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The presentation speaks about the origin of Good Governance, its major definitions, key components and strategies. The presentations also dwells upon the Good Governance scenario in India as well that in the state of Andhra Pradesh
Governance and by extension, good governance, is applicable to all sections of society such as the government, legislature, judiciary, the media, the private sector, the corporate sector etc. Public accountability and transparency are as relevant for the one as for the other.
Overcomes the hesitation to prefix “good” to governance
According to the United Nations, good governance has eight characteristics
Accountability is a key requirement of good governance. An accountable entity will be answerable to its stakeholders, will sanction violation of laid down norms, address grievances and will improve its systems based on feedback
Good Governance : Origin, concepts and components
GOOD GOVERNANCE : CONCEPTS AND COMPONENTS Nayana Renukumar, Centre for Good Governance
Presentation StructureGenesis of G d GG i f Good Governance From Public Administration to New Public Management Towards Governance Governance : Definition, key actors, stakeholders Towards Good Governance Defining Good GovernanceComponents and ChC d Characteristics of G d Governance f Good G Four dimensional framework :World Bank Six dimensional framework : World Governance Indicators 8 characteristics of Good Governance : United Nations Strategies for Good Governance Critique of Good GovernanceGood Governance in India Good Governance strategies and initiatives of GoI Good Governance initiates of Andhra Pradesh Good Governance : Implication for civil servantsConclusion
Introduction Civil Servants Central Media M d Public Government Administration New Public Management State Private sectorGovernment Good Governance GovernanceLegislature Civil society Judiciary International Agencies
From Public Administration to NPMPublic administration in developing Globalization, liberalization and intensivecountries termed as overstaffed, weak, + application of ITcorrupt and inefficient New Public Management (NPM) Prescribed by Brettonwoods institutions : WB, IMF Optimizing resources Alternative service delivery mechanisms Performance measurement, Efficiency, Economy,Value for Money Minimalist state Grants, aids and loans in return for market oriented reforms Critique of NPM Does not distinguish between public and Reality dawns ……… private spheres Failure of structural adjustment programs Focuses on market-led growth market led Mounting fiscal debt Neglects social concerns and public welfare From economic reforms to governance…………
Towards Governance World Bank publication ‘Sub-Saharan Africa - from crisis to sustainable growth’, 1989 i bl h’ Worsened economic performance in the region despite Structural Adjustment Programs ( j g (SAP’s) ) Failure of public institutions cited as reason for weak performance Term “governance” first used to describe the need for institutional reform and a better and more efficient public sector in Sub-Saharan countries Defined governance as “the exercise of political power to manage a nation’s affairs affairs” “Africa requires not just less government but better government”1989 study introduced Governance without explicitly referring to the connotation “good”
Governance Governance is a method through which h d h h h h Governance is the power is exercised in Governance is the manner in which the management of a process whereby power is exercised in country s political country’s political, societies or the management of a economic, and social organizations make country’s social and resources for important decisions, economic resources development. development determine whom they y for d l f development. t involve and how they World Bank (1992) Asian Development render account. Bank (1995) Canada Institute of Governance (2002)Governance is the exercise of economic, political, and administrative authority to manage acountry scountry’s affairs at all levels It comprises the mechanisms processes, and institutions levels. mechanisms, processesthrough which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meettheir obligations and mediate their differences. UNDP (1997)
Governance: Operation of 3 Key Actors Governance: Goes beyond the Government State: Creating a favorable political, legal & economic environment State Civil Society Market Market:Civil Society: Creating opportunities for Mobilizing peoples’ people participation
Stakeholders in Governance Legislature L i l Executive Judiciary Media Stakeholders in Governance G Judiciary Media Private Social Sector Orgns.Governance is too important to be left to the government....
Towards Good GovernanceGovernance Value neutral, ‘good’ governance to qualify governanceWB Report ‘Governance and Development’ , 1992 Further developed the concept of Governance Defines Good Governance Synonymous to sound development management Central to creating and sustaining an environment which fosters strong and equitable development Essential component of sound economic policies
Defining Good GovernanceWorld Bank: Good governance entails g sound public sector management (efficiency, effectiveness, and economy), accountability, exchange and free flow of information (transparency) (transparency), and a legal framework for development (justice, respect for human rights and liberties).DFID: Good Governance is defined focusing on legitimacy (government should have the consent of the governed), accountability (ensuring transparency, being answerable for actions and media freedom), f d ) competence (effective policy making, implementation and service delivery), and respect for law and human rights.
