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Research Methodology

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Lecture 1 and 2 for course RES5701 - E1 and E2 slot

Publicada em: Ciências
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Research Methodology

  1. 1. Research Methodology Dr. I. Manjubala 1
  2. 2. Lecture 1 and 2 Introduction and Foundation of Research • Meaning, Objectives, Motivation, Utility for research. Concept of theory, empiricism, deductive and inductive theory. Characteristics of scientific method –Understanding the language of research. 2
  3. 3. Lecture 1 and 2 Introduction and Foundation of Research • Meaning, Objectives, Motivation, Utility for research. Concept of theory, empiricism, deductive and inductive theory. Characteristics of scientific method –Understanding the language of research. 2
  4. 4. Lecture 1 and 2 Introduction and Foundation of Research • Meaning, Objectives, Motivation, Utility for research. Concept of theory, empiricism, deductive and inductive theory. Characteristics of scientific method –Understanding the language of research. 2
  5. 5. Lecture 1 and 2 Introduction and Foundation of Research • Meaning, Objectives, Motivation, Utility for research. Concept of theory, empiricism, deductive and inductive theory. Characteristics of scientific method –Understanding the language of research. 2
  6. 6. Lecture 1 and 2 Introduction and Foundation of Research • Meaning, Objectives, Motivation, Utility for research. Concept of theory, empiricism, deductive and inductive theory. Characteristics of scientific method –Understanding the language of research. 2
  7. 7. Lecture 1 and 2 Introduction and Foundation of Research • Meaning, Objectives, Motivation, Utility for research. Concept of theory, empiricism, deductive and inductive theory. Characteristics of scientific method –Understanding the language of research. 2
  8. 8. Lecture 1 and 2 Introduction and Foundation of Research • Meaning, Objectives, Motivation, Utility for research. Concept of theory, empiricism, deductive and inductive theory. Characteristics of scientific method –Understanding the language of research. 2
  9. 9. Lecture 1 and 2 Introduction and Foundation of Research • Meaning, Objectives, Motivation, Utility for research. Concept of theory, empiricism, deductive and inductive theory. Characteristics of scientific method –Understanding the language of research. 2
  10. 10. Lecture 1 and 2 Introduction and Foundation of Research • Meaning, Objectives, Motivation, Utility for research. Concept of theory, empiricism, deductive and inductive theory. Characteristics of scientific method –Understanding the language of research. 2
  11. 11. Lecture 1 and 2 Introduction and Foundation of Research • Meaning, Objectives, Motivation, Utility for research. Concept of theory, empiricism, deductive and inductive theory. Characteristics of scientific method –Understanding the language of research. 2
  12. 12. Lecture 1 and 2 Introduction and Foundation of Research • Meaning, Objectives, Motivation, Utility for research. Concept of theory, empiricism, deductive and inductive theory. Characteristics of scientific method –Understanding the language of research. 2
  13. 13. Lecture 1 and 2 Introduction and Foundation of Research • Meaning, Objectives, Motivation, Utility for research. Concept of theory, empiricism, deductive and inductive theory. Characteristics of scientific method –Understanding the language of research. 2
  14. 14. Lecture 1 and 2 Introduction and Foundation of Research • Meaning, Objectives, Motivation, Utility for research. Concept of theory, empiricism, deductive and inductive theory. Characteristics of scientific method –Understanding the language of research. 2
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. Theory vs. Hypothesis Hypothesis – A belief or prediction of the final outcome of the research – A concrete, specific statement about the relationships between phenomena – Based on deductive reasoning Theory – A belief or assumption about how things relate to each other – A theory establishes a cause-and-effect relationship between variables with a purpose of explaining and predicting phenomena – Based on inductive reasoning 16
  17. 17. Empiricism • Acquiring information and facts through the observation of our world Pragmatic observations – Developing theory through experience and observation 17
  18. 18. Research approaches • Quantitative approach - Inferential - Experimental - Simulation • Qualitative approach 18
  19. 19. Inferential approach • To form a data base from which to infer characteristics or relationships of population • Usually means survey research where a sample of population is studied to determine its characteristics Experimental research • Some variables are manipulated to observe their effect on other variables • Much greater control over the research environment Simulation approach • Involves construction of an artificial environment within which relevant information and data can be generated 19
  20. 20. Qualitative approach • Subjective assessment of, - Attitudes - Opinions - Behaviour • Not subjected to rigorous quantitative analysis 20
  21. 21. 21
  22. 22. Basic vs Applied Research • Basic – to determine or establish fundamental facts and relationships within a discipline or field of study. Ex: Develop theories … • Applied – undertaken specifically for the purpose of obtaining information to help resolve a particular problem • Finding a solution for an immediate problem / for pressing practical problem The distinction between them is in the application • Basic has little application to real world policy and management but could be done to guide applied research 22
  23. 23. Objective based •Descriptive Research – the attempt to determine, describe, or identify something •The intent is often synthesis, which pulls knowledge or information together • Description of state of affairs as it exists at present • Has no control over variables • Can only report what has happened or what is happening Analytical research – the attempt to establish why something occurs or how it came to be •All disciplines generally engage in both • Has to use facts / information already available • Analyse these to make critical evaluation of material 23
