the Design Criteria Pole(Maximum) Capacity(based on IS-95A reverse link) No W IoIocvSN RS It Eb N N + +− = )/1()1( / )1()1(1 fvN W R It Eb W R It Eb NoW SN +−− = • Including the effects of Thermal Noise, Voice Activity and other cell interference Io Ioc f ≡,where Stage 1: Preparations
  15. 15. 15 Setup the Design Criteria Pole(Maximum) Capacity(based on IS-95A reverse link) • Pole(Max) Capacity, where required • Obviously, this capacity can never be exceed in any cell/station • Pole(Max) Capacity/Sector 1*1* min)( max += F v It Eb R W N 1) 3 55.2 (*1* min)( secmax/ += F v It Eb R W torN f F + = 1 1,where Stage 1: Preparations
  16. 16. 16 FA Capacity(based on cdma2000 1x) )%80%100 max ,()(_ 00 =×= ∑∑ == S k k k S k k N N WhenMbitsMbitsCapacityFA • Because of difference in required Signal /Noise, Activity and Transmission velocity in each service Nmaxk can be defined follows ) /6.0 1 where,()1 / (max IoIoc FSG NtEb FPG N kk k k + =⋅+ ⋅ ⋅ = α • Base station FA capacity of service carrying number of S with various transmission velocity Setup the Design Criteria Stage 1: Preparations
  17. 17. 17 Cell Coverage • Coverage Criteria in CDMA System - Forward Coverage : Design by the standard of Pilot CH Ec/Io - Reverse Coverage : Design by the standard of Traffic CH Eb/No • As higher Ec/Io and Eb/No criteria are arranged, better call quality can be supplied for customers but more cost is also expected. Therefore, criteria should be arranged to meet the customer satisfaction and cost efficiency Required Ec/Io Required Eb/No Forward Coverage Reverse Coverage >= -14dB >= 6dB Setup the Design Criteria Stage 1: Preparations
  18. 18. 18 Soft Handoff Region Ratio Soft Handoff Region Ratio 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 -22 -21 -20 -19 -18 -17 -16 -15 -14 -13 -12 -11 T_ADD (dB) RegionRatio(%) 2Way Soft Handoff 3Way Soft Handoff Total Soft Handoff • T_ADD is used to add new Active/Candidate set • T_DROP is used to reduce the Active pilot • Because the output power of a mobile station decreases in handoff, the interference also decreases and the BTS capacity increases. But required channel resource also increases. • 30 ~ 40 % Setup the Design Criteria Stage 1: Preparations
  19. 19. 19  PILOT_INC parameter setting  PN offset reuse distance calculation  PN offset allocation - PILOT_INC selection - Distance between the same PN cell sites - Extra PN offsets for expansion of cell sites or Micro cells PN Increment and Allocation Setup the Design Criteria Stage 1: Preparations Paging channel Load and Paging zone design  Paging channel load calculation  Paging zone design(1st , 2nd Paging zone)
  20. 20. 20 Х Х Х Tx/Rx-0 Tx/Rx-1 10λ=3.6m 10λ=3.6m0.3m(MIN) Competitor - ANT. Х Х Х 0.3m(MIN) Competitor-ANT. Space Diversity Polarization Diversity Single Site Joint Site Tx/Rx-0 Tx/Rx-1 Tx/Rx-0 Tx/Rx-1 Tx/Rx-0 Tx/Rx-1 • Distance between Antennas Setup the Design Criteria Stage 1: Preparations
  21. 21. 21 Region Clustering Maximum Cell Radius, Minimum Antenna Height Calculation Site Survey and Field Measurement Competitor’s Coverage Analysis Link Budget Analysis Procedure Overview Stage 2: RF Environment Analysis
  22. 22. 22 1. Site Survey Report 2. Field Measurement Data and Analysis Result - Measurement Integration & Propagation Modeling 3. Frequency Planning 4. Competitor’s Coverage Analysis Result MAP DATA - Digital Map for CellPLAN - 1:10,000 Traffic Map Cell Planning Tool Field Measurement Tool - Transmitter / Receiver - Spectrum Analyzer, etc Competitor’s Coverage Measurement Tool - AMPS/CDMA or GSM System Competitor’s Cell Info.etc. Region clustering - Dense Urban, Urban, Suburban, Rural. - Drive Survey for region clustering Site Survey & Field Measurement - Make the Site Survey list - Drive Route establishment - Perform the Field Measurement Spectrum Clearance Check (including Site Survey List) Frequency Planning Review or Setup - FA Planning Competitor’s Coverage Measurement Tool - AMPS/CDMA or GSM System Required Data/Tool Main Activity Accomplishment Stage 2: RF Environment Analysis
