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Research designs Pt 1

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Research Design and Its Kinds

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Research designs Pt 1

  1. 1. KINDS AND DESCRIPTIONS (Calmorin and Calmorin, 2012)- (Calderon and Gonzales, 1993) Marian Grace C. Toribio Makati Science High School
  2. 2. An outline (blueprint) of what the researcher will do from writing the hypothesis and its operational implications to the final analysis of data.
  3. 3. indicates the steps that will need to be taken and the sequence they will occur each design can rely on one or more data collection technique
  4. 4. critical consideration in determining methodology is the selection of subjects research design is a logical model that shows the strategies for sample selection, development of measurement tools, data collection as well as methods of data processing and analysis
  5. 5. refers to the plan and structure of the investigation used to obtain evidence to answer research questions. describes the procedures for conducting the study, including when, from whom, and under what conditions the data will be obtained. indicates how the research is setup: what happens to the subjects and what methods of data collection are used (Mcmillan and Schumacher,1993)
  6. 6. The research design must include at least: Procedures and techniques to be used for gathering information. The population to be studied. Methods to be used in processing and analyzing data.
  7. 7. HISTORICAL (what was) DESCRIPTIVE (what is) EXPERIMENTAL (what will be) CASE STUDY (past, present, future)
  8. 8. HISTORY: Definition “branch of knowledge concerned with past events, especially those involving human affairs” (Funk and Wagnalls,1976) “search for knowledge and truth” (Good and Scates,1972) “any integrated narrative or descriptive of the past events or facts written in a spirit of critical inquiry for the whole truth” (Nevins,1978) Ex: Biblical Research
  9. 9. HISTORICAL RESEARCH: Definition A scientific critical inquiry of the whole truth of past events using the critical methods in the understanding and interpretation of facts which are applicable to current issues and problems. Both science and art Based upon the reports of observation which cannot be repeated, although similar events may occur.
  10. 10. HISTORICAL RESEARCH: Definition A process of selecting the area or topic to write the history about, collecting data about events that occurred in the area or topic, collating the data, sifting the authentic from non-authentic, and then making the interpretative narrative about or critical inquiry into the whole truth of the events.
  11. 11. 3 STEPS (Good and Scates,1972) 1. COLLECTION OF DATA documents; remains or relics of primary and secondary sources, bibliographical procedures, organization of materials 2. CRITICISM OF COLLECTED DATA processes of external criticism and internal criticism 3. PRESENTATION OF THE FACTS (Writing the Research Report) Readable form involving problems of organization, composition, exposition and interpretation
  12. 12. PRIMARY SOURCES (only solid bases of historical work, are the original documents or remains, the first witnesses to a fact) SECONDARY SOURCES (data supplied by respondents and interviewees based on hearsay)
  13. 13. PRIMARY SOURCES DOCUMENTS School directives; court decisions; executive and official records; personal materials; newspapers and journals • School directives- orders, memoranda, circular, constitutions, laws, charters • Executive and other official records- proceedings of admin. officers, reports of school surveys, annual reports, course syllabi, catalogues, prospectuses REMAINS Physical(roads, pyramids, pottery, skeletons, fossils, etc); Equipment; Apparatus; Teaching Aids and Devices; pictures of buildings/furnishings; diplomas/certificates; textbooks/reference books
  14. 14. SECONDARY SOURCES Histories of Education Bibliographies Encyclopedias Ex: In making up a LIST OF OLD SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS, encyclopedias, available articles and bibliographies on the subject which are secondary sources may be needed aside from other Science Textbooks as Primary sources.
  15. 15. 5 characteristics according to Helmstadter (Treece and Treece Jr.,) 1. Cannot be repeated in the same manner as in Lab. Experiments and descriptive surveys 2. Spend vast amount of time in the library; pursue minute details 3. Usually conducted only one person 4. Hypothesis is not always necessary; inferences are made often 5. Writing style is more flexible- interesting manner; conclusions become subjective-no two investigators would reach the same conclusions in a given instance
  16. 16. 1. Makes the people understand the present better, especially the factors affecting the present. Ex: Philippines-Catholic nation: more than 3 centuries occupied by Spain, remain catholic for a long time “ History has a three-fold purpose: Giving us a knowledge of the past, a better understanding of the present, and means of predicting the future.” (Lacuesta, et.al)
  17. 17. 2. Historical Information serves as a preliminary to reform. Mistakes of the past may be avoided. 3. People become more open to change if they are well informed about the past, especially about the tragic events. 4. People are motivated to respect the contributions of the people of the past to the present state of things, especially those of heroes.
