❖A group of words containing a subject and a finite
verb is called a clause.
❖It contains a subject and its own predicate.
(A predicate consists of a verb/verb phrase and rest of a sentence.)
❖It. can be a complete sentence or a part of a
❖Raju reads newspaper everyday
✓ The sentence contains a group of words.
✓ It has subject verb combination.
✓ It has a complete meaning by itself.
◆ Gayathri is a girl who is good at studies.
Part 1: Gayathri is a girl (independent clause)
Part 2: who is good at studies (dependent clause)
1. A clause has a subject and a predicate.
Gayathri is a girl who is good at studies.
(Subject) (predicate) (relative (predicate)
pronoun used as subject)
2. A clause has a finite verb
Gayathri is a girl who is good at studies.
3. The subject may be both implicit and explicit.
Gayathri is a girl who is good at studies.
explicit subject implicit subject
❖ An Independent Clause is a complete sentence
by itself. It doesn’t need any othere clause for its
❖ A Dependent Clause has a subject and verb,
but doesn’t have a complete thought. It is
dependent on independent clause.
◆ Subordinate clauses are introduced by a
subordinating conjunction (because, though,
however, before etc.) or relative pronouns (who, what,
which, etc.) that function as subordinating
◆ There are four types of subordinate clauses.
◆ A subordinate clause can work as a noun, an adjective, or an
adverb in a sentence. Remember, none of them can be
complete sentences on their own!
◆ A noun clause is a group of words that acts as a noun in a sentence. It
can be the subject or the object of a transitive verb, subject
complements, delayed subjects or appositives. They begin with
relative pronouns like “how,” “which,” “why,” “that,” “who,” or “what,”
combined with a subject and predicate.
Eg: What he said is true.
◆ Here, “What he said” stands as a noun or comes as the subject of “is
true”. (What is true? = what he said) Here the subject is (he) and has a
Eg: He said that he was not well. Here the clause “that he was not
well,” is the object of the verb said. (He said what? = that he was not well).
◆ According to its function in a sentence, Noun Clauses are
classified as follows:
1. Subject of a Verb
That he will win the election is certain.
(What is certain?)
Why he did not call is a mystery.
(What is a mystery?)
How the prisoner escaped is being investigated.
(What is being investigated?)
2. Object of a Verb
The accused declared that he was innocent.
I asked him why he looked so gloomy.
She asserted that she had seen him somewhere before.
3. Object of a Preposition
Pay attention to what he says.
He always boasts of what he has achieved.
They were not decided on what they should do.
4. Complement of a Verb
My belief is that he is guilty.
Her prayer was that her husband might be safe.
This is what we all expected.
5. In Apposition to a Noun/ Pronoun
The report that there was an accident is false.
The fact that he has grown rich is a surprise.
The news that he has got the job pleases everyone.
It is really a pity that he has not written to us yet
◆ Adjective Clauses are groups of words that act as an adjective in a
sentence as they qualifies a Noun or Pronoun in the main clause.
They have a relative pronoun (who, that, which) or an adverb (what,
where, why) and a verb; or, a pronoun or a relative adverb that
serves as subject and a verb. They should answer questions like
“what kind?” or “which one?” and follow one of two patterns:
Pronoun/adverb + subject + verb, or pronoun/adverb as subject +
Eg: Whichever flavor of popcorn you have
◆ Whichever (pronoun) + flavor (subject) + have
(verb) is an adjective clause that describes the
popcorn. As you can see, it’s not a full sentence.
Eg: The fat boy is the one who ate the popcorn.
◆ “Who” (pronoun acting as subject) + “ate” (verb)
is an adjective clause that describes the fat boy.
1. Introduced by Relative Pronouns:
(Who, whose, whom, that, which, etc.)
The boy who stood first in the test is my nephew.
A foreigner adopted the child whose parents were dead.
He is a leader whom we all respect.
This is the house which I intend to buy.
Here is the song that you wanted to hear.
2. Introduced by Relative Adverbs:
(when, where, why, how, etc.)
I do not know the time when the train starts.
This is the spot where the soldier fell dead.
I know the reason why he is absent today.
This is the way how he behaves.
