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Sericulture

Sericulture is the silk producing agro-industry
India is the second largest silk producing country in the world after china.
Sericulture or silk farming is the rearing of silkworm for the production of silk
Silk is known as queen of textile and biosteel because of its strength
A Chinese tale of the discovery of the silkworm’s silk was by an ancient empress Lei Zu , the wife of the emperor.
She was drinking tea under tree, when a silk cocoon fell into her tea cup and the hot tea loosened the long strand of silk
As she it out, and started to wrap the silk thread around her flinger, she felt the warm sensation
When silk ran out, an larva appeared. She realized that it was this larva that produces the silk
Soon, she taught this to people and it became wide spread

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Sericulture

  1. 1. SERICULTURE NEHA AGARWAL B.Sc HONS.
  2. 2. SERICULTURE: MEANING  Sericulture is the silk producing agro-industry  India is the second largest silk producing country in the world after china.  Sericulture or silk farming is the rearing of silkworm for the production of silk  Silk is known as queen of textile and biosteel because of its strength
  3. 3. SERICULTURE: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE A Chinese tale of the discovery of the silkworm’s silk was by an ancient empress Lei Zu , the wife of the emperor. She was drinking tea under tree, when a silk cocoon fell into her tea cup and the hot tea loosened the long strand of silk As she it out, and started to wrap the silk thread around her flinger, she felt the warm sensation When silk ran out, an larva appeared. She realized that it was this larva that produces the silk Soon, she taught this to people and it became wide spread
  4. 4. TYPES OF SILK SILK TYPE SILKWORM HOST PLANT DISTRIBUTION Mulberry silk Bombyx mori Morus alba M. Indica M. Serrata M. Lattifolia Europe China USA Tropical tasar silk Antheraea mylitta Terminalia tomentosa (asan or yen) T. Arjuna (arjun) Shorea robusta (sal) Tropical forest zone ranging from Bihar Jharkhand to Karnataka Temperate tasar silk A, proylei A. roylei Quercus serrata(oak) Sub Himalayan region and n-eastern India Muga silk A. Assama Machilus bombycina (som) Litsaea polyantha ( soalu) Brahmaputra valley Eri or errandi silk Philosamia ricini Castor, Ricinus communis (kesseru) Assam and eastern parts of India
  5. 5. Mulberry silk moth Tasar silk moth Muga silk moth Eri silk moth Order: Lepidoptera
  6. 6. SERICULTURE : STAGES OF PRODUCTION Sericulture can be divided into 3 divisions as follows: 1. Cultivation of mulberry: Agricultural Division 2. Rearing of cocoon : Entomological Division 3. Reeling of cocoons: Technical Divisions
  7. 7. AGRICULTURAL DIVISION  This includes the cultivation of host plants  Larval stage of silk moth feed on these plants  Different plants required different conditions for their growth. Thus this division is actually the crucial step  This is the beginning step for the sericulture
  8. 8. CULTIVATION OF MULBERRY (MORICULTURE)  Mulberry silkworm feeds on mulberry plants of genus Morus  M. alba , M. indica , M. serrata , M. latifolia  Alternate plants: sage, orange, lettuce, peepal  Climatic conditions: temperate to tropical regions, 15-37°C, rainfall range 600-2500mm, altitude 300- 900m above sea level  Regions: Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil nadu  Mulberry is deep rooted perennial, grows well in loamy soil or red sandy loamy (murram)  Seasons: plantation during early spring and late autumn with stem cuttings and root grafting.