  18. 18. Searching through the past for solutions to contemporary problems and needs; Throw light on the present; Gives people a sense of continuity of the past to the present; Enables the communities to grasp their relationship with the past to current issues; Chronicles events enduring worth which confer upon the individual consciousness of unity and the feeling of importance of human achievement.
  19. 19. When it is desired to write a history of any of the ff: 1. Any geographical area: historical site; barangay; town; region; country etc. 2. Any institution: school; a club; army; community; communism; etc. 3. Any important historical event: Battle of Bataan; The Leyte Landing; World War II; etc.
  20. 20. Focuses at the present situation To find truth: increased in quantity of knowledge; new generalization; new “law” Increased insight; Discover new casual relationship More accurate formulation to solve problem
  21. 21. It involves the description, recording, analysis, and interpretation of the present nature, composition or process of phenomena How a person, group or thing behaves or functions in the present Fact finding with adequate interpretation Data must be subjected to the thinking process in terms of ordered reasoning
  22. 22. Describes and interprets what is Concerned with: Conditions of relationship that exist Practices that prevail Beliefs Processes that are going on Effects that are being felt Trends that are developing
  23. 23. The process descriptive research goes beyond mere gathering and tabulation of data. It involves the elements or interpretation of the meaning or significance of what is described. It is combined with comparison and contrast involving measurements, classifications, interpretation and evaluation. (Cited by Sanchez)
  24. 24. Providing facts on which scientific judgments may be based Providing essential knowledge about the nature of objects and persons For closer observation into the practices; behavior; methods and procedures Playing a large part in the development of instruments for the measurement of many things Data gathering instruments: questionnaires, tests, interviews, checklists, score cards, rating scales, observation schedules Formulating of policies: local to international level
  25. 25. 9 TYPES 1. Descriptive-survey 2. Descriptive-normative 3. Descriptive-status 4. Descriptive-analysis 5. Descriptive-evaluative 6. Descriptive-comparative 7. Descriptive-Classification 8. Correlational Survey 9. Longitudinal survey
  26. 26. Gathering of data regarding present conditions Providing the value of facts Focus on the most important things to be reported Ex: Determine the Job-Related problems of Staff Nurses in Private and Gov’t hospital in Iloilo. -Use questionnaire as research instrument 4 Levels: Very Serious Problem; Serious Problems; Fairly Serious Problems; Not a Problem at All  The data is used as basis for inferences that may aid in solving practical problems
  27. 27. “normative”- compare local test results with a state or national norm Ex 1: A study on the English achievement of Grade 10 students at the state colleges and universities in Region 7. - Achievement Test is the instrument used to gather data; compare the result with the “norm” Ex 2: National Achievement Test
  28. 28. Seeks to answer questions to real facts relating to existing conditions. Determines the prevailing conditions in a group of cases chosen for study. Stress current conditions with the assumption that things will change. Ex: A study on the socio-economic status and performance of instructors and professors of state universities in Region 9. - Questionnaire is used to determine the socio- economic status and performance of instructors and professors.