  23. 23. 23  Region Clustering by the Geographical Configuration (Flat, Hilly, Mountain)  General Clustering by the Map Data (Rural, Suburban, Dense, Urban)  Extraction of the Regional Parameter Values such as BAI(Building Area Index), BSD(Building Size Distribution), BHD(Building Height Distribution), VI(Vegetation Index) etc., using the Geometry Function  Applying the Extracted Parameters to the Target Area to Achieve more Detail Region Clustering  Precisely Divided Region Clustering Region Clustering Stage 2: RF Environment Analysis
  24. 24. 24 Region Clustering(Quantitative) Region Class BAI(%) BSD(m2 ) BHD(Floors) VI(%) Avg. STD Avg. STD Rural Flat, Hilly, Mountain < 12 - - - - - Suburban Residential(Open) 12 ~ 20 95 ~ 115 55 ~ 70 2 1 >= 2.5 Residential (no Open) 20 ~ 30 100 ~ 120 70 ~ 90 2 ~ 3 1 <= 5 High-rise residential > = 12 >= 500 >= 90 >= 4 1 <= 2 Urban Shopping Area 45 ~ 50 200 ~ 250 >= 180 >= 4 1 0 Commercial Area 30 ~ 40 150 ~ 200 >= 160 3 1 0 Industrial Area 35 ~ 45 >= 250 >= 200 2 ~ 3 1 <= 1 Dense Urban Shopping Area >= 50 200 ~ 250 >= 180 >= 4 1 0 Commercial Area >= 40 150 ~ 200 >= 160 6 1 0 Industrial Area >= 45 >= 250 >= 200 7 ~ 8 1 <= 1 [Reference] David Parsons “ The mobile radio propagation channel” Stage 2: RF Environment Analysis
  25. 25. 25 Site Survey and Field Measurement Procedure Stage 2: RF Environment Analysis Planning 1. Selection of target Building for site survey 2. Scheduling for site survey and field measurement 3. Planning for Drive route Site Survey & F.M** 1. Check the test equipment and visit site(building) 2. Take a a photograph and fill out the site survey report 3. Install the transmitter on the roof of the building 4. Install the receiver in a car 5. Put the transmitter on 6. Start the driving test 7. Perform the Site survey & field measurement result analysis - Path loss analysis 8. Perform the Competitor’s coverage measurement Test Equip.* Verification 1. Check the spectrum analyzer self-generated noise level & accuracy 2. Setup the Transmitter and check the output power level 3. check the Amplifier Gain by using signal generator and spectrum analyzer 4. Measurement of Cable loss - between transmitter and AMP - between AMP and Antenna * Equip.: Equipment ** F.M: Field Measurement
  26. 26. 26 Site Survey Planning Stage 2: RF Environment Analysis  Candidate sites shall be selected in each morphology to represent the characteristics of that region and then team organization and scheduling for the site survey and the field measurement shall be made. And the drive route should be decided based on the main road and the road condition  make a plan for site surveying & field measuremnt  select a variety of candidate site  organize the team for site surveying  decide the drive route
  27. 27. 27 Site Survey Report 4 Date : Site ID : Visitor : Bldg . Address : Bldg . Height : Steel Tower Height : m Latitude : Longitude : Special Comment : Department store, Government office, Competitor site, Hotel, University, Above the10th-story bldg . Picture No : Avg . Bldg . Height : Major Bldg .: Picture No : Avg . Bldg . Height : Major Bldg .: Picture No : Avg . Bldg . Height : Major Bldg .: Picture No : Avg . Bldg . Height : Major Bldg .: Picture No : Avg . Bldg . Height : Major Bldg .: Picture No : Avg . Bldg . Height : Major Bldg .: Picture No : Avg . Bldg . Height : Major Bldg .: Picture No : Avg . Bldg . Height : Major Bldg .: Picture No : Avg . Bldg . Height : Major Bldg .: Picture No : Avg . Bldg . Height : Major Bldg .: Picture No : Avg . Bldg . Height : Major Bldg .: Picture No : Avg . Bldg . Height : Major Bldg .: Stage 2: RF Environment Analysis
