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Software Project Management
2
Chapter One
Overview
Content
Project Management Fundamentals
Project Life Cycle
3
Introduction
 Project Management is a complex discipline
 Multidisciplinary
 Multi-stakeholder
 Technical, but also related with human relationships
 Based on many different scientific theories, but also heavily
grounded on real world experience
The CHAOS study published in 1995 by The Standish
Group found that although the U.S spent over $250
billion on IT projects, approximately…
 31% were cancelled before completion
 53% were completed but over budget, over schedule, & did
not meet original specifications
 For mid-size companies, average cost overruns were 182%,
while average schedule overruns were 202%!
4
Summary of the Chaos Studies from 2004 to 2012
5
Tata Consultancy Services 2007 Report
Included 800 senior IT managers from the UK, US,
France, Germany, India, Japan, & Singapore:
 62% of the IT projects failed to meet their schedules
 49% experienced budget overruns
 47% experienced higher-than expected maintenance costs
 41% failed to deliver the expected business value and ROI
6
Why PM?
Results of poor Project Management
 Original objectives not met
 Project cost overruns
 Schedule overruns
 Project may not be completed
 Poor quality project outputs
 Failure to deliver anticipated business benefits, leading to
dissatisfied management and project members
 Insufficient resources
Success criteria for project management?
 deliver the software to the customer at the agreed time;
 keep overall costs within budget;
 deliver software that meets the customer’s expectations;
 maintain a coherent and well-functioning development team
7
The Triple Constraint
8
It is the project manager’s duty to
balance these three often
competing goals
Summary of CHAOS Study Factor
Rankings for Successful Projects
9
Sources: Adapted from the Standish Group. CHAOS (West
Yarmouth,MA: 1995, 2010) &
http://www.infoq.com/articles/Interview-Johnson-Standish-CHAOS
Project success factors
 1. Executive support / strong sponsorship
 2. User involvement
 3. Experienced project manager
 4. Clear business objectives
 5. Minimized scope
 6. Standard software infrastructure
 7. Firm basic requirements
 8. Formal methodology
 9. Reliable estimates
 10. Other criteria, such as small milestones, proper planning,
competent staff, and ownership
10
What is a project?
A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to
create a unique product, service, or result.
 Temporary - project has a definite beginning and end
 The end is reached when:
 objectives have been achieved
 its objectives will not or cannot be met
 the client (customer, sponsor) wishes to terminate the project
 repetitive elements may be present in some project
deliverables and activities. E.g. building, it is unique in design,
stake holders, location, etc.
11
Project(cont’d)
Has specific objectives and a unique purpose
 Has a start and end date (temporary)
 Has a limited budget
Produces specific deliverables - is a tangible and
verifiable product of work (i.e., project plan, design
specifications, delivered system, etc.)
Can vary vastly in size, complexity and duration
 Consume human and nonhuman resources (i.e.,
money, people, equipment)
 Should have a primary customer or sponsor
12
Project(cont’d)
Examples of projects include, but are not limited to:
 Developing a new product, service, or result;
 Effecting a change in the structure, processes, staffing, or
style of an organization;
 Developing or acquiring a new or modified information system
(hardware or software);
 Constructing a building, industrial plant, or infrastructure;
 Implementing, improving, or enhancing existing business
processes and procedures.
13
Project vs. Operational Work
 Projects
 To attain its objectives and
terminate
 Create own character,
organization, and goals
 Catalyst for change
 Unique product or services
 Heterogeneous teams
 Start and end date
 Examples
 Writing and publishing a book
 Implementing a LAN
 Hiring a sales man
 Arrange for a conference
 Opening for a new shop
14
 Operations
 To sustain the business
 Semi permanent charter,
organization, and goals
 Maintain status quo
 Standard product or services
 Homogeneous teams
 Ongoing
 Examples
 Responding to customers requests
 Hooking up a Printer to a computer
 Meeting with an employee
 Attending a conference
 Writing a progress update memo
What makes software projects unique?
The product is intangible
 A manager of a shipbuilding or a civil engineering project can see
the product being developed. Software project managers cannot see
progress by looking at the artifact that is being constructed.