  29. 29. Describe the nature of an object by separating into parts Discover the nature of things Determine the composition, structure, substructure that occurs as units within larger structure. Ex1: Chemistry: compound or substance-elements- atoms-sub-atomic particles Ex2: a study on the job analysis of personnel in government and private hospitals: same position, functions, responsibilities-same salary
  30. 30. Employed in natural sciences subjects: Biology, Botany, Zoology etc. Specimens collected are classified from phylum to species Ex: Conduct a taxonomic study of sea urchins in the municipal waters of Zamboanga del Norte Phils.  Collect sea urchins from the different research stations then identify and classify according to classes and species
  31. 31. Appraise carefully the worthiness of the current study Ex: conduct a study on the evaluation of an implementation of WOW (War on Waste) in the Division of Makati  questionnaire to evaluate the WOW; ask teachers-higher officials to respond
  32. 32. The researcher considers two variables (not manipulated) and establishes a formal procedure to compare and conclude that one is better than the other Ex: Conduct a study on the effectiveness of teaching Science using Multimedia and traditional approaches to Grade 7 students; test is used to gather data; all are held constant except on the approaches of teaching used; statistical tool is used Based on the findings determine if there is significant difference to know if one is better than the other
  33. 33. To determine the relationship of two variables (X and Y) whether the relationship is perfect, high, moderate, or negligible Perfect Positive Correlation/ Perfect negative Correlation: seldom to happen (If student tops in test X and test Y; lowest in Test X and Test Y) Ex: Correlate the performance between Science (X) and Math (Y) of Grade 7 students in Makati Science High School; test is used to gather data; Scattergram is the statistical tool to determine the correlation between X and Y
  34. 34. Much time is allotted for investigation of the same subjects of two or more points in time Ex: A researcher wishes to set up a Science achievements pattern to Junior High School Students ages 13 to 16. Take a group of 13 year old boys and girls; records their Science achievement over regular interval (quarterly) Follow up the work until the same group of students reach 16 y.o Based on the data gathered, sets up the Science achievement pattern from the same group of students investigated for a long period of time.
  35. 35. A problem solving technique wherein the study is described from the past, present and future. *Some writers categorize case study under descriptive design Intensive investigation of a particular individual, institution, community, or any group considered as a unit which includes the developmental, adjustment, remedial or corrective procedure that suitably follows the diagnose of the cause of maladjustment or of favorable development. Usually applied by guidance counselors, midwives, nurses, physicians, psychologists and educators
  36. 36. Not only limited to conditions of maladjustment such as behavior problem, underprivileged community, substandard institutions but also to normal or well- adjusted individuals, well organized communities, or school which ad in understanding the normal situation or well-adjusted condition.
  37. 37. Comprehensive and extensive examination of a particular individual, group or situation over a period of time. (Mckee and Robertson, 1975) “comprehensive study of a social unit”-be that unit a person, social institution, a group, a district or community.” (Young, 1966 cited by Sanchez) …extensive and intensive investigation to find and recommend a solution, a treatment, or developmental procedures
  38. 38. 1. Recognition and determination of the status of the phenomenon to be investigated 2. Collection of data related to the factors or circumstances associated with the given phenomenon 3. Diagnosis or identification of causal factors as basis for remedial or developmental treatment 4. Application of remedial or adjustment measures 5. Subsequent follow up to determine the effectiveness of the corrective or developmental measures applied.
  39. 39. Determine the reading disability of a student. Collect data through interview, observation schedule, and tests. Analyze the factors associated with reading disability, for instance physical, intellectual, pedagogical, emotional, social, or environmental. Diagnose the causal factors as basis for remedial treatment. Defective vision may be the cause of difficulty in reading; apply remedial or adjustment measure to remove the cause n poor performance in reading- correctly fitted eyeglasses  Follow up is necessary to determine the effectiveness of the corrective measure applied Note: Case study takes a long period of time due to case work done intensively or thoroughly.
  40. 40. Method/procedure involving the control or manipulations of conditions for the purpose of studying the relative effects of various treatments applied to members of a sample or of the same treatments applied to members of different samples (Good, 1972)
  41. 41. discover the influence of one or more factors upon a condition, group or situation, purpose of which is to discover “what will be” describes and analyzes variables in carefully controlled conditions as a basis for inferring or concluding manipulating an experimental variable (IV) under highly controlled conditions to determine how and why a particular event occurs (Manuel and Medel, 1976)
  42. 42.  highly controlled procedure in which manipulated treatments or actions from a factor or condition, called the experimental or independent variable, are applied upon another factor or condition, called the dependent variable, to determine the effect of the former to the latter, all other factors or variables being kept constant or equal so that any change in the dependent variable is attributed only to the experimental or independent variable
  43. 43. 1. Experimentation lends itself to easier manipulation because of quantitative entities. 2. Observations are done under controlled conditions. 3. Gathering of valid facts is rigorous. 4. Experimentation can be conducted in the laboratory, in the classroom, or in the field. 5. Laboratory experiments are intensive and exacting. 6. Most often experiments are limited to a small number of cases. 7. There is more thorough analysis of variable factors.