  28. 28. 28 Field Measurement - Test Equipment Verification Checking of the spectrum analyzer Self-generated Noise level & accuracy Setting up the Transmitter and Checking Tx Output Power level by using Spectrum Analyzer Checking the LPA Gain by using Signal Generator and Spectrum Analyzer Measurement of Cable Loss a. Between Transmitter and AMP b. Between AMP. and Antenna Stage 2: RF Environment Analysis
  29. 29. 29 Field Measurement - Drive Test: All road test as possible as can go FA “A” (Central Channel# A) FA “B” (Central Channel# B) Team A Team B MS_1 MS_2 MS_3 MS_4 10Km 10Km Site A Site B Measurement Radius Stage 2: RF Environment Analysis
  30. 30. 30 Field Measurement - Measurement Data Analysis(1)  Perform the Data Gathering and Analysis  Calculate the distance for each measurement point  Calculate the average Rx level for unit area (30m * 30m)  Calculate the average Rx level for distance  Path Loss Calculation  Path Loss = Transmit signal Power – Received signal power [dBm] Path Loss data is used to perform the Measurement integration to calculate the exact Propagation model By using the Cell Planning tool, It will be easy to perform the MI Stage 2: RF Environment Analysis
  31. 31. 31 Field Measurement - Measurement Data Analysis(2) Propagation Prediction Model Measurement Data Signal Strength Distance Propagation Prediction Model Measurement Data δ Signal Strength Distance -δ MEASUREMENT INTEGRATION(MI) Stage 2: RF Environment Analysis
  32. 32. 32 Competitor’s Coverage Measurement / Analysis  Collecting Information about the Specification of the Competitor’s System • The site location • The height of the building and the tower • Antenna type • The direction and the angle of the antenna • Control channel number and the output power by each sector  Measuring the Service Quality • GPS data(altitude & logitude) • Cell ID (best sever / neighbor cell) • Rx power (best sever / neighbor cell) • BCCH (best sever / neighbor cell) Stage 2: RF Environment Analysis
  33. 33. 33 Link Budget Analysis OBJECTIVES OF LBA  To estimate the Maximum Allowable Path Loss for the Reverse Link  To estimate Maximum Allowable Path Loss for the Pilot, Sync, and Paging Channels, including the appropriate path imbalance  To compute the required percentages of Base Station transmit power for the Pilot, Sync, Paging and Traffic Channel  To estimate cell coverage and count Stage 2: RF Environment Analysis
  34. 34. 34 Link Budget Analysis(Reverse Link) Stage 2: RF Environment Analysis Reverse Link MAPL LBA Operating Parameters: System % Loading, SHO gain Subscriber Parameters: Maximum Power Cable loss Antenna Gain Noise Figure Noise Figure BS Parameters: Antenna Gain Losses Voice Activity & Reuse Factor Technology Parameters: Bandwidth, Data Rate ( Proc. Gain) Required Eb/It Propagation Parameters: Fade Margin, Penetration Loss
  35. 35. 35 Link Budget Table(Example: SKTelecom) Uni t Val ue Remar k Fr equency MHz 877 Cust omer Bandwi dt h MHz 1. 2288 Spec. Dat a Rat e bps 9600 Cust omer Pr ocessi ng Gai n dB 21 Cal cul at ed %Loadi ng % 50%Cust omer Requi r ed Ar ea Rel i abi l i t y % 95%Cust omer Mor hpol ogy Cl ass D. Ur ban Ur ban S. Ur ban Rur al Open Remar k At Mobi l e St at i on ( TX) Mobi l e Tx Power dBm 23. 0 23. 0 23. 0 23. 0 23. 0 Spec. ( Cl assI I I ) Ant enna Gai n dBi 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 Cust omer Body Loss dB 3. 0 3. 0 3. 0 3. 0 3. 0 Cust omer At Base St at i on ( RX) Noi se Densi t y( KT) dBm/ Hz - 174. 0 - 174. 0 - 174. 0 - 174. 0 - 174. 0 Spec. Noi se Fi gur e( F) dB 5. 0 5. 0 5. 0 5. 0 5. 0 Vendor Spec. Noi se Bandwi dt h dB 60. 9 60. 9 60. 9 60. 9 60. 9 Spec. Noi se( KTBF) dBm - 108. 1 - 108. 1 - 108. 1 - 108. 1 - 108. 1 Cal cul at ed Requi r ed Eb/ Nt dB 6. 0 6. 0 6. 0 6. 0 7. 