Project Management Fundamentals
Project Life Cycle
Project Management is a complex discipline
Technical, but also related with human relationships
Based on many different scientific theories, but also heavily
grounded on real world experience
The CHAOS study published in 1995 by The Standish
Group found that although the U.S spent over $250
billion on IT projects, approximately…
31% were cancelled before completion
53% were completed but over budget, over schedule, & did
not meet original specifications
For mid-size companies, average cost overruns were 182%,
while average schedule overruns were 202%!
Summary of the Chaos Studies from 2004 to 2012
Tata Consultancy Services 2007 Report
Included 800 senior IT managers from the UK, US,
France, Germany, India, Japan, & Singapore:
62% of the IT projects failed to meet their schedules
49% experienced budget overruns
47% experienced higher-than expected maintenance costs
41% failed to deliver the expected business value and ROI
Results of poor Project Management
Original objectives not met
Project cost overruns
Project may not be completed
Poor quality project outputs
Failure to deliver anticipated business benefits, leading to
dissatisfied management and project members
Success criteria for project management?
deliver the software to the customer at the agreed time;
keep overall costs within budget;
deliver software that meets the customer’s expectations;
maintain a coherent and well-functioning development team
The Triple Constraint
It is the project manager’s duty to
balance these three often
Summary of CHAOS Study Factor
Rankings for Successful Projects
Sources: Adapted from the Standish Group. CHAOS (West
Yarmouth,MA: 1995, 2010) &
Project success factors
1. Executive support / strong sponsorship
2. User involvement
3. Experienced project manager
4. Clear business objectives
5. Minimized scope
6. Standard software infrastructure
7. Firm basic requirements
8. Formal methodology
9. Reliable estimates
10. Other criteria, such as small milestones, proper planning,
competent staff, and ownership
What is a project?
A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to
create a unique product, service, or result.
Temporary - project has a definite beginning and end
The end is reached when:
objectives have been achieved
its objectives will not or cannot be met
the client (customer, sponsor) wishes to terminate the project
repetitive elements may be present in some project
deliverables and activities. E.g. building, it is unique in design,
stake holders, location, etc.
Has specific objectives and a unique purpose
Has a start and end date (temporary)
Has a limited budget
Produces specific deliverables - is a tangible and
verifiable product of work (i.e., project plan, design
specifications, delivered system, etc.)
Can vary vastly in size, complexity and duration
Consume human and nonhuman resources (i.e.,
money, people, equipment)
Should have a primary customer or sponsor
Examples of projects include, but are not limited to:
Developing a new product, service, or result;
Effecting a change in the structure, processes, staffing, or
style of an organization;
Developing or acquiring a new or modified information system
(hardware or software);
Constructing a building, industrial plant, or infrastructure;
Implementing, improving, or enhancing existing business
processes and procedures.
Project vs. Operational Work
To attain its objectives and
Create own character,
organization, and goals
Catalyst for change
Unique product or services
Start and end date
Writing and publishing a book
Implementing a LAN
Hiring a sales man
Arrange for a conference
Opening for a new shop
To sustain the business
Semi permanent charter,
organization, and goals
Maintain status quo
Standard product or services
Responding to customers requests
Hooking up a Printer to a computer
Meeting with an employee
Attending a conference
Writing a progress update memo
What makes software projects unique?
The product is intangible
A manager of a shipbuilding or a civil engineering project can see
the product being developed. Software project managers cannot see
progress by looking at the artifact that is being constructed.
Large software projects are often “one-off” projects
Lessons learned from previous projects may not be readily
transferable to new projects because:
There is a rapid technological changes in computers and
communications. Every large software development project is unique
Software processes are variable and organization-specific
Business models and markets change too rapidly so
projects that take more than a year can be obsolete before
they are completed.
What is management?
Management is the process of coordinating people
and other resources to achieve the goals of the
Planning – deciding what is to be done. This is the most
Organizing – making arrangements
Staffing – selecting the right people for the job
Directing – giving instructions
Monitoring – checking on progress
Controlling – taking action to remedy hold-ups
Innovating – coming up with solutions when problems emerge
Representing – liaising with clients, users, developers and
What is Project Management?
Project management is the application of knowledge,
skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to
meet the project requirements.
Project management involves the following activities:
Executing - is doing what is planned. This where the actual
project is begins,
Monitoring and Controlling, and
Software Project Management
Software Project Management is the collection of
techniques used to develop and deliver various types
of software products.
Includes technical issues such as:
The choice of software development methodology.
How to estimate project size and schedule.
Which programming development environment to use.
Stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities.
1. Project Manager: is the team leader and is responsible for ensuring
that all of the project management and technical development
processes are in place and are being carried out within a set of
specific requirements, defined processes, and quality standards.
Must have a diverse set of skills (e.g. good general skills, technical
management, conflict management, customer relationship management and
Managing a project includes:
Establishing clear and achievable objectives.
Balancing the competing demand of quality, scope, time and cost.
Adapting the specifications, plans, and approach to the different concerns and
expectations of the various stakeholders
97% of successful projects were led by experienced project managers.
Project managers strive to meet the triple constraint by balancing project
scope, time, and cost goals
Project managers need both “hard” and “soft” skills.
Hard skills include product knowledge and knowing how to use
various project management tools and techniques.
Soft skills include being able to work with various types of people.
Effective Project Managers Ineffective Project Managers
• Leadership by example
• Technically competent
• Good communicator
• Good motivator
• Stands up to upper management
• Supports team members
• Encourages new ideas
• Sets bad example
• Not self-assured
• Lacks technical expertise
• Poor communicator
• Poor motivator
2. Project Sponsor - the person or group who provides resources
and support for the project and is accountable for enabling
may be external or internal to the project manager’s organization.
3. Subject Matter Expert(s) (SME) - who has specific knowledge,
expertise, or insight in a specific functional area needed to
support the project.
4. Technical Expert(s) (TE) - include systems analysts, network
specialists, programmers, graphic artists, trainers, and so forth.
5. Support staff - include such roles as contracting, financial
management, logistics, legal, safety, etc.
Project Management Tools and Techniques
Project management tools and techniques assist
project managers and their teams in various aspects
of project management
Some specific ones include:
Gantt charts, network diagrams, critical path analysis(time)
Cost estimates (cost)
Project Life Cycle(PLC)
PLC is a collection of logical stages or phases that maps the life
of a project from its beginning to its end in order to define, build,
and deliver the product of a project
Is a collection of project phases that defines:
What work will be performed in each phase
What deliverables will be produced and when
Who is involved in each phase
IT product life cycle – Planning -> Analysis -> Design ->
Implementation -> Maintenance -> Support 23
Define Project Goal
The project goal should be focused on providing business
value to the organization
Provides a clear focus and drives the other phases of the
How will we know if this project is successful given the time,
money, and resources invested?
deliverables, tasks, resources, and time to complete each task
must be defined for each phase of the project
used as a tool to gauge the project’s performance throughout
the life cycle.
Execute Project Plan
put the plan into action
Progress must be documented and compared to the baseline
Ensures that all of the work is completed as planned
Final project report and presentation to the client
Lessons learned to determine those things to do the same and
those things to change
Evaluate team member performance
May be audited by an outside third party
Project Vs Program Vs Portfolio
Project Management Office(PMO)
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