  44. 44. A. Single Factor Experimental Designs 1. Single Group with only a Post Test Design 2. Single Group with a Pre Test and a Post Test Design 3. Matched Groups Design 4. Randomized Multi Group with a Post Test Design 5. Randomized Multi Group with a Pre Test and a Post Test Design B. Two Factor Experiment
  45. 45. 1. Single Group with only a Post Test Design - Involves a thing, a person, or group subjected or exposed to a certain experimental factor for a certain period of time. - After the experimental period the subjects exposed to the experimental factor are given a post test. - Compare the achievement to the achievement of another group unexposed to the experimental factor. - EX: A teacher uses a PRAISE in one class but not in the other; at the end of the grading period achievements are compared, any excess the achievement of the class with praise is considered due o the use of PRAISE.
  46. 46. 2. Single Group with a Pre Test and a Post Test Design - The group is exposed to a certain experimental factor. - However, before the start of the experiment, the group is given a pre test about the subject matter to be covered in the experiment. - Then, after the experiment period, the group is given the same pre test but in a different form to avoid the effect of practice. (Post Test) - EX: In animal production, a new swine feed is to be tested. A group of piglets is used. The weights are taken before feeding the new feed. Then they are fed, after the experimental period of feeding, the weights are taken again. The means of two sets are computed. After the application of statistical methods, it will be known whether the increase of weights is significant or not and whether the new feed has a great nutrition value.
  47. 47. 3. Matched Groups Design -Two Groups are matched in age, sex, grade level, mental ability - One group (Experimental Group) is exposed to the IV, the other group is not - After the experimental period, 2 groups are given the same test - Any excess of the control group is attributed to the exp. Factor - EX: A farmer wanted to test the effectiveness of a fertilizer. He prepared 2 plots (experimental plot and control plot) of the same size with four replications in each plot. He kept the other variables constant. After the harvest, it was found out that the average of the four replications in the experimental plot had a significant excess compared to the average of the control plot; this was due to the effectiveness of fertilizer.
  48. 48. 4. Randomized Multi Group with a Post Test Design -there are two or more experimental variables to be tested; groups are formed equal to the number of experimental variables; members of each group are assigned randomly to their respective groups; each experimental factor is applied on the group to which it is assigned; all other variables are kept the same - after the experimental period, the same test on the lessons taken by all the groups is given to all of them; the experimental factor assigned to a group with the highest achievement is considered the most effective, the next is considered the next most effective, etc. - EX: 3 methods of teaching science is to be tested, Methods A, B, and C; 3 groups whose members are assigned randomly are formed; 3 groups, studying the same topic are taught under the 3 different methods, one method assigned to one group- after the experimental period, same test was given, test results are subjected to statistical procedure, usually ANOVA( Analysis of Variance)- relative effectiveness of the methods will be known
  49. 49. 5. Randomized Multi Group with a Pre Test and a Post Test Design -similar to design #4; the only difference is that there is a PRE TEST -After the experiment, the results of the pre- test and those of the post-test are subjected to some statistical methods, usually the ANCOVA (Analysis of Co-Variance)-relative effectiveness of the methods will be known
  50. 50. B. Two Factor Experiment FACTORIAL DESIGN - A 2 factor experiment in which there are 2 experimental factors involved - EX: A researcher want to know the performance of a group of males and females in a learning situation under the effects of varying amounts of the memory enhancer drug; In the experiment there are 2 factors: sex (Male or Female) and dosage (amount in ml) - In the analysis the concerns of the researchers are: Sex (male or female); the dosage of drug taken and the interaction effect of sex (male and female) and the memory enhancer drug -Achievement scores of two groups are subjected to ANOVA: significant difference between learning capacity (male or female) when under the effects varying amounts of memory enhancer drug ; and whole group; and also interaction between sex and memory enhancer drug (if the factors helped each other)