0 Vendor Spec. f or 1%FER Loadi ng Cor r ect i on ( 1- x) dB 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 Sensi t i vi t y dBm - 123. 2 - 123. 2 - 123. 2 - 123. 2 - 122. 2 Cal cul at ed Recei ve Ant enna Gai n dBi 18. 0 18. 0 14. 1 14. 1 14. 1 Cust omer Cabl e & Di pl exer Loss dB 3. 0 3. 0 3. 0 3. 0 3. 0 Cust omer SHO Gai n dB 3. 0 3. 0 3. 0 3. 0 3. 0 Cust omer At Radi o Channel Sl ow Fadi ng dB 10. 0 8. 0 8. 0 6. 0 3. 0 Cust omer At t en. Fact or of Pr opagat i on dB/ dec 3. 5 3. 5 3. 5 3. 5 3. 5 Cal cul at ed S. F/ A. F 2. 9 2. 3 2. 3 1. 7 0. 9 Cal cul at ed Fade Mar gi n dB 11. 0 8. 5 8. 5 6. 0 3. 5 Cal cul at ed At Ser vi ce Condi t i on Requi r ed Cont our Rel i abi l i t y % 87. 0 86. 0 86. 0 83. 0 75. 0 Cal cul at ed Penet r at i on Loss ( i n car ) dB 5. 0 5. 0 5. 0 5. 0 5. 0 Cust omer Penet r at i on Loss ( i n bui l di ng) dB 18. 0 15. 0 10. 0 10. 0 10. 0 Cust omer Out put Max. Al l ow. PL ( on st r eet ) dB 150. 2 152. 7 148. 8 151. 3 152. 8 Cal cul at ed Max. Al l ow. PL ( i n car ) dB 145. 2 147. 7 143. 8 146. 3 147. 8 Cal cul at ed Max. Al l ow. PL ( i n bui l di ng) dB 132. 2 137. 7 138. 8 141. 3 142. 8 Cal cul at ed MS Ant enna Hei ght 1. 5 1. 5 1. 5 1. 5 1. 5 BS Ant enna Hegi ht 21. 0 25. 0 30. 0 45. 0 45. 0 Max. Al l ow. Di st ance( on st r eet ) km 6. 2 8. 0 6. 9 10. 2 11. 3 Cal cul at ed Max. Al l ow. Di st ance( i n car ) km 4. 5 5. 8 4. 9 7. 3 8. 1 Cal cul at ed Max. Al l ow. Di st ance( i n bui l di ng) km 1. 97 3. 0 3. 6 5. 2 5. 8 Cal cul at ed Stage 2: RF Environment Analysis
  36. 36. 36 • Outputs - Sites location - Antenna type - Antenna tower height - Antenna orientation / tilt - O/H Output power - Candidate site location - Site acquisition report - Coverage Plot - Recommendation on next candidate sites • Considering Factors - Maximum cell radius - Traffic distribution - Competitor’s coverage Designing on the Map Finding-out Sites Location and Initial Parameter Value Site Acquisition Coverage Simulation Coverage Design Procedure Stage 3: Coverage Design Ⅰ
  37. 37. 37 Design on the Map result CellPLAN simulation Plot Equp. Type Decision(Initial) - Anchor site position result - Initial coverage design map - Initial Capacity analysis - Cell site Position(Morphology) FWD Ec/Io, REV Eb/Nt Plot - Traffic estimation per cell site H/O region analysis plot Mobile ERP Plot MAP DATA - Digital Map for CellPLAN - 1:10,000 Traffic Map CellPLAN Tool - SKTelecom Design Tool - Initial coverage simulation) Map Info S/W - Design on the Map(Note PC based) LBA Result - Maximum cell radius - Minimum antenna height - Minimum cell site no Design on the Map with MAP INFO Tool - Anchor site selection (In Dense Urban area, high traffic density) - Site positioning through the anchor site CellPLAN Coverage Simulation - Initial Coverage design by using CellPLAN Tool(FWD/REV Coverage) - Initial Capacity analysis based on the traffic prediction Equip. Type Decision(Initial) - BTS, Small BTS, pico BTS - Fiber optic Micro cell - RF Repeater Required Data/Tool Main Activity Accomplishment Stage 3: Coverage Design Ⅰ
  38. 38. 38 Design on the MAP Stage 3: Coverage Design Ⅰ  Coverage design consists of designing on the map, site acquisition and coverage simulation. Especially, site acquisition and coverage simulation is verified and modified repeatedly to achieve optimal coverage design(Iterative)  Cell site location is decided on the map by means of using the maximum cell radius, competitor’s site location and the result of the coverage analysis with consideration of estimated traffic in future Initial Coverage Simulation  After designing on the map, it must qualify the cell site location through the coverage simulation by using RF planning Tool(In case of SKTelecom, there is a cell planning tool named CellPLAN) - Forward / Reverse Coverage simulation - Soft handoff region, etc