Summary Public administration Goal of state – ‘Governance’ Major c nstit ent f Maj r constituent of state Traditional concept Instrument to achieve state’s goals and objectives Recent prominence Influence on Administration - NPM Globalization Managerial orientation + removal of trade barriers Managerial reforms : Disinvestment, M i l f Di i t t +entry of MNCs corporatization, outsourcing, shrinking state role + intensive application of IT Larger collaboration between state, g , market and civil society – PPPs State Civil Society Market GoodGovernment Governance Governance
Components of Good Governance : 4 Dimensional Framework - World Bank Public sector management Public P bl expenditure management (public investments, budget planning, budget processes) d Civil service reform (to manage less but manage better) Reform of public enterprises (privatisation, strengthening managment of PSEs, improving competitive conditions) Improvement in efficiency of public institutions Accountbility y Constituted an innovation in the Bank’s sphere of action Described as being “at the heart of governance”. Described as “holding public officials responsible for their actions Horizontal (internal) and vertical (external) accountability Concept of exit (access to other service providers) and voice (participation)For the first time, quality of a government w.r.t its ability to satisfy needs of citizens apart fromeconomic performance was put up for discussion
Components of Good Governance : 4 Dimensional Framework - World BankLegal framework for development Important contribution to equitable and j society and thus to prospects for I ib i i bl d just i d h f social development and poverty alleviation Focus on judicial reform, legislative reforms, and the improvement of legal education and trainingRule of law represents the legal dimension of good governance by a countryTransparency and information Economic efficiency E i ffi i Prevention of corruption Analysis, articulation and acceptance of governmental policy choices Corruption Cross-cutting theme, across Transparency and information, Accountability, Rule of law and PSM Enhanced engagement of Good Governance with anti-corruption since 1997 anti corruption “Improving governance is certainly about fighting corruption, although it is also about much more than fighting corruption”.
World Governance Indicators : 6 Dimensional Framework : World Bank Voice & Accountability Political Stability and Lack of Violence Government Effectiveness Regulatory Quality Rule f Law R l of L Control of Corruption(Kaufmann-Kraay-Mastruzzi Worldwide Governance Indicators –World Bank )
GovernanceGovernance Issues Indicators Components • Extent of citizens participation in selection of governmentsThe Process by which • Voice and • Civil liberties , political rightsGovernments are selected, Accountability • Perceptions that the government in powermonitored, and replaced • Political Stability will be destabilised by possible unconstitutional means • Perceptions of quality of public service p provision, q quality y of bureaucracy, yThe capacity of the •Th i f h Government competence of civil servants, independencegovernment to effectively Effectiveness of civil service from political pressures,formulate and implement • credibility of government’s commitment to Regulatory p policies.policies olicies Quality • The incidence of market unfriendly policies such as price controls • Success of the society in developing anTheTh respect of citizens f environment i which f i and predictable i in hi h fair d di bland the state for • Rule of Law rules form the basis for economic and social interactionsinstitutions that govern • Control of • Perceptions of the incidence of crime,economic i and d social i l Corruption effectiveness and predictability of judiciaryinteraction among them and enforceability of contracts. • Perceptions of corruption
Eight Characteristics of Good Governance – United Nations Accountable Consensus Transparent oriented Participatory p y Responsive p Follows the Equitable and Rule of Law Inclusive Effective and Efficient Effi i t
Characteristics of Good GovernanceAccountability Key requirement of Good Governance Applicable to government, civil society and private sector Types : Political, legal, administrative and social accountability Components : A C Answerability, sanction, redress, and system bili i d d improvementTransparency p y Free flow of information Accessibility of information to those affected by decisions taken in governance processResponsiveness Citizen orientation, citizen friendliness Timely delivery of services T l d l f Redress of citizen grievances
Characteristics of Good GovernanceEffectiveness and efficiency y Optimum use of resources Competency and performance of civil servants Result orientationRule of law Fair legal framework g Impartial enforcement machinery Independent judiciaryParticipationP Cornerstone of Good Governance Opportunities for citizens to participate in decision making, implementation and monitoring of government activities Freedom of expression and association, organized civil society
Characteristics of Good GovernanceEquity and inclusiveness q y All groups, particularly the most vulnerable, have opportunities to improve or maintain their well being Equal opportunities for participation in decision making processConsensus Orientation Mediation of different interests in society to reach a broad consensus on What is in the best interest of the whole community How this can be achieved H h b h d
Strategies for Good GovernanceReorienting priorities of the state through appropriate investment gp g pp pin human needs, and provision of social safety nets for the poorand marginalizedStrengthening state institutionsS hIntroducing appropriate reforms in the functioning of Parliamentand increasing its effectivenessEnhancing civil service capacity through appropriate reformmeasures that matches performance and accountabilityForging new alliances with civil societyEvolving a new framework for government-business co-operation