◆ An adverb clause is a group of words that work as an adverb in a
sentence. It modifies a verb, an adjective or adverb in the main
clause. It answers questions asking “where?”, “when?,” “how?” and
“why?” They begin with a subordinate conjunction.
Eg: The dog ran until he got to the county fair.
◆ This sentence answers the question “how long did the dog run?”
with the adverb clause “until he got to the county fair.”
Eg: After John arrived, he ate popcorn.
◆ With the adverb clause “after John arrived,” this sentence answers,
“when did John eat popcorn?”
◆ Adverb Clauses are of various kinds:
1. Adverb Clause of Time
Adverb Clauses of Time are introduced by Subordinating Conjunctions like when,
whenever, while, since after, till, until, before, as soon as, as long as, so long as,
When the work was over, he went out for a walk. (When did he go out for walk?)
Whenever he opens his mouth, he says something. (When does he say something?)
Reach back home before the sun sets.
He fell down while he was running after a bus.
It is a long time since we met.
As soon as he reached the station, the train had left.
2. Adverb clause of Place
Adverb Clauses of Place are introduced by the Conjunctions where,
Put the keys where you can find them easily.
Wherever the piper went, the children followed.
Everywhere we went, we were welcomed.
3. Adverb Clause of Manner
Adverb Clauses of Manner are introduced by as, as if, as though, in that:
You may act as you like.
The dog lay as if it were dead.
The child looks as though it has a cold.
We are unhappy in that he doesn't write to us.
4. Adverb Clause of Comparison
These Clauses are introduced by as, as...as, so...as, than, the...the,
Balu does not work as hard as Vipin does.
He is older than he looks.
Hema is not so intelligent as her sister (is).
The sooner we start, the earlier we reach there.
5. Adverb Clause of Reason
The Conjunctions that introduce Adverb Clauses of Reason are:
because, for, since, that, in, as much as etc.:
He is absent because he is ill.
He can't buy a car for he has no money.
As he is poor, he has few friends.
Since he has apologized, we will drop the charges against him.
In as much as he is with us, we can hope to win.
6. Adverb Clause of Purpose
This Clause states the purpose of the action mentioned in the Main
Clause. The Conjunctions used are: that, in order that, so that, lest, for
fear that, so that...not:
He works very hard that (so that/ in order that) his children may
be free from hunger.
You must work hard so that you may get a first class.
You must hurry up lest you should be late for the class.
He opened the umbrella for fear that he might get wet.
He spoke in a low tone so that he might not disturb the class.
7. Adverb Clause of Result
The Conjunctions that introduce Adverb Clauses of Result are: So...that,
He was so tired that he could not walk.
Such was the explosion that the whole structure crumbled.
So fast did he run that he could board the train.
(He ran so fast that he could board the train).
Note: The Conjunction that can be omitted in these constructions:
He was so tired (that) he could not walk.
The bus was so far off (that) he could not catch it.
8. Adverb Clause of Condition
The Conjunctions used are: if, unless, whether, provided (that), so long
as, in case, on condition that
If you do not work hard, you will fail.
Unless you work hard, you cannot pass.
Whether you join me or not, I am going today.
We shall start some business provided you invest a major amount.
I shall lend you my book on condition that you return it tomorrow.
In case you meet my brother, please ask him to buy a watch for me.
9. Adverb Clause of Concession
The Conjunctions used are: though, although, even though, even if, whereas,
Though he is poor, he is happy.
Although he is weak, he toils hard.
Even though he has money, he won't part with it.
Even if he tries now, he may not get a ticket.
While everybody likes him for his honesty, he is inefficient.
Poor as he is, he leads a happy life.
Whereas he is popular his brother has few friends.
They are used:
➢ To express cause-effect relationships for physical conditions (e.g. If you
see dark clouds in the sky, you can expect rains.)
➢ To suggest habitual actions (e.g. If you exercise daily you will reduce weight
➢ Show real conditions (e.g. If you have work, we will go to the movie on
➢ To show actions when certain conditions are fulfilled (e.g. If my father
agrees to pick me up after the function, I can come.)
➢ To show willingness, and likelihood/probability (e.g. Unless you tell me
your problems, I cannot help.)
➢ For unreal conditions (e.g. If I had come to the party, I could have met my
➢ For imaginary conditions (e.g. If I were a superman, I could have stopped all
these crimes happening in the city.)
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