  39. 39. 39 Existing Network Traffic Analysis Procedure PEG Data Collection and Validity Check Site/Sector’s Representative Carried Traffic and Blocking Rate Calculation • PEG count data collection for 2 Weeks • Abnormal data deletion (Beyond the limit of Avg Traffic ± 50%) - Too small traffic by an obstacle of BTS - Excessive traffic by PEG counting errors • Representative Carried Traffic = Avg Carried Traffic + 1.28 * Std (Range of 90% reliability) • Blocking rate calculating for each sector and site • Offered Traffic = Carried Traffic * (1+Blocking Rate)Site/Sector’s Offered Traffic Calculation Traffic Distribution Analysis Stage 3: Coverage Design Ⅰ
  40. 40. 40 • Divide total area into unit area(Aij) • Decide weighting factor each unit area (Wij) • Σ Wij = 1 Traffic Distribution 1 2 3 j n 1 2 3 i m Wij W11 W12 W13 W21 W22 W23 W32 W33W31 Wnm Traffic Weighting Map(Mobile Telecom Introduction Stage) - Traffic Volume - Population Density - Land Usage Shape - Resident Living Standard Traffic Distribution Analysis Stage 3: Coverage Design Ⅰ
  41. 41. 41 • Divide total area into unit area(Aij) • Calculate occurred traffic each BTS/Sector • Distribute traffic uniformly within BTS/Sector coverage • Decide weighting factor each unit area (Wij) ( Σ Wij = 1) • Distribute the traffic of target year to unit area with weighting factor  Coverage Design and Dimensioning 1 2 3 j n 1 2 3 i m Wij Site B Site D W11 W12 W13 W21 W22 W23 W32 W33W31 Wnm Site C Traffic Weighting Map(Competitor In Service) • Additional Factor to be Considered • BTS / Sector Traffic Traffic Distribution Analysis Stage 3: Coverage Design Ⅰ
  42. 42. 42 Site Acquisition result CellPLAN simulation Result Plot Antenna azimuth & Tilt Degree - Detail Cell site position - Forward Coverage Plot - No. of Site Acquisition - Reverse Coverage Plot Initial Overhead Power setup - Cell site type Decision (Including FMC & RF Repeater) (BTS, FMC, RF Repeater) MAP DATA - Digital Map for CellPLAN - 1:10,000 Traffic Map CellPLAN Tool - SKTelecom Design Tool - Detail coverage simulation (Iterative coverage Simulation) Result of Design on the MAP - Anchor site position result - each site position, etc Site Acquisition & Simulation(Iterative) - Search area ring setup for each cell site (SAR: one of fourth area per cell radius) - Making the candidate site list survey - Visit the candidate site Site Acquisition & Simulation(Iterative) - Check the cell site qualification (LOS, Building Rent or room, etc) - Antenna azimuth & tilt degree decision CellPLAN Simulation (Iterative & Detail) - Forward Ec/Io plo - Reverse Eb/Nt plot - H/O Region analysis plot - Mobile ERP plot, etc Required Data/Tool Main Activity Accomplishment Stage 3: Coverage Design Ⅱ
  43. 43. 43 Site Acquisition Site Acquisition Procedure Pre-visit Analysis and Rank Candidate Sites All Sites Unacceptable Visit Sites Perform and Evaluate Drive Test Notify Real Estate Visit Search Area Revise Objectives Redesign System Release SAMs for Site Search YES NO Stage 3: Coverage Design Ⅱ
  44. 44. 44 Site Acquisition Stage 3: Coverage Design Ⅱ  Pre-visit analysis and rank the candidate sites  The first of the site acquisition is to identify multiple candidates for each site location, evaluate them on various criteria and rank them accordingly. This procedure results in identification of the best suited candidates for all sites. If all the candidates for any site are rejected for any reason(s), alternatives have to be found, or the objectives revised and candidates reevaluated, and,if all else fails, redesign the system/partial system.  The ranking of the candidate is done in two steps - A preliminary ranking and visit to the top three candidates,followed by the final ranking. Approval is then given to up to three Candidates and the first site that passes the drive test, if required, is accepted.