  9. 9.  Plantations can be done by 2 types: Pit system Row system o.45-0.9cm o.75-0.9 cm Helps in leaf production 0.30-0.60m 0.10-0.25m In irrigated systems
  10. 10. DISEASES OF MULBERRY PLANTS  Powdery mildew: due to fungus, Phyllactinia corylea causing yellow brown patches on the lower surface of leaves.  Leaf spots: due to fungus, Cercospora moricola causing circular brownish black spots on leaves.  The plants are also attacked by some insect pests like leaf eating caterpillar (Diarcrisia oblique), jassid (Empoasca flavescens) , mealy bug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus), scale insects, thrips, stem girdler beetle ( Sthenias grisator) , powder pest beetle (Sinaxylon pubens)
  11. 11. ENTOMOLOGICAL DIVISION  This includes the rearing of silk moth.  This is the most typical and time consuming process  This required the complete knowledge of the life cycle of the interested silk moth, along with its morphology and anatomy.
  12. 12. LIFE CYCLE OF THE SILKWORM
  13. 13. Stage Period (days) Characters Egg 9-12 Yellowish-white, semi round, 1mg wt Larvae I Instar II Instar III Instar IV instar V Instar 25-30 3-4 2-3 3-4 5-6 7-8 Last instar larva is greenish, cylindrical caterpillar, 3-3.5 inches long,bears 3 pairs of thoracic legs, 5 pairs of prolegs, last pair modified to claspers, spiracles- 1 thoracic and 8 abdominal. Each larva feeds on 90gm of leaves during its larval period (voracious feeders) Prepupa Pupa 4-7 10-12 Non feeding stage, cocoon spinning within 2-4 days Adult 2-3 Robust creamy white moth, bipectinate antenna, non feeder, poor flier. Each female lays 400-600 eggs, secretes alkaline solution to dissolves the cocoon(fibers) LIFE CYCLE OF THE MULBERRY SILKWORM
  14. 14. Bombyx mori ( Family-Bombicidae, Order- Lepidoptera) 4 stages: egg, larva, pupa , adult  Eggs are of 2 types: The diapause (or hibernating) type of eggs :laid by the silk moth inhabiting in temperate regions The non-diapause (or non-hibernating) eggs :silk moths inhabitating in sub-tropical regions like India
  15. 15.  Fifth Larva makes quick round movements of its head at the rate of 65 movements per minute while spinning its cocoon.  Larval stage consist of pair of silk glands, which are greatly developed, about 4 times the body length and folded enormously in hind gut  Silk glands=labial glands  Silk glands=homologous to salivary glands  Anteriorly, each gland opens into salivary duct. Both ducts unite and open at the apex of spinneret
  16. 16.  Silk gland composed of single layer of secretory cells bearing branched nuclei, internally lined by cuticle and externally by peritoneal membrane  Silk gland has 3 parts: anterior silk gland (250 cells), middle silk gland ( 300 secretory cells) and posterior silk gland (500 cells)  Anterior part- no secretory function  Middle part- secrete sericin  Posterior part- secrete fibroin and p25
  17. 17. 60-70% fibroin •tough, elastic and insoluble •Make the core of the filaments in the form of brins 20-25% sericin •gelatinous (gummy), hot water soluble protein •Holds the brins together •The weight in gm of 900 m long silk filament is called a “Denier”. •The size of a normal cocoon is 1.8 to 3 deniers. •A single cocoon weight is 1.8 to 2 gm and its shell (without enclosed pupa) is only 0.45 gm. •About 2500 cocoons yield 0.45 kg of silk. Silk secretion
  18. 18. REARING OF SILK WORMS Selection Of Silkworm Race: multivoltine race which complete 5-6 life cycles per year, non-hibernating eggs; univoltine and bivoltine race also reared in India. Silkworm Seed Production: hybrids of multivoltine and bivoltine reared commercially for its superior quality and huge quantity of eggs (silkworm seed) Grainages : These are the places where seeds are produced at large scales; healthy, disease free cocoons of pure race are selected; preserved at 23-25°C in wooden trays at 70-80%RH; after emergence, females transferred to plastic trays allowed to copulate with males of desired race under black cloth for 3 hrs; within 12 hrs, female lays 400-600 eggs
  19. 19. DISEASES OF SILKWORM 4 major diseases:  Pebrine: protozoan (Nocema bombycis) produce pepper like spots on body, and larvae become wrinkled skinned and sluggish  Flacherie: bacterium(Bacillus thuringensis sotto) causes putrification of body and body becomes black-green  Muscardine: fungus ( Beauveria bassiana) cause white muscardine in humid condition, while Spicaria parssina cause green muscardine. Iscaria farinose cause yellow muscardine. Hyphae come out from intersegmental membrane all over the body of the larva  Glasserie: Borrelina virus cause swelling of segment and skin rupture
  20. 20. PESTS OF SILKWORM Following parasites and predators cause destruction of silkworms  Uzi flies: Tricholyga bombycis (diptera) ; young maggots bore into the body of silkworms and live in and eat fatbody for about a week , causing the death  Dermestid beetles: Dermestes cadeverinus larvae and adults feed on cocoons  Other predators include ant, lizards, rats, squirrels, birds etc.
