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INTRODUCTIONMarina Bay Sands is an integrated resort fronting marinabay in Singapore. Developed by Las Vegas Sands, it is billed as theworlds most expensive standalone casino property at S$8 billion,including cost of the prime land.With the casino complete, the resort features a 2,560-room hotel, a120,000 sq.m. convention-exhibition centre, The Shoppes mall, anArt & Science museum, two Sands Theatres, six "celebrity chef"restaurants, two floating pavilions, a casino with 500 tables and1,600 slot machines. The complex is topped by a 340m-long SkyPark with a capacity of 3,900 people and a 150m infinityswimming pool, set on top of the worlds largest publiccantilevered platform, which overhangs the north tower by 67m.
• The 20-hectare resort was designed by Moshe Sadie Architects. The local architect of record was Aedas Singapore, and engineering was provided by Arup and Parsons Brinkerhoff (MEP).• Originally set to open in 2009, Las Vegas Sands faced delays caused by escalating costs of material and labour shortages from the onset. The severe global financial crisis also pressured the company to delay its projects elsewhere to complete the integrated resort. Although Marina Bay Sands has been compared on scale and development costs to MGMs City Center, the latter is a mixed-use development, with condominium properties - comprising three of the seven main structures, being sold off.
•The resort was officially opened with a two-daycelebration on 23 June 2010 at 3.18 pm, after a partialopening which included the casino on 27 April 2010. Itwas, however, not finished at the time of the Aprilopening, which was marked by numerous service failures.The Sky Park opened a day later on 24 June 2010. Thetheatres were completed in time for the first performanceby River dance on 30 November 2010. The floatingpavilions are still being built and are expected to be fullycompleted by December 2010. The indoor skating rink,which uses artificial ice, opened to a spectacularperformance by Michelle Kwan on 18 December 2010. Themuseum is scheduled to open on 17 February 2011.
BACKGROUND• Part of the parcel of land for Marina Bay Sands in the foreground prior to development. The parcel overlooks Singapores financial district in the background. Marina Bay Sands is one of two winning proposals for Singapores first Integrated Resorts, the other being the Resorts World Sentosa, which incorporates a family-friendly Universal Studios Theme Park. The two large-scale resorts were conceived to meet Singapores economic and tourism objectives for the next decade and they will have 30-year casino licenses, exclusive for the first ten years. Bidders were assessed based on four criteria:• TOURISM APPEAL AND CONTRIBUTION• ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPT AND DESIGN• DEVLOPEMENT INVESTMENT• STRENGTH OF THE CONSORTIUM AND PARTNERS
• On 27 May 2006, Las Vegas Sands (LVS) was declared winner of the Marina Bay site in the prime new business district of Marina South with its business-oriented resort. LVS highlighted its forte in Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing and Exhibitions (MICE), of which its founder, Sheldon Adelson, is a pioneer in Las Vegas and the key to his early business success. In the Design Evaluation portion of the tender, a panel of local and international architects commended Sands design as superior to other bids in terms of pedestrian circulation and layout, and it also fit in with the Marina Bay landscape best. They liked that the hotel towers was set back from the waterfront to open up expansive views of the city and the entire Marina Bay, making the skyline for Singapores downtown more attractive and distinctive.
• Singapore Tourism Board highlighted Sands line- up of six celebrity chefs, such as Australias Tetsuya Wakuda and Thomas Keller (Napa Valley, California, USA) and Charlie Trotter (Chicago, USA).LVS submitted its winning bid on its own. Its original partner City Developments Limited (CDL), with a proposed 15 per cent equity stake, pulled out of the partnership in the second phase of the tender process. CDLs CEO, Kwek Leng Beng said his companys pullout was a combination of factors - such as difficulties in getting numerous companies he owns to comply in time, as well as reluctance of some parties to disclose certain private information in probity checks required by the Singapore government. However, Kwek was retained as an advisor for Sands bid.
INVESTMENT• Las Vegas Sands initially committed to invest S$3.85 billion in the project, not including the fixed S$1.2 billion cost of the 6,000,000 square feet (560,000 m2) site itself. With the escalating costs of materials, such as sand and steel, and labour shortages owing to other major infrastructure and property development in the country, Sheldon Adelson place the total cost of the development at S$8.0 billion as of July 2009.• Las Vegas Sands declared the undertaking as "one of the worlds most challenging construction projects and certainly the most expensive stand-alone integrated resort property ever built". It expects the casino to generate at least $1 billion in annual profit. Two months after the initial phased opening, the casino attracts around 25,000 visitors daily, about a third being Singaporeans and permanent residents who pay a $100 daily entry levy or $2,000 for annual unlimited access. Half a million gamblers passed through the casino in June 2010.