  45. 45. 45 Site Acquisition Stage 3: Coverage Design Ⅱ  Select the Anchor Sites(initial design stage)  Anchor sites dictates the overall RF network design. They determine the rest of the search rings. Generate an initial cell site layout, starting with anchor cells and using the preferred/desired locations and the pre-qualified site candidates.  Setup the Search Area Ring  Search rings define the areas where a need for antenna placement has been determined. Search rings are not precise cell site locations.  Prepare a list of candidates to visit  Since it is not possible, nor necessary, to visit all the candidate sites, the top two or three candidates from the first part of the ranking matrix are to be visited. Since a site cannot be acquired unti11 it is visited, it is in the interest of speedy acquisition that the best potential candidates be visited
  46. 46. 46 Site Acquisition Stage 3: Coverage Design Ⅱ  Site Visit Activities  CHECK LOCATION DATA, using the maps or GPS. And record it  CHECK OBSTRUCTIONS in all directions, e.g. tall building, unobstructed line of sight for microwave propagation, airports, other antennas, AM stations, etc.  ORIENT THE ANTENNA using a compass. Getting an orientation degree is important to evaluate the coverage effectiveness of this site  TAKE MEASUREMENT of distance between equipment shelter and antennas (cable run), dimensions of the equipment shelter and compared to the dimensions of the vendor equipment.  TAKE PICTURES to document intervening structures/unusual topography of the site.
  47. 47. 47 Site Acquisition Stage 3: Coverage Design Ⅱ  Redesign of the system  In the event that all sites initially recommended by Real Estate are unacceptable, reevaluation of rejected sites is not feasible and no alternatives can be identified, the recourse is to revise objectives and redesign the system if needed. This process is initiated by forwarding the Redesign Request to RF Engineering, identifying the reason(s) why this situation arose, and, upfront, making some suggestions or issues to bear in mind while redesigning the system. This facilitates a successful redesign, with less chances of again yielding unacceptable candidates.