  24. 24. Conceptual research • Related to abstract ideas / theory • To develop new concepts / reinterpret existing ones • That is verified by empirical research Empirical research • Data-based research • Relies on experience / observation alone • Verified by observation / experiment • Works to get enough facts to prove / disprove hypothesis • Evidence gathered by this is most powerful support possible for a given hypothesis 24 Objective based
  25. 25. Quantitative research • Based on measurement of quantity or amount • Expressed in terms of quantity Qualitative research • Concerned with qualitative phenomenon • Motivation research – an important type • Example: how people feel or what they think about a particular subject or institution • To discover underlying motives • Seek guidance 25
  26. 26. Other types of research • Cross-sectional research/1 time - Research is confined to a single time-period • Longitudinal research - Carried over several-time periods • Field-setting/laboratory/simulation - Depends upon the environment • Clinical research - case-study method • Diagnostic research - In depth approaches to reach basic casual relations • Historical research - Utilizes historical sources like documents, remains, etc 26
  27. 27. Research Methods and Methodology Research methods • All those methods/techniques that are used for conduction of research • Refer to the methods the researchers use in performing research operations • Method used by the researcher Research methodology • A systematic way to solve the research problem • Science of understanding how research is done • Study varies steps adopted by a researcher • Researchers should know the relevant method 27
  28. 28. Methodology Defined & Described Methodology and Method are often (incorrectly) used interchangeable • Methodology – the study of the general approach to inquiry in a given field • Method – the specific techniques, tools or procedures applied to achieve a given objective –Research methods in economics include regression analysis, mathematical analysis, operations research, surveys, data gathering, etc. 28
  29. 29. Criteria of good research • Purpose should be clearly defined • Common concepts to be used • Explain procedure clearly - for continuity • Results should be as objective as possible • Report with frankness - Acknowledge, procedural flaws - Limitations of the study Appropriate statistical test of significance • Reliable outcome measures • Justify conclusions with data • Limitation of data • Experienced researcher • Systematic • Logical 29
  30. 30. What is the Scientific Method? The Scientific Method is a process used to find answers to questions about the world around us. 30
  31. 31. Is there only one Scientific Method? • No! There are several versions of this scientific process ranging in the number of steps. • However, all versions begin with a question to be answered based on observations of the world around us and provide an organized method for conducting and analyzing an experiment. 31
  32. 32. Which version will we use? A 7-step version with the following steps: 1. Formulate a question. 2. Research the question. 3. Form a hypothesis. 4. Conduct an experiment to test your hypothesis. 5. Analyze data. 6. Draw Conclusions. 7. Communicate results. 32
  33. 33. Do real scientists use this process? • It’s important to note that even though many scientists do use the idea of the Scientific Method for their daily work, they do not necessarily use each of the individual steps. • Also, a similar version of the Scientific Method has been adopted by businesses all over the country. It teaches employees and management to diagnose a problem, think about ways of solving that problem, then testing those ideas to try and solve the problem. It’s the same process but with a twist! 33
  34. 34. The Research Process 34
  35. 35. Step 1: Formulate a question • What do you want to know or explain? • Use observations you have made to write a question that addresses the problem or topic you want to investigate. 35
  36. 36. Step 2: Research the question • This is an important step, especially when you do an independent investigation such as a science project. • Researching your question lets you know if others have done this same experiment before and if so, what their data suggests. If they had a widely accepted conclusion, you may want to try a different angle with your experiment or test a different variable. • You should also research the scientific concepts associated with the experiment. For example, if you are testing to see which paper towel brand is the most absorbent, you should research absorbency, paper material, and quality control testing. This will help answer the “WHY?” 36
  37. 37. Step 3: Form a hypothesis • What do you think will happen? • A hypothesis is your prediction for the outcome of the experiment. • It is based on your observations and should be testable! 37
  38. 38. Step 4: Conduct an experiment to test your hypothesis • Design a procedure that tests your hypothesis to see if your prediction is correct. • Record all of your data and observations and put them into a table that is neat and organized. 38
  39. 39. Step 5: Analyze data • Is your data reliable? Does it make sense? • Put your data into a chart or graph and look for any trends. 39
  40. 40. Step 6: Draw conclusions • Do your data and observations support your hypothesis? • If you cannot make a definite conclusion, you may need to try the experiment again. • This means you may either need to rewrite your procedure if it was not specific enough; you may need to change your hypothesis. 40
  41. 41. Step 7: Communicate results • Report the results of your experiment to let others know what you have learned. • This will be represented as either a lab report, oral presentation, or Science Fair display board. • Scientists may want to repeat your procedure to see if they get the same results as you. They may also tweak your experiment a little and have a slightly different focus. • Also, your report may lead to a new question which may lead to another investigation. This of course brings us right back to the first step again! 41
  42. 42. Steps in the Scientific Research Process • Selecting a topic or population to study • Reviewing the literature • Focusing the question • Matching topic to population • Designing the study • Collecting evidence/data • Analyzing findings • Interpreting findings • Informing others of your findings 42

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