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  1. 1. Prepared by : Nariman Dehghani
  2. 2. Earthquake An earthquake is the motion or trembling of the ground produced by sudden displacement of rock in the Earth's crust. Earthquakes result from crustal strain, volcanoes, landslides, and collapse of caverns.
  3. 3. The effects of earthquakes include, but are not limited to, the following: Shaking and ground rupture Landslides Fires Soil liquefaction Tsunami Floods Human impacts
  4. 4. Earthquake Effects - Ground Shaking Northridge, CA 1994
  5. 5. Earthquake Effects - Ground Shaking Northridge, CA 1994
  6. 6. Earthquake Effects - Ground Shaking Loma Prieta, CA 1989
  7. 7. Earthquake Effects - Ground Shaking Kobe, Japan 1995
  8. 8. Earthquake Effects - Ground Shaking Kobe, Japan 1995
  9. 9. Earthquake Effects - Surface Faulting Landers, CA 1992
  10. 10. Earthquake Effects - Liquefaction Niigata, Japan 1964
  11. 11. Earthquake Effects - Landslides Turn again Heights, Alaska,1964 (upper left inset); Santa Cruz Mtns, California , 1989
  12. 12. Earthquake Effects - Fires Loma Prieta, CA 1989
  13. 13. Earthquake Effects - Tsunamis 1957 Aleutian Tsunami
  14. 14. Soil liquefaction describes a phenomenon whereby a saturated soil substantially loses strength and stiffness in response to an applied stress, usually earthquake shaking or other sudden change in stress condition, causing it to behave like a liquid. Liquefaction
  15. 15. Liquefaction occurrence: Liquefaction is more likely to occur in loose to moderately saturated granular soils with poor drainage, such as silty sands or sands and gravels capped or containing seams of impermeable sediments.
  16. 16. Earthquake liquefaction: The pressures generated during large earthquakes with many cycles of shaking can cause the liquefied sand and excess water to force its way to the ground surface from several meters below the ground.
  17. 17. Effects: The effects of soil liquefaction on the built environment can be extremely damaging. Buildings whose foundations bear directly on sand which liquefies will experience a sudden loss of support, which will result in drastic and irregular
  18. 18. settlement of the building causing structural damage, including cracking of foundations and damage to the building structure itself, or may leave the structure unserviceable afterwards, even without structural damage.
  19. 19. Niigata Japan 1964
  20. 20. Loma Prieta 1989
  21. 21. Kobe Japan 1995
  22. 22. Niigata 1964