Large software projects are often “one-off” projects
 Lessons learned from previous projects may not be readily
transferable to new projects because:
 There is a rapid technological changes in computers and
communications. Every large software development project is unique
Software processes are variable and organization-specific
Business models and markets change too rapidly so
projects that take more than a year can be obsolete before
they are completed.
15
What is management?
Management is the process of coordinating people
and other resources to achieve the goals of the
organization.
 Planning – deciding what is to be done. This is the most
challenging
 Organizing – making arrangements
 Staffing – selecting the right people for the job
 Directing – giving instructions
 Monitoring – checking on progress
 Controlling – taking action to remedy hold-ups
 Innovating – coming up with solutions when problems emerge
 Representing – liaising with clients, users, developers and
other stakeholders
16
What is Project Management?
Project management is the application of knowledge,
skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to
meet the project requirements.
Project management involves the following activities:
 Initiating,
 Planning,
 Executing - is doing what is planned. This where the actual
project is begins,
 Monitoring and Controlling, and
 Closing
17
Software Project Management
Software Project Management is the collection of
techniques used to develop and deliver various types
of software products.
Includes technical issues such as:
 The choice of software development methodology.
 How to estimate project size and schedule.
 Which programming development environment to use.
18
Project Stakeholders
 Stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities.
 1. Project Manager: is the team leader and is responsible for ensuring
that all of the project management and technical development
processes are in place and are being carried out within a set of
specific requirements, defined processes, and quality standards.
 Must have a diverse set of skills (e.g. good general skills, technical
management, conflict management, customer relationship management and
leadership skills)
 Managing a project includes:
 Identifying requirements.
 Establishing clear and achievable objectives.
 Balancing the competing demand of quality, scope, time and cost.
 Adapting the specifications, plans, and approach to the different concerns and
expectations of the various stakeholders
 97% of successful projects were led by experienced project managers.
 Project managers strive to meet the triple constraint by balancing project
scope, time, and cost goals
19
Project Stakeholders(cont’d)
20
 Project managers need both “hard” and “soft” skills.
 Hard skills include product knowledge and knowing how to use
various project management tools and techniques.
 Soft skills include being able to work with various types of people.
Effective Project Managers Ineffective Project Managers
• Leadership by example
• Visionary
• Technically competent
• Decisive
• Good communicator
• Good motivator
• Stands up to upper management
when necessary
• Supports team members
• Encourages new ideas
• Sets bad example
• Not self-assured
• Lacks technical expertise
• Poor communicator
• Poor motivator
Project Stakeholders(cont’d)
 2. Project Sponsor - the person or group who provides resources
and support for the project and is accountable for enabling
success.
 may be external or internal to the project manager’s organization.
 3. Subject Matter Expert(s) (SME) - who has specific knowledge,
expertise, or insight in a specific functional area needed to
support the project.
 4. Technical Expert(s) (TE) - include systems analysts, network
specialists, programmers, graphic artists, trainers, and so forth.
 5. Support staff - include such roles as contracting, financial
management, logistics, legal, safety, etc.
 6. Users
 7. Suppliers
21
Project Management Tools and Techniques
Project management tools and techniques assist
project managers and their teams in various aspects
of project management
Some specific ones include:
 WBS (scope)
 Gantt charts, network diagrams, critical path analysis(time)
 Cost estimates (cost)
22
Project Life Cycle(PLC)
 PLC is a collection of logical stages or phases that maps the life
of a project from its beginning to its end in order to define, build,
and deliver the product of a project
 Is a collection of project phases that defines:
 What work will be performed in each phase
 What deliverables will be produced and when
 Who is involved in each phase
 IT product life cycle – Planning -> Analysis -> Design ->
Implementation -> Maintenance -> Support 23
PLC(cont’d)
Define Project Goal
 The project goal should be focused on providing business
value to the organization
 Provides a clear focus and drives the other phases of the
project
 How will we know if this project is successful given the time,
money, and resources invested?
Plan Project
 deliverables, tasks, resources, and time to complete each task
must be defined for each phase of the project
 used as a tool to gauge the project’s performance throughout
the life cycle.