• For the economy, Marina Bay Sands is projected to stimulate an addition of $2.7 billion or 0.8 per cent to Singapores Gross Domestic Product by 2015, employing 10,000 people directly and 20,000 jobs being created in other industries.• The resort is designed by Moshe Safdie, who says it was initially inspired by card decks. In addition to the casino, other key components of the plan are three hotel towers with 2,500 rooms and suites, a 200,000- square-foot (19,000 m2) Art-Science museum and a convention centre with 1,200,000 square feet (111,000 m2) of space, capable of accommodating up to 45,000 people. The resorts architecture and major design changes along the way were also approved by its feng shui consultants, the late Master Chong Swan Lek and Master Louisa Ong-Lee.
OPENINGMarina Bay Sands was originally planned to be completed in a singlephase in 2009,but rising construction costs and the financial crisisforced the company to open it in phases. The first phases previewopening was further delayed until 27 April 2010, and the grandopening was pushed back to 23 June 2010. The rest of the complexremain under construction and will not be completed before 2011.On 27 April 2010, Marina Bay Sands had the first of a planned 3 to4 phase openings. The casino, parts of the conference hall, asegment of the Shoppes, 963 hotel rooms and the event plaza wereopened at the auspicious time of 3:18 p.m as part of the "previewopening".The Inter-Pacific Bar Association (IPBA) held the first conferenceat Marina Bay Sands Convention Centre on 2–5 May 2010, but theevent was marred by uncompleted facilities and a power failureduring a speech. IPBA withheld payment of S$300,000 and wasconsequently sued by Marina Bay Sands. In June IPBA counter-sued, describing the venue as a "complete disaster" and that itsearlier payments had been imposed by "duress, fear and force". An"amiable settlement" with undisclosed terms was announced inAugust.
• On 23 June 2010, the resort had its official opening with a "2-day celebration"; this includes the Sands Sky Park, the Event Plaza along Marina Bay, more shops, additional dining options and nightlife offerings, and the rest of the hotel rooms. First day events included - a "World Championship Climb" on the glass facade of the building to the Sky Park, with 7 teams of 21 top rock climbers from around the world competing, and an evening concert for 4,000 invited guests and customers, featuring Diana Ross, Kelly Rowland, JJ Lin among others. The Sky Park was opened on the second day at 2 pm with about 2,000 adult tickets costing S$20 each sold.• The two Sands theatres were completed in time for the first performance by River dance on November 30 2010.• Timeline forecast• In December 2010, the two floating Crystal Pavilions will be completed.• By March 2011, the Art Science Museum will be completed and opened.• In March 2011, Disneys The Lion King musical production will debut at the Marina Bay Sands Theatre.
ATTRACTIONSMarina Bay Sands features three 55-storey hotel towers whichwere topped out in July 2009. The three towers are connectedby a 1 hectare sky terrace on the roof, named Sands Sky Park.In front of the three towers include a Theatre Block, aConvention and Exhibition Facilities Block, as well as theCasino Block, which have up to 1000 gaming tables and 1400slot machines. The Art-Science Museum is constructed next tothe three blocks and has the shape of a lotus. Its roof will beretractable, providing a waterfall through the roof of collectedrainwater when closed in the day and with laser shows whenopened at night. The Art-Science Museum opens in December2010.
• The Sky Park also boasts rooftop restaurants, nightclubs, gardens hundreds of trees and plants and a public observatory with 360-degree views of the Singapore skyline.• There are four movement joints beneath the main pools, designed to help them withstand the natural motion of the towers, and each joint has a unique range of motion. The total range of motion is 500 millimeters (19.68 inches). In addition to wind, the hotel towers are also subject to settlement in the earth over time, so engineers built and installed custom jack legs to allow for future adjustment at more than 500 points beneath the pool system. This jacking system is important primarily to ensure the infinity edge of the pool continues to function properly.
• The Sky Park is home to the worlds longest elevated swimming pool with a 146-metre (478- foot) vanishing edge, perched 191 meters above the ground. The pools are made up of 422,000 pounds of stainless steel and can hold 376,500 gallons (1424 cubic meters) of water.• Moshe Safdie designed an Art Path within the resort, incorporating seven installations by five artists including Zheng Chongbin, Antony Gormley, and Sol Lewitt. The pieces are meant to play on environmental influences including light, water and wind, integrating art with architecture.