Critique of Good GovernanceNeed contextual understanding Good Governance – Neo liberal thrust + GlobalizationTendency to depoliticize government Reduce the art of governing to an apolitical and technical exerciseAmbiguous definition of good governanceA b d f f d ‘Good’ in Good Governance is subjective and is subject to interpretations Who defines what is good ?Over emphasis on governance indicators and quantification "Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted“ - Albert EinsteinGood governance institutions do not guarantee automatic reduction of poverty andsustainable developmentTendency to do governance without government PPPs, NGOs (non-state actors) – unaccountable, invisible
Good Governance Strategies - IndiaConference of Chief Secretaries and Chief Ministers – 1996, 1997 Deliberation on improving governance Action plan for accountable and citizen friendly government Formulation of initiativesGood Governance initiatives Decentralization and People’s Participation Citizen s Citizen’s Charters Sevottam Results Framework Document State of Civil Services Survey Model Code of Governance – State of Governance Report Redress of Citizen’s Grievances E-Governance E Governance Social Accountability - Right to Information, Social Audits, Community Score Cards
Model Code of Governance Model Code of Governance Developed by GoI in collaboration with State Governments, Governance issues identified in model code to guide state governments in participative and citizen centric development citizen-centric in benchmarking their performance on Governance Provides the basis for assessing governance in Indian context Governance Components FinancialAccountability Improving Technology and Public Management Incentivizing Anti and Service System Service Rule of Law and Budget Reforms CorruptionTransparency Delivery Improvement morale Sanctity
State of Governance ReportAssessment (through scoring), of Indian States on p ( g g), pre-determined dimensions of governanceOutput --- methodology for measuring and preparing aReport on the State of Governance for States/sub nationalunits, by taking in account the indicators with specificreference to poverty reductionMethodology tested in three states, to be rolled out in otherStates and UTsSoGR framework expected to enable temporal comparisonof Governance indicators for a given State
• Service Standards • Decentralization and Self-GovernmentService Delivery • Regulation and user feedback user-feedback • Macro-Governance aspectsDevelopment program for • Inclusive policy makingweaker sections andbackward Areas • Gender Sensitivity • Use of ICT for citizen interfaceTechnology and system gy yImprovement • R d i of Delivery system for efficiency Redesign f D li t f ffi i gainsFinancial Management and • Financial ManagementBudget sanctity • Budgetary Process • Regulatory burdenInvestment Climate • Quality of industrial infrastructurePublic service morale and • Quality of civil serviceanticorruption • Anti-corruption pAccountability andTransparency • Transparency and citizen-access
Social Accountability An approach towards building accountability that relies on civic engagement, i.e., in which it is ordinary citizens and/or civil society organizations who , y y g participate directly or indirectly in exacting accountabilityCommunity Scorecards - AP AP, People’s p p planning, Kerala gMaharashtra Policy/BudgetCitizen Report Cards, Bangalore Formulation Performance Civic Policy/Budget Monitoring Engagement g g Analysis Policy/Budget P li /B d Expenditure Budget Analysis/ Review, Social Audits, Rajasthan Tracking Gujarat, Bangalore People’s Estimate, AP
Grievance RedressGrievance redress mechanisms (GRMs) are institutions, instruments,methods, and processes by which a resolution to a grievance is sought andprovidedIntegral to good governance – indicates responsiveness to citizensGrievance redress mechanisms DAR&PG – nodal department for redress of grievances Centralized grievance redress management system (CGRMS) Ombudsman For local government grievances in Kerala For NREGS grievances Central and State Information Commissions for RTI Departmental grievance redress systems Online grievance systems at state, department, municipality and district levels
E GovernanceTransformation of government to provide efficient, convenient & transparentservices to the citizens & businesses through information & communicationtechnologies Easy to access single point l Increased efficiency Higher penetration due to connectivity delivery of public due to automation services to citizens Reduction in cost Increased of delivery of accountability services Higher availability Increased Reduced of public domain transparency Corruption C information
Good Governance initiatives – Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh – pioneers in adoption of good governance principles i i l Four pronged strategy for Good Governance Structural Citizen Centric Systemic Improving Mechanisms Reform Initiatives Improvements Service Delivery• Governance, , • Citizens’ Charters • Public Finance • E-Governance & Public • Redressal of Public Management IT Initiatives Management & Grievances • Human Resource • Process Re- Administrative Management engineering Reforms Wing • Civil Society Empowerment p • Procurement and • Online grievance g• Strategy and Initiatives other Reforms redress Performance Innovation Units • Right to Information Act• Centre for Good Governance G • Anti-corruption Anti corruption
Good Governance –Implication for Indian civil servants Need to Administrative updateAccountability Public- Reforms – Technological Attitudinal existing and Private Additional Addi i l Advancements Ad changes h skills and kill dTransparency Partnership responsibilities acquire new skills
ConclusionGood Governance may be a rhetoric but good rhetoric,government, responsive administration and ajust legal system are eternal requirementsExternal drive to policy change to be replacedby local commitment and ownership of reform y pIngenuous ideas for improving governance,ownership of i i i i hi f initiative and commitment to d ireform extremely important