24
PLC(cont’d)
Execute Project Plan
 put the plan into action
 Progress must be documented and compared to the baseline
plan
Close Project
 Ensures that all of the work is completed as planned
 Final project report and presentation to the client
Evaluate Project
 Lessons learned to determine those things to do the same and
those things to change
 Evaluate team member performance
 May be audited by an outside third party
25
Reading Assignment
Project Vs Program Vs Portfolio
Project Management Office(PMO)
26

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PM-1 Overview.ppt

  • 4. Introduction  Project Management is a complex discipline  Multidisciplinary  Multi-stakeholder  Technical, but also related with human relationships  Based on many different scientific theories, but also heavily grounded on real world experience The CHAOS study published in 1995 by The Standish Group found that although the U.S spent over $250 billion on IT projects, approximately…  31% were cancelled before completion  53% were completed but over budget, over schedule, & did not meet original specifications  For mid-size companies, average cost overruns were 182%, while average schedule overruns were 202%! 4
  • 5. Summary of the Chaos Studies from 2004 to 2012 5
  • 6. Tata Consultancy Services 2007 Report Included 800 senior IT managers from the UK, US, France, Germany, India, Japan, & Singapore:  62% of the IT projects failed to meet their schedules  49% experienced budget overruns  47% experienced higher-than expected maintenance costs  41% failed to deliver the expected business value and ROI 6
  • 7. Why PM? Results of poor Project Management  Original objectives not met  Project cost overruns  Schedule overruns  Project may not be completed  Poor quality project outputs  Failure to deliver anticipated business benefits, leading to dissatisfied management and project members  Insufficient resources Success criteria for project management?  deliver the software to the customer at the agreed time;  keep overall costs within budget;  deliver software that meets the customer’s expectations;  maintain a coherent and well-functioning development team 7
  • 8. The Triple Constraint 8 It is the project manager’s duty to balance these three often competing goals
  • 9. Summary of CHAOS Study Factor Rankings for Successful Projects 9 Sources: Adapted from the Standish Group. CHAOS (West Yarmouth,MA: 1995, 2010) & http://www.infoq.com/articles/Interview-Johnson-Standish-CHAOS
  • 10. Project success factors  1. Executive support / strong sponsorship  2. User involvement  3. Experienced project manager  4. Clear business objectives  5. Minimized scope  6. Standard software infrastructure  7. Firm basic requirements  8. Formal methodology  9. Reliable estimates  10. Other criteria, such as small milestones, proper planning, competent staff, and ownership 10
  • 11. What is a project? A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.  Temporary - project has a definite beginning and end  The end is reached when:  objectives have been achieved  its objectives will not or cannot be met  the client (customer, sponsor) wishes to terminate the project  repetitive elements may be present in some project deliverables and activities. E.g. building, it is unique in design, stake holders, location, etc. 11
  • 12. Project(cont’d) Has specific objectives and a unique purpose  Has a start and end date (temporary)  Has a limited budget Produces specific deliverables - is a tangible and verifiable product of work (i.e., project plan, design specifications, delivered system, etc.) Can vary vastly in size, complexity and duration  Consume human and nonhuman resources (i.e., money, people, equipment)  Should have a primary customer or sponsor 12
  • 13. Project(cont’d) Examples of projects include, but are not limited to:  Developing a new product, service, or result;  Effecting a change in the structure, processes, staffing, or style of an organization;  Developing or acquiring a new or modified information system (hardware or software);  Constructing a building, industrial plant, or infrastructure;  Implementing, improving, or enhancing existing business processes and procedures. 13
  • 14. Project vs. Operational Work  Projects  To attain its objectives and terminate  Create own character, organization, and goals  Catalyst for change  Unique product or services  Heterogeneous teams  Start and end date  Examples  Writing and publishing a book  Implementing a LAN  Hiring a sales man  Arrange for a conference  Opening for a new shop 14  Operations  To sustain the business  Semi permanent charter, organization, and goals  Maintain status quo  Standard product or services  Homogeneous teams  Ongoing  Examples  Responding to customers requests  Hooking up a Printer to a computer  Meeting with an employee  Attending a conference  Writing a progress update memo
  • 15. What makes software projects unique? The product is intangible  A manager of a shipbuilding or a civil engineering project can see the product being developed. Software project managers cannot see progress by looking at the artifact that is being constructed. Large software projects are often “one-off” projects  Lessons learned from previous projects may not be readily transferable to new projects because:  There is a rapid technological changes in computers and communications. Every large software development project is unique Software processes are variable and organization-specific Business models and markets change too rapidly so projects that take more than a year can be obsolete before they are completed. 15
