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Design: “To design” refers to the process of originating and developing a plan for a product, service or process.Process: Is any part of an organization which takes a set of input resources which are then used to transform something into outputs of products or services.
Process Design Process design Processes that Processes thatDesign Products Produce Products and Services and Services Supply Network DesignConcept Generation Screening Layout and Flow Preliminary Design Evaluation and Improvement Process Job Technology DesignPrototyping and final design
Nature of the design activity:1) Design is inevitable – products, services and the processes which produce them all have to be designed.2) Product design influences process design – decisions taken during the design of a product or service will have an impact on the decisions taken during the design of the process which produces those products or services and vice versa.
Product & services design are interrelated to its process design Designing the Designing the Product or Processes that Service Produce the Product or Service Processes should be Products and services designed so they can should be designed in create all products such a way that they and services which can be created the operation is likely effectively to introduceDecisions taken during the design of the product or service will have an impact on the process that produces them and vice versa
Process Design and Product/Service Design are Interrelated• To commit to the detailed design of a product or service consideration must be given to how it is to be produced.• Design of process can constrain the design of products and services.• The overlap is greater in the service industry: • Service industry - it is impossible to separate service design and process design – they are the same thing. • Manufacturing industry - it is possible to separate product design and process design but it is beneficial to consider them together because the design of products has a major effect on the cost of making them.
Process and product/service design must satisfy customer• Products/services designer customers satisfaction criteria • Aesthetically pleasing • Reliability • Meets expectation • Inexpensive • Quality • Easy to manufacture and deliver • Speedy• Process designer customers satisfaction achieved through: • Layout • Location • Process technology • Human skills
The design activity is itself a process Finished designs which are: TRANSFORMED High quality: Error-free designs RESOURCES which fulfil their purpose in anTechnical information effective and creative way Market information Time information Speedily produced: Designs which have moved from concept to detailed THE DESIGN specification in a short time INPUTS OUTPUT ACTIVITY Dependably delivered: Designs which are delivered when promised Test and design equipment Produced flexibly: DesignsDesign and technical which include the latest ideas staff to emerge during the process TRANSFORMING Low cost: Designs produced RESOURCES without consuming excessive resources
Designing processes• Process mapping• Process mapping symbols• Improving processes• Process performance• Throughput, cycle time & work in process
Process mapping• Used to identify different types of activities.• Shows the flow of material, people or information.• Critical analysis of process maps can improve the process.
Process performance• Process performance can be judge against the five key performance objective: Quality Speed Dependability Flexibility Cost
Throughput, work content, cycle time, andwork in process • Throughput – the time for a unit to move through the process • Work content – the total amount of work required to produce a unit of output (measured in time) • Cycle time – The average time between units of output emerging form the process • Work in process (WIP) –unfinished items in a production process waiting for further processing e. g. when customers join a queue in a process they become WIP throughput = work in process x cycle time
Project Processes• One-off, complex, large scale, high work content “products”• Specially made, every one customized• Defined start and finish: time, quality and cost objectives• Many different skills have to be coordinated• Fixed position layout
Jobbing Processes• Very small quantities: “one-offs”, or only a few required• Specially made. High variety, low repetition.• Skill requirements are usually very broad• Skilled jobber, or team of jobbers complete whole product• Fixed position or process layout (routing decided by jobbers)
Batch Processes• Higher volumes and lower variety than for jobbing• Standard products, repeating demand. But can make specials• Specialized, narrower skills• Set-ups (changeovers) at each stage of production• Process or cellular layout
Continuous Process• Extremely high volumes and low variety: often single product• Standard, repeat products• Highly capital-intensive and automated• Few changeovers required• Difficult and expensive to start and stop the process• Product layout: usually flow along conveyors or pipes
Manufacturing process Service process types typesHigh High Project Professional service Jobbing Service shop VarietyVariety Batch Mass Contin- Low Mass serviceLow uous Low Volume High Low Volume High