  48. 48. 48 Coverage Simulation • Measurement Integration • Forward Link Analysis - RSSI - Pilot Ec/Io - Soft Handoff •Reverse Link Analysis - Mobile ERP - Traffic Eb/Nt • GIS DB - Terrain - Morphology - Vector - Building • Propagation Prediction Model • Field Measurement Data • Cell Site Parameters • Traffic Distribution CDMA Cellular Wireless Network Analysis Personal Computer Window 95 CellPLAN CellPLAN Structure Stage 3: Coverage Design Ⅱ
  49. 49. 49 Stage 3: Coverage Design Ⅱ Coverage Simulation  Main Activities  Forward Coverage Analysis Forward Pilot Ec/Io Plot Forward Pilot Best Server plot Forward Pilot Eb/Nt plot  Reverse Coverage Analysis Reverse Traffic Eb/Nt plot Reverse Mobile ERP Plot  Soft Handoff region ratio and Analysis  CDMA Forward/Reverse Link Coverage Analysis  2D/3D profile for LOS check, etc
  50. 50. 50 PN Offset Allocation Result Paging zone Decision H/O Neighbor list simulation - PILOT_INC Decision - Paging channel capacity calc. - make the H/O neighbor list - PN Offset Reuse Distance Calculation - Paging zone decision - Cell site PN Offset Allocation BTS O/H Power Simulation Design Criteria - PILOT Assignment - Soft Handoff Region ratio - Paging channel capacity - Paging zone Cell Plan Tool - Handoff simulation - coverage simulation, etc PN Offset Allocation - PILOT_INC Calculation (Lower/Upper Limit) - PN Offset Reuse Distance Calculation - Base Station PN Offset Allocation Paging Zone Decision - Paging Channel Capacity Calc. - Paging Zone Decision Handoff Neighbor List Simulation - Handoff neighbor list BTS Overhead Power Simulation Required Data/Tool Main Activity Accomplishment Stage 4: Parameter Design
  51. 51. 51 - PN offset allocation - Paging zone - Handoff neighbor list - Overhead power • Use coverage design result and design criteria • Design results are used the initial operation value of system parameters • Adjust the system parameters according to optimization after system in-service • Designed parameters Parameter Design Stage 4: Parameter Design
  52. 52. 52 Parameter Design (Pilot offset allocation) Stage 4: Parameter Design Lower Limit for PILOT_INC No interference Condition between δ1 and δ2 1. To prevent the presence of a pilot signal with a different PN offset in the active search window due to a large differential delay 2. To prevent the presence of a pilot signal with an undesired PN offset in the neighbor search window due to a large differential delay ri : Cell radius δi : Pilot PN Phase offset τi : Time delay between Cell site and Mobile station SA : active search window size (one sided) SN : neighbor search window size(one sided) PILOT Interference between sites p1 p2 Interference p r1 chips r2 chips PN Offset = δ2 chips PN Offset = δ1 chips
  53. 53. 53 δ1 δ2 α1+τ1 δ2 +τ2 sA Cell Tx PN timing Mobile Rx PN timing Active Search WindowEarliest arriving multipath of a pilot Condition 1 (δ2 + τ2) - (δ1 + τ1) >SA δ12 = δ2 - δ1 > SA + max{τ1 - τ2} max{τ1 - τ2} = r1 δ1+τ0 δ2 +τ0 sN Mobile Rx PN timing Earliest arriving multipath of a pilot Condition 2 δ0+τ0 δ1+τ1 δ2 +τ2 sA sN Neighbor Search Window δ2 + τ0 - SN > δ1 + τ0 + SN δ12 = δ2 - δ1 > 2SN δ12 = δ2 - δ1 > max{SA + r1, 2SN } δ12 = PILOT_INC * 64 PILOT_INC * 64 > 2 SN ( SN > SA ,SN > r1) sN sN Parameter Design (Pilot offset allocation) Stage 4: Parameter Design
  54. 54. 54 Pilot PN Offset Reuse Pi : cell site Tx Power di : Distance between Cell site and MS γi : Pathloss exponent di : Distance between cell sites T : Threshold value Parameter Design (Pilot offset allocation) Stage 4: Parameter Design PILOT PN OFFSET REUSE Cell 3 r3 chips Cell 1 r1 chips Phase Offset = δ1 chips Phase Offset = δ1 chips Cell 2 r2 chips D chips Phase Offset = δ2 chips No interference Condition between δ1 and δ2 1. To prevent undesired finger output for the pilot signal from distant reuse cell 2. To guarantee the absence of the undesired finger output for the pilot signal from distant reuse cell 3. To prevent indistinguish ability of sectors with the same offset in other’s neighbor search window