  • 16. What is management? Management is the process of coordinating people and other resources to achieve the goals of the organization.  Planning – deciding what is to be done. This is the most challenging  Organizing – making arrangements  Staffing – selecting the right people for the job  Directing – giving instructions  Monitoring – checking on progress  Controlling – taking action to remedy hold-ups  Innovating – coming up with solutions when problems emerge  Representing – liaising with clients, users, developers and other stakeholders 16
  • 17. What is Project Management? Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements. Project management involves the following activities:  Initiating,  Planning,  Executing - is doing what is planned. This where the actual project is begins,  Monitoring and Controlling, and  Closing 17
  • 18. Software Project Management Software Project Management is the collection of techniques used to develop and deliver various types of software products. Includes technical issues such as:  The choice of software development methodology.  How to estimate project size and schedule.  Which programming development environment to use. 18
  • 19. Project Stakeholders  Stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities.  1. Project Manager: is the team leader and is responsible for ensuring that all of the project management and technical development processes are in place and are being carried out within a set of specific requirements, defined processes, and quality standards.  Must have a diverse set of skills (e.g. good general skills, technical management, conflict management, customer relationship management and leadership skills)  Managing a project includes:  Identifying requirements.  Establishing clear and achievable objectives.  Balancing the competing demand of quality, scope, time and cost.  Adapting the specifications, plans, and approach to the different concerns and expectations of the various stakeholders  97% of successful projects were led by experienced project managers.  Project managers strive to meet the triple constraint by balancing project scope, time, and cost goals 19
  • 20. Project Stakeholders(cont’d) 20  Project managers need both “hard” and “soft” skills.  Hard skills include product knowledge and knowing how to use various project management tools and techniques.  Soft skills include being able to work with various types of people. Effective Project Managers Ineffective Project Managers • Leadership by example • Visionary • Technically competent • Decisive • Good communicator • Good motivator • Stands up to upper management when necessary • Supports team members • Encourages new ideas • Sets bad example • Not self-assured • Lacks technical expertise • Poor communicator • Poor motivator
  • 21. Project Stakeholders(cont’d)  2. Project Sponsor - the person or group who provides resources and support for the project and is accountable for enabling success.  may be external or internal to the project manager’s organization.  3. Subject Matter Expert(s) (SME) - who has specific knowledge, expertise, or insight in a specific functional area needed to support the project.  4. Technical Expert(s) (TE) - include systems analysts, network specialists, programmers, graphic artists, trainers, and so forth.  5. Support staff - include such roles as contracting, financial management, logistics, legal, safety, etc.  6. Users  7. Suppliers 21
  • 22. Project Management Tools and Techniques Project management tools and techniques assist project managers and their teams in various aspects of project management Some specific ones include:  WBS (scope)  Gantt charts, network diagrams, critical path analysis(time)  Cost estimates (cost) 22
  • 23. Project Life Cycle(PLC)  PLC is a collection of logical stages or phases that maps the life of a project from its beginning to its end in order to define, build, and deliver the product of a project  Is a collection of project phases that defines:  What work will be performed in each phase  What deliverables will be produced and when  Who is involved in each phase  IT product life cycle – Planning -> Analysis -> Design -> Implementation -> Maintenance -> Support 23
  • 24. PLC(cont’d) Define Project Goal  The project goal should be focused on providing business value to the organization  Provides a clear focus and drives the other phases of the project  How will we know if this project is successful given the time, money, and resources invested? Plan Project  deliverables, tasks, resources, and time to complete each task must be defined for each phase of the project  used as a tool to gauge the project’s performance throughout the life cycle. 24
  • 25. PLC(cont’d) Execute Project Plan  put the plan into action  Progress must be documented and compared to the baseline plan Close Project  Ensures that all of the work is completed as planned  Final project report and presentation to the client Evaluate Project  Lessons learned to determine those things to do the same and those things to change  Evaluate team member performance  May be audited by an outside third party 25
  • 26. Reading Assignment Project Vs Program Vs Portfolio Project Management Office(PMO) 26