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Sears Tower
(now Willis Tower)
AR – 412
Design of Multi-storeyed Buildings
Neelesh Sharma
[11110034]
Sears Tower
• Location: Chicago, Illinois
• Project Completion: 1974
• Site Area: 3 acres
• Project Area: 4,565,844 ft2 (1...
SITE PLAN
Forces and Form
• The Willis Tower draws its strength, both visual and physical, from its structural
form, the bundled tub...
• The closely spaced interior and exterior columns are tied at each floor with deep spandrel beams.
At the truss levels, t...
Interior Beams and Columns
Construction
X bracing of the columns at the mechanical
floors
29th – 32nd
64th – 65th
88th – 89th
104th – 108th
Vertical Circulation
• The Sears Tower’s 104-cab elevator system divides the building into three separate zones, with
sky ...
1,730 feet (527.3 m)
1,450 feet (442.1 m)
1,353 feet (412 m)
38th Floor Plan
48th Floor Plan
85th Floor Plan
95th Floor Plan
• The exterior skin of the building is an expression of the structural
skeleton inside, with the fire proof frame sheathed...
The Ledge at Skydeck Chicago
Facts
Willis Tower has a footprint that encompasses an entire square city block. It’s even its own
zip code. Truly a city-...
Most interesting
• Skydeck Chicago debuted The Ledge in 2009, unveiling a breathtaking view
of the city, 1,353 feet straig...
Sears tower
Sears tower
Sears tower
Sears tower
Sears tower
Sears tower
Sears tower
Sears tower
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Sears tower

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Sears Tower - Fazlur Rahman Khan, Bruce Graham
Architectural Case Study

Publicada em: Educação
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Sears tower

  1. 1. Sears Tower (now Willis Tower) AR – 412 Design of Multi-storeyed Buildings Neelesh Sharma [11110034]
  2. 2. Sears Tower • Location: Chicago, Illinois • Project Completion: 1974 • Site Area: 3 acres • Project Area: 4,565,844 ft2 (105 acres) • Number of Stories: 110 • Building Height: 1,450 ft (442 m) • Market: Commercial + Office • 3.8 million rentable square feet (89 acres) • 159,000 square feet of retail space. (0.36 acres) • 160-car executive parking garage. second-tallest building in the United States While 12th-tallest in the world 25,000 daily visitors12,000 occupants
  3. 3. SITE PLAN
  4. 4. Forces and Form • The Willis Tower draws its strength, both visual and physical, from its structural form, the bundled tube. • The building plan consists of 9 squares, each 75 feet across, placed in a three- by-three grid arrangement. • Each square has 5 columns per side spaced 15 feet on centers, with adjacent squares sharing columns. • As the columns rise up the building, each square in the plan forms a tube, which can be seen on the exterior of the building. • These tubes are independently strong but are further strengthened by the interactions between each other through truss connections. • While the tubes connect at each floor level with beams and floors trusses, several large trussed levels act as the main horizontal connectors in the buildings. • These trussed levels, which also contain the mechanical systems for the building, appear as black horizontal bands on the façade. While the louvres covering the trussed levels mask the structural details, the purpose of these levels remains abundantly clear visually.
  5. 5. • The closely spaced interior and exterior columns are tied at each floor with deep spandrel beams. At the truss levels, these tubes are tied together. • These ties resulted in a stiffer structure, as the building acts as a unified system of stiffened tubes. • The interaction between the individual tubes and the belt trusses at mechanical levels allows the building to attain its extreme height. • Due to the drop offs, the gravity loading on the system is not evenly distributed along the height of the building. • These trusses take the gravity loads from above and redistribute them evenly onto the tubes below. • This is particularly important for the uppermost section of the tower, due to its asymmetry about the central axis of the building. • The presence of the belt trusses help to mitigate these effects of differential settlement, which cause the building to tilt. Spandrel beams are load-bearing structural members around the perimeter of a floor of a building. Not only may they support loads from the roof and other floors, they may also help support a building's walls. For example, walls expected to experience significant forces from wind may be anchored to these beams to better distribute the load.
  6. 6. Interior Beams and Columns
  7. 7. Construction
  8. 8. X bracing of the columns at the mechanical floors 29th – 32nd 64th – 65th 88th – 89th 104th – 108th
  9. 9. Vertical Circulation • The Sears Tower’s 104-cab elevator system divides the building into three separate zones, with sky lobbies in between at levels 33-34 and 66-67. • 28 double decker express shuttle shuttle elevators serve the sky lobbies • 63 single deck elevators for intra-zonal travel • 6 freight elevators • Two express elevators that take 61 seconds to reach the 1353 foot high skydeck at level 103 travelling at 1600 feet per minute.
  10. 10. 1,730 feet (527.3 m) 1,450 feet (442.1 m) 1,353 feet (412 m)
  11. 11. 38th Floor Plan
  12. 12. 48th Floor Plan
  13. 13. 85th Floor Plan
  14. 14. 95th Floor Plan
  15. 15. • The exterior skin of the building is an expression of the structural skeleton inside, with the fire proof frame sheathed in black aluminium and glare reducing bronze tinted glass. • The exterior skin is maintained with yearly check ups and six window washing machines.
  16. 16. The Ledge at Skydeck Chicago
  17. 17. Facts Willis Tower has a footprint that encompasses an entire square city block. It’s even its own zip code. Truly a city-within-a-city, you might be surprised to learn some of these stats about the building: • Willis Tower features 16,100 windows and six roof-mounted robotic window washing machines clean them. • Willis Tower’s square footage is the equivalent of 101 football fields. • It took 2,000 workers three years to build the tower. • Approximately 43,000 miles (69,200 kilometers) of telephone cable runs through the building - enough to stretch across the continental United States 15 times. • Willis Tower weighs 222,000 tons. • The average sway of the building is approximately six inches (152 millimeters) from true center, but the building is designed to sway up to three feet. • Willis Tower elevators operate as fast as 1,600 feet (488 meters) per minute - among the fastest in the world. • Each working day, between 15,000 and 20,000 people come and go from Willis Tower
  18. 18. Most interesting • Skydeck Chicago debuted The Ledge in 2009, unveiling a breathtaking view of the city, 1,353 feet straight down to Wacker Drive and the Chicago River. Since then, it has become a “must-do” Chicago experience for locals and visitors alike. • The Ledge features glass panels that are 1 ½ inches thick and can hold 5 tons. • The Ledge’s glass boxes are designed to retract into the building, allowing easy access for cleaning and maintenance. • Approximately 1.4 million people visit Skydeck each year, a 30% increase in attendance since the debut of The Ledge. • On a clear day, you can see four states from Skydeck on the 103rd floor: Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin and Michigan. Visibility from the Skydeck is approximately 40-50 miles (65 - 80 kilometers).

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