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Communicative competence

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From the book Principles of Language Learning and Teaching by Douglas Brown. Chapter 8 (Communicative Competence)

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Communicative competence

  1. 1. Communicative Competence<br />
  2. 2. What is Communicative Competence?<br />Hymes<br />The ability to interpret messages and negotiate meaning within specific contexts. <br />Savignon<br />An interpersonal construct examined by means of overt performance of two or more people in the process of communication.<br />
  3. 3. James Cummins (1980)<br />CALP<br />Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency<br />Context Reduced<br /><ul><li>Surface features of language
  4. 4. Focus on form
  5. 5. Used for classroom exercises
  6. 6. Communicative capacity of language
  7. 7. Focus on meaning
  8. 8. Used for daily interpersonal exchanges</li></ul>BICS<br />Context Embedded<br />Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills<br />
  9. 9. Canale & Swain<br />Grammatical Competence<br /><ul><li>Lexical items
  10. 10. Morphology
  11. 11. Syntax
  12. 12. Semantics
  13. 13. Phonology</li></ul>Sociolinguistic Competence<br />Strategic Competence<br /><ul><li>Sociocultural rules
  14. 14. Understanding social context</li></ul>4<br />Verbal/nonverbal strategies to compensate for breakdowns due to performance variables or insufficient competence<br /><ul><li>Ability of connecting sentences
  15. 15. Intersentential Relationships</li></ul>Discourse Competence<br />
  16. 16. Bachman (1990)<br />REMEMBER<br />Locutionaryact: Performance of an utterance<br />“It’s cold in here.”<br />Illocutionary act: Intended meaning<br />[The windows is open. So I should close it.]<br />Perlocutionary act: Consequences of the utterance (whether intended or not)<br />[Someone closes the window.]<br /><ul><li>Dialect
  17. 17. Register
  18. 18. Naturalness
  19. 19. Cultural References
  20. 20. Vocabulary
  21. 21. Morphology
  22. 22. Syntax
  23. 23. Phonology
  24. 24. Graphology</li></ul>Sociolinguistic Competence<br />Language Competence<br />Grammatical Competence<br />Organizational Competence<br />Pragmatic Competence<br />Textual (Discourse) Competence<br />Illocutionary Competence<br /><ul><li>Manipulative Functions
  25. 25. Heuristic Functions
  26. 26. Imaginative Functions
  27. 27. Cohesion
  28. 28. Rehtorical Organization</li></li></ul><li>Strategic Competence<br />Language Competence<br />Knowledge Structures (of the world)<br />Strategic Competence<br />Psychophysiological Mechanisms<br />Context of Situation<br />
  29. 29. Language Functions<br />Purposes we accomplish with language:<br />stating<br />REQUESTING<br />responding<br />greeting<br />
  30. 30. Halliday’s 7 Functions<br />Certain events happen<br />Particular conditions change<br />Go out!<br />1- Instrumental<br />Control of events<br />Setting rules<br />If it’s not cold, stay outside. <br />2- Regulatory<br />Conveying facts and knowledge<br />Representing reality as it is<br />Yoghurt is white!<br />3- Representational<br />To establish & maintain contact<br />Knowledge of slang, jargon, jokes…<br />What’s up dude?!!<br />4- Interactional<br />To express feelings and emtions<br />Oh dear! I feel so blue today! <br />5- Personal<br />Seeking answers (usually in the form of questions)<br />6- Heuristic<br />Where do babies come from?!!!<br />To create ideas and imaginations<br />Going beyond the real world<br />“Love is metaphysical gravity.” <br />7- Imaginative<br />
  31. 31. Functional Approach<br />Notional-Functional syllabuses<br />Notion<br />Function<br />Notion is referred both to abstract <br />concepts such as existence, space, <br />time, quantity and quality<br />Functions correspond to what we already <br />talked about Language Functions i.e. <br />instrumental, representational, etc.<br />
  32. 32. Discourse Analysis<br />The examination of the relationship between forms and functions of language. <br />It’s language beyond the sentence. <br />Without the pragmatic contexts of discourse our communications would be ambiguous. <br />
  33. 33. Conversation Analysis<br />Attention Getting<br />It’s the first rule that children learn.<br />Topic Nomination<br />Speakers do it after securing hearer’s attention.<br />Topic Development<br />Speakers do it after securing hearer’s attention.<br />Turn Taking<br />Set of culturally oriented rules to communicate properly.<br />Clarification<br />Is usually manifested in forms of Heuristic functions.<br />Repair<br />From indirect signals to outright corrections (strategic competence)<br />Shifting and Avoidance<br />They are effected through verbal and nonverbal signals.<br />Interruptions<br />They are a form of attention getting.<br />Topic Termination<br />It’s an art of finishing the conversation which is hard even for <br />native speakers!<br />
  34. 34. Grice Maxims<br />Say only as much as necessary.<br />Say only what is true.<br />Quantity<br />Quality<br />Relevance<br />Manner<br />Say only what is relevant.<br />Be clear!<br />
  35. 35. Contrastive Rhetoric<br />Naturally occuring discourses, usually written, across different language and cultures.<br />
  36. 36. Pragmatics<br />Sociopragmatics<br />Pragmalinguistics<br />The interface between pragmatics and social organization.<br />e.g.<br />American: What an unusual necklace. It’s beautiful.<br />Samoan: Please take it!<br />The intersection of pragmatics and linguistic forms.<br />e.g.<br />Tuand vous in French. In English there’s only “you” for both formal and informal. But in French they use plural “you” to address an individual politely.<br />
  37. 37. Pragmatics<br />Language and Gender<br /><ul><li>Girls produce more “standard” language than boys.
  38. 38. Men Interrupt more than women.
  39. 39. Men and women use different syntactic and phonological variants.</li></li></ul><li>Discourse Styles<br />Sets of conventions for selecting words, phrases discourse, and nonverbal language in specified contexts.<br />
  40. 40. Discourse Styles<br />ORATORICAL Style<br />The language of speaking for a large audience. There may be some interactions sometimes.<br />DELIBERATIVE Style<br />The language of speaking for a larger audience in which the magnitude of the crowed doesn’t let interaction.<br />CONSULTATIVE Style<br />A formal dialog with careful choice of words, such as a doctor-patient conversation.<br />CASUAL Style<br />Language of friends, colleagues, and family members.<br />INTIMATE Style<br />Complete absence of social inhibitions usually between very close friends.<br />
  41. 41. Nonverbal Communication<br />Clothes<br />Kinesics<br />Artifacts<br />Body Language<br />Touching<br />Eye Contact<br />Kinesthetics<br />Proxemics<br />Smelling<br />Physical Distance<br />Olfactory<br />
  42. 42. The End<br />Thanks a lot for your attention.<br />MortezaYazdani<br />mortezayazdani@gmail.com<br />