• Stanley Vance : “Management is
simply the process of decision-making
and control over the action of human-
beings for the expressed purpose of
attaining pre-determined goals”.
• It implies:
– Main activity of a manager is decision
Shortcoming: The process or activities
where decision-making is involved is not
• L.Apply :“Management is
accomplishment of results through
the efforts of other people”
• Koontz : “It is the art of getting
things done through and with people
in formally organised groups”
– Existence of objectives
– Working with and through people
Shortcomings: It does not specify the
functions or activities involved in the
process of getting things done by or
with the cooperation of other people
• Mac Farland :“Management is a
process by which managers create,
direct, maintain and operate
purposive organisations through
systematic, coordinated, cooperative
““Management is the process ofManagement is the process of
designing and maintaining andesigning and maintaining an
environment in which individuals,environment in which individuals,
working together in groups,working together in groups,
accomplish their aims effectively andaccomplish their aims effectively and
This definition implies the
• A process
• Universal application
• Applicable to all managerial levels
• Common aim- creating profits
• Effectiveness and efficiency
• No attention paid before 20th
– Lowly profession compared to bankers
– Treatment of management as an art or
science confused people
– Belief that managers are born and not
• Competion gave rise to factors like
– Technology innovations
– Increase in capital investment
– Freedom at national and international
EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT
THOUGHTS - contd…..
• Complexity came because of
– Increase in the size of business
– High degree of division of labour and
– Pressure of various conflicting groups
– Socially oriented business controls by
• EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS -
• All these have demanded the efficiency in
management process which cannot come by
trial and error methods but by developing and
applying sound management concepts and
• Economists, sociologist, psychologists
,anthropologists, mathematicians and
organisations and its processes
• This all led to the emergence of a
variety of orientations or approaches
• One approach or thought was an
extention /improvement over the
F.W TAYLOR- Father of the
- emphasised on shop-floor level
efficiency in a scientific manner.
- conducted various experiments
to find out how human beings
could be made to work more
efficiently by standardising the
work and better method of doing
• Taylor's four principles are as follows:
• Replace working by "rule of thumb," or simple habit and
common sense, and instead use the scientific method to
study work and determine the most efficient way to
perform specific tasks.
• Rather than simply assign workers to just any job, match
workers to their jobs based on capability and motivation,
and train them to work at maximum efficiency.
• Monitor worker performance, and provide instructions and
supervision to ensure that they're using the most efficient
ways of working.
• Allocate the work between managers and workers so that
the managers spend their time planning and training,
allowing the workers to perform their tasks efficiently.
Elements of Scientific
• Separation of planning and doing
• Funtional foremanship-specialisation of
• Job analysis- find out the best way of
doing the things through Time-Motion
and fatigue studies
• Scientific selection and Training of
• Financial incentives
• Mental revolution
Other contributors of
• Carl Berth – developed mathematical
techniques and formulae
• Henry Gantt - developed graphic
methods of depicting plans.
Developed GANTT chart which led to
• F. and W. Gilbreth – looked at
workers problems from social and
psychological point of view
Critical Analysis of
• Concerned with problems related to
• More relevant from engineering point
of view rather than management
point of view
• More relevant to mechanisation and
automation than the broader aspects
Critical Analysis of Scientific
• Taylor’s SM was opposed by trade
unions, industrialists and general
-aggressive mechanical view of
-close and strict supervision
-exploitation by industrialists
• Henri Fayol, developed a set of 14 principles:
1. Division of Labor: allows for job specialization.
• Fayol noted firms can have too much specialization leading to
poor quality and worker involvement.
2. Authority and Responsibility: Fayol included both
formal and informal authority resulting from special
3. Unity of Command: Employees should have only one
4. Line of Authority: a clear chain from top to bottom
of the firm.
5. Centralization: the degree to which authority rests at
the very top.
6. Unity of Direction: One plan of action to
guide the organization.
7. Equity: Treat all employees fairly in justice
8. Order: Each employee is put where they have
the most value.
9. Initiative: Encourage innovation.
10. Discipline: obedient, applied, respectful
11. Remuneration of Personnel: The payment
system contributes to success.
12. Stability of Tenure: Long-term employment is
13. General interest over individual interest: The
organization takes precedence over the
14. Esprit de corps: Share enthusiasm or devotion
to the organization.
• Focuses on the way a manager should
personally manage to motivate employees.
• Mary Parker Follett: an influential leader
in early managerial theory.
– Suggested workers help in analyzing their
jobs for improvements.
– The worker knows the best way to improve
– If workers have the knowledge of the
task, then they should control the task.
1. Physical –health, vigor
2. Mental –learning ability, judgment,
mental vigor and capability
3. Educational –general awareness
4. Technical –peculiar to the function
5. Experience –arising from work
1. Technical – related to production
2. Commercial –buying,selling,
3. Financial – searching for capital and
4. Security –protection of property
5. Managerial –planning, organising,
• Seeks to create an organization that leads
to both efficiency and effectiveness.
• Max Weber developed the concept of
– A formal system of organization and
administration to ensure effectiveness and
A BureaucracyA Bureaucracy
should haveshould have
Written rulesWritten rules
System of taskSystem of task
Hierarchy ofHierarchy of
Fair evaluationFair evaluation
and rewardand reward
Key points of Bureaucracy
Authority is the power to hold people
accountable for their actions.
Positions in the firm should be held based on
performance not social contacts.
Position duties are clearly identified. People
should know what is expected of them.
Lines of authority should be clearly
identified. Workers know who reports to
Rules, Standard Operating Procedures
(SOPs), & Norms used to determine how
the firm operates.
• Sometimes, these lead to “red-tape” and other
Max Weber: believed that
bureaucratic structure was the most
- It was designed to accomplish large
- Administrative class
Criticism of Bureaucratic
1. Inhuman organisation
– Too much emphasis on rules
– Rigid organisational hierarchy
– Total impersonal approach
2. Goal displacement
3. Closed system perspective