  21. 21. TECHNICAL DIVISION  This involves the extraction and purification of silk fibers from cocoon  This is the last step for sericulture  This is the energy consuming and time consuming step.  In this, only 30-40% cocoon (pupae) of the rearing tray are allowed to complete their life-cycle, while rest are used for obtaining silk fibers  This is the post-cocoon process  1kg of silk = 5500-6000 cocoons
  22. 22. REELING OF SILK Harvesting: it is removing and selecting operation of cocoons from mountages and sell them to market or to transport to reeling industry Reeling: removal of silk thread; about 58% of the silk in each cocoon is relable, remainder is used as silk waste and formed into spun silk. Raw silk is boiled, scoured, steamed and purified as follows:  Cocoon drying: steam stifling (process of killing) of cocoons is done to kill pupae so that intact cocoon can be used for reeling. Hot air stifling and sun drying is also very common  Cocoon boiling: it is a common practice for swelling, softening and to some extent dissolution and removal of sericin and gum. Its is purified by acid and fermentation.
  23. 23.  Brushing: by brushing the outer surface of cocoons manually or mechanically, the free end of silk filament(brins) is recognized. It is the essential operation for reeling the entire intact thread.  Reeling methods: unwinding of silk thread from cocoon is done by country charkha. The free ends of silk filament of 5-10 cocoons are picked together, fixed on reeling appliance and twisted into a single thick thread. The silk obtained is called spun silk
  24. 24. PRODUCTION S.No. Country Silk export (1000 kg) Earning ( Int $1000) 1. China 290,003 978,013 2. India 77000 259679 3. Uzbekistan 17000 57332 4 Brazil 11000 37097 5. Iran 6000 20235 Annual export of mulberry silk in world Over 30 countries, China contributes 54% and India (14%) to the world production of mulberry silk
  25. 25. WORLD RAW SILK PRODUCTION STATISTICS (In metric tonnes)
  26. 26. SERICULTURE : OPPORTUNITIES
  27. 27. DISTRIBUTION OF SILK INDUSTRY IN INDIA  About 80% of the silk produced in the country is of mulberry silk, majority of which is produced in the three southern States of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu followed by West Bengal and Jammu & Kashmir. Mulberry sericulture is practised since time immemorial in the North Eastern Region (NER).  The tropical Tasar silk is produced largely in the central India covering the tribal areas of Jharkhand , Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, etc. Oak Tasar is produced in Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Uttarakhand, Jammu & Kashmir, etc.  Eri is grown in Assam and the adjacent north-eastern states, Bihar, West Bengal and Odisha.
  28. 28. CENTRAL SILK BOARD (CSB)  Central Silk Board, Government of India in the year 1958  Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India
  29. 29. CENTRAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF INDIA 1. Central Sericulture Research and Training Institute, Mysore (Karnataka). 2. Central Sericulture Research and Training Institute, West Bengal 3. Central Tasar Research and Training Institute, Ranchi (Jharkhand). 4. Central Silk Technological Research Institute (CSTRI), Bangalore (Karnataka).

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