O slideshow foi denunciado.
Seu SlideShare está sendo baixado. ×

PM-1 Overview.ppt

Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio

Confira estes a seguir

1 de 26 Anúncio
Anúncio

Mais Conteúdo rRelacionado

Mais recentes (20)

Anúncio

PM-1 Overview.ppt

  1. 1. Software Project Management
  2. 2. 2 Chapter One Overview
  3. 3. Content Project Management Fundamentals Project Life Cycle 3
  4. 4. Introduction  Project Management is a complex discipline  Multidisciplinary  Multi-stakeholder  Technical, but also related with human relationships  Based on many different scientific theories, but also heavily grounded on real world experience The CHAOS study published in 1995 by The Standish Group found that although the U.S spent over $250 billion on IT projects, approximately…  31% were cancelled before completion  53% were completed but over budget, over schedule, & did not meet original specifications  For mid-size companies, average cost overruns were 182%, while average schedule overruns were 202%! 4
  5. 5. Summary of the Chaos Studies from 2004 to 2012 5
  6. 6. Tata Consultancy Services 2007 Report Included 800 senior IT managers from the UK, US, France, Germany, India, Japan, & Singapore:  62% of the IT projects failed to meet their schedules  49% experienced budget overruns  47% experienced higher-than expected maintenance costs  41% failed to deliver the expected business value and ROI 6
  7. 7. Why PM? Results of poor Project Management  Original objectives not met  Project cost overruns  Schedule overruns  Project may not be completed  Poor quality project outputs  Failure to deliver anticipated business benefits, leading to dissatisfied management and project members  Insufficient resources Success criteria for project management?  deliver the software to the customer at the agreed time;  keep overall costs within budget;  deliver software that meets the customer’s expectations;  maintain a coherent and well-functioning development team 7
  8. 8. The Triple Constraint 8 It is the project manager’s duty to balance these three often competing goals
  9. 9. Summary of CHAOS Study Factor Rankings for Successful Projects 9 Sources: Adapted from the Standish Group. CHAOS (West Yarmouth,MA: 1995, 2010) & http://www.infoq.com/articles/Interview-Johnson-Standish-CHAOS
  10. 10. Project success factors  1. Executive support / strong sponsorship  2. User involvement  3. Experienced project manager  4. Clear business objectives  5. Minimized scope  6. Standard software infrastructure  7. Firm basic requirements  8. Formal methodology  9. Reliable estimates  10. Other criteria, such as small milestones, proper planning, competent staff, and ownership 10
  11. 11. What is a project? A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.  Temporary - project has a definite beginning and end  The end is reached when:  objectives have been achieved  its objectives will not or cannot be met  the client (customer, sponsor) wishes to terminate the project  repetitive elements may be present in some project deliverables and activities. E.g. building, it is unique in design, stake holders, location, etc. 11
  12. 12. Project(cont’d) Has specific objectives and a unique purpose  Has a start and end date (temporary)  Has a limited budget Produces specific deliverables - is a tangible and verifiable product of work (i.e., project plan, design specifications, delivered system, etc.) Can vary vastly in size, complexity and duration  Consume human and nonhuman resources (i.e., money, people, equipment)  Should have a primary customer or sponsor 12
  13. 13. Project(cont’d) Examples of projects include, but are not limited to:  Developing a new product, service, or result;  Effecting a change in the structure, processes, staffing, or style of an organization;  Developing or acquiring a new or modified information system (hardware or software);  Constructing a building, industrial plant, or infrastructure;  Implementing, improving, or enhancing existing business processes and procedures. 13
  14. 14. Project vs. Operational Work  Projects  To attain its objectives and terminate  Create own character, organization, and goals  Catalyst for change  Unique product or services  Heterogeneous teams  Start and end date  Examples  Writing and publishing a book  Implementing a LAN  Hiring a sales man  Arrange for a conference  Opening for a new shop 14  Operations  To sustain the business  Semi permanent charter, organization, and goals  Maintain status quo  Standard product or services  Homogeneous teams  Ongoing  Examples  Responding to customers requests  Hooking up a Printer to a computer  Meeting with an employee  Attending a conference  Writing a progress update memo
  15. 15. What makes software projects unique? The product is intangible  A manager of a shipbuilding or a civil engineering project can see the product being developed. Software project managers cannot see progress by looking at the artifact that is being constructed. Large software projects are often “one-off” projects  Lessons learned from previous projects may not be readily transferable to new projects because:  There is a rapid technological changes in computers and communications. Every large software development project is unique Software processes are variable and organization-specific Business models and markets change too rapidly so projects that take more than a year can be obsolete before they are completed. 15