  55. 55. 55 Condition 1 D > 6.8r Condition 2 If d1=r1, d3=D-r1 (Worst case) e d d P P b T • − >         )( 1 3 3 1 31 ξξ γ β γ ξξ 1 )( 3 1 1 311         ••+> − e P Pr b TD β τ3 - τ1 >SA If τ1=r1, τ3=D-r1 D > 2r + SA Condition 3 To distinguish the cell1, cell 3 at the cell 2, must keep the distance above 2r2 + s2N In case of straight line of three cell sites(worst case) D > 2(2r2 + s2N ) Equal size sells & Power γ = 3.84, T = 19dB 8dB stdev for the shadow fading D > MAX(condition1, condition2, condition3) > MAX(condition1, condition3) Reuse Distance Parameter Design (Pilot offset allocation) Stage 4: Parameter Design
  56. 56. 56 Parameter Design (Paging channel analysis) Stage 4: Parameter Design General Assumption Numerical Value General Assumption Numerical Value a. Paging Channel Capacity 9600 bps j. System Parameter Message 264 bits b. Maximum allowable utilization 0.9(90%) k. Access Parameter Message 184 bits c. Paging Strategy(No. of users) 2 l. Neighbor List Message 216 bits d. Termination Rate 0.35 m. CDMA Channel List Message 88 bits e. Busy Rate 0.03 n. Extended System Parameter Message 112 bits f. BHCA per Subscriber 2 o. Channel Assignment Message 144 bits g. Number of Sectors per MSC ----- p. Order Message h. General Page 136 bits Voice Mail Service q. Voice Mail Notification 720 bits i. Overhead Message I=j+k+l+m+n Short Message Service r. Data Burst Message(x: No. of character) 7x+380 bits s._DONE Message 72 bits Assumption & Paging channel MSG Lengths
  57. 57. 57 Parameter Design (Paging channel analysis) 1 Pagi ng Capaci t y Anal ysi s Tabl e 2 Si ze 3 Number Of Users 200000 Subscri bers 4 Number of power Up/ Down per day 5 5 Ti mer based Regi st rat i on peri od paramet er 64 Ti me Based Regi st rat i on Peri od 6 TI mer based Regi st rat i on peri od val ue - Second 5242. 88 I F(POWER(2, (C5/ 4))*0. 08= 0. 08, 0, POWER(2, (C5/ 4))*0. 08) : Typi cal Val ue of Reg. Peri od 7 Anot her Regi st rat i on 0 Zone-based Reg. Et c 8 9 Number of Zones 1 1 z 10 Number of BTS per Zone 24. 00 11 Number of Sect ors per BTS 3 12 Number of BTS i n Syst em 24 13 Sect ors i n Syst em 72 C11*C12 14 Regi st rat i on 15 Tot al Regi st rat i on i n t he Syst emper Day 5295898 C3*(C4*2+3600*24/ C6+C7) : Power On/ Of f , Ti me Based, Zone based r 16 Concent rat i on rat e of BHCA 0. 098 Stage 4: Parameter Design
  58. 58. 58 Parameter Design (H/O neighbor list) Stage 4: Parameter Design • make the H/O neighbor list by using CellPLAN tool. (Maximum List: 20 EA / Cell Site) • 1st , 2nd Cluster analysis(1,2 tier analysis) • Search Window Size decision - Active Search Window Size - Neighbor Search Window Size - Remaining Search Window Size
  59. 59. 59 Yearly based Dimensioning result - Required BTS no. - Required FA no. - Required CHC no. - Required channel element no.) Marketing Demand Analysis - Subscriber forecasting - MOU(Minute of Usage) - Traffic prediction Equipment Type - capacity per equipment - coverage per equipment Cell site traffic Distribution analysis Engineering sheet Drawing Up - FA growth calculation - Channel Card quantity - Channel element quantity Engineering sheet Drawing Up for yearly based dimensioning - No. of Required FA - No. of Required Channel Element - No. of Required CHC(Channel Card) Required Data/Tool Main Activity Accomplishment Stage 5: Dimensioning
  60. 60. 60 Dimensioning Procedure Design Criteria - MAX. CE per FA - MIN. CC - GOS(Blocking Rate) Estimated Traffic - Carried Traffic - Soft Handoff Traffic Cell Site Configuration - Channel Card Type - BTS Type FA Dimension BTS Dimensioning Loading Calculation Module Required CE Calculate Required CE Calculation Module Required CC CalculateCE per CC Stage 5: Dimensioning
  61. 61. 61 Predicted Traffic Calculation by Subscriber’s MOU Analysis • Total Traffic and Traffic per Sub. Calculation - Erlang / Sub. = MOU per Sub. / ACDM * BHDR / MH - Total Erlang = Erlang / Sub. * Total Estimated Sub. BHDR : Busy Hour Day Ratio ACDM : Average Calling Days per Month(Use 26 or 27 days) MH : Minutes per Hours(60 Minute) • The Required BTS by the year • The Required FA No. • The Required CE and CHC calculation Engineering Sheet Drawing up Stage 5: Dimensioning

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