  16. 16. What is management? Management is the process of coordinating people and other resources to achieve the goals of the organization.  Planning – deciding what is to be done. This is the most challenging  Organizing – making arrangements  Staffing – selecting the right people for the job  Directing – giving instructions  Monitoring – checking on progress  Controlling – taking action to remedy hold-ups  Innovating – coming up with solutions when problems emerge  Representing – liaising with clients, users, developers and other stakeholders 16
  17. 17. What is Project Management? Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements. Project management involves the following activities:  Initiating,  Planning,  Executing - is doing what is planned. This where the actual project is begins,  Monitoring and Controlling, and  Closing 17
  18. 18. Software Project Management Software Project Management is the collection of techniques used to develop and deliver various types of software products. Includes technical issues such as:  The choice of software development methodology.  How to estimate project size and schedule.  Which programming development environment to use. 18
  19. 19. Project Stakeholders  Stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities.  1. Project Manager: is the team leader and is responsible for ensuring that all of the project management and technical development processes are in place and are being carried out within a set of specific requirements, defined processes, and quality standards.  Must have a diverse set of skills (e.g. good general skills, technical management, conflict management, customer relationship management and leadership skills)  Managing a project includes:  Identifying requirements.  Establishing clear and achievable objectives.  Balancing the competing demand of quality, scope, time and cost.  Adapting the specifications, plans, and approach to the different concerns and expectations of the various stakeholders  97% of successful projects were led by experienced project managers.  Project managers strive to meet the triple constraint by balancing project scope, time, and cost goals 19
  20. 20. Project Stakeholders(cont’d) 20  Project managers need both “hard” and “soft” skills.  Hard skills include product knowledge and knowing how to use various project management tools and techniques.  Soft skills include being able to work with various types of people. Effective Project Managers Ineffective Project Managers • Leadership by example • Visionary • Technically competent • Decisive • Good communicator • Good motivator • Stands up to upper management when necessary • Supports team members • Encourages new ideas • Sets bad example • Not self-assured • Lacks technical expertise • Poor communicator • Poor motivator
  21. 21. Project Stakeholders(cont’d)  2. Project Sponsor - the person or group who provides resources and support for the project and is accountable for enabling success.  may be external or internal to the project manager’s organization.  3. Subject Matter Expert(s) (SME) - who has specific knowledge, expertise, or insight in a specific functional area needed to support the project.  4. Technical Expert(s) (TE) - include systems analysts, network specialists, programmers, graphic artists, trainers, and so forth.  5. Support staff - include such roles as contracting, financial management, logistics, legal, safety, etc.  6. Users  7. Suppliers 21
  22. 22. Project Management Tools and Techniques Project management tools and techniques assist project managers and their teams in various aspects of project management Some specific ones include:  WBS (scope)  Gantt charts, network diagrams, critical path analysis(time)  Cost estimates (cost) 22
  23. 23. Project Life Cycle(PLC)  PLC is a collection of logical stages or phases that maps the life of a project from its beginning to its end in order to define, build, and deliver the product of a project  Is a collection of project phases that defines:  What work will be performed in each phase  What deliverables will be produced and when  Who is involved in each phase  IT product life cycle – Planning -> Analysis -> Design -> Implementation -> Maintenance -> Support 23
  24. 24. PLC(cont’d) Define Project Goal  The project goal should be focused on providing business value to the organization  Provides a clear focus and drives the other phases of the project  How will we know if this project is successful given the time, money, and resources invested? Plan Project  deliverables, tasks, resources, and time to complete each task must be defined for each phase of the project  used as a tool to gauge the project’s performance throughout the life cycle. 24
  25. 25. PLC(cont’d) Execute Project Plan  put the plan into action  Progress must be documented and compared to the baseline plan Close Project  Ensures that all of the work is completed as planned  Final project report and presentation to the client Evaluate Project  Lessons learned to determine those things to do the same and those things to change  Evaluate team member performance  May be audited by an outside third party 25
  26. 26. Reading Assignment Project Vs Program Vs Portfolio Project Management Office(PMO) 26

×