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My Own Demography 2 Population Composition.pptx

  1. Population Composition Dr. Farrah Pervaiz MBBS ,MSPH ,PhD Fellow Assistant Professor Dept of Public Health AFPGMI/NUMS
  2. Demography Demography is the "statistical and mathematical study of the size, composition and spatial distribution of human populations, and of the changes over time, in these aspects through the operation of the five processes of fertility, mortality, migration, marriage and social mobility"
  3. Population composition • Description of population on the basis of characteristics such as age, race, sex or marital status etc. • These descriptions can be necessary for understanding the social dynamics from historical and comparative research. • This data is often compared using a population pyramid.
  4. Classification of population Composition
  5. Population Composition 1.AGE 2. SEX
  6. Population Composition 3. Race There are no standard definitions of race and ethnicity 4. Ethnicity/ Sub-Race Covers racial, national, cultural, castes or linguistic groups.
  7. Population Composition 5. Language One of the most sensitive indices of ethnic origin because linguistic differences tend to persist until complete assimilation 6. Religion Associated with a variety of differences in attitudes, statuses, and behavior. Of great interest for its hypothesized relationship with fertility, mortality, nuptiality, and migration
  8. Population Composition 7.Nationality Nationality—Country of present citizenship, or Country of origin 8. Marital Status Minimum list of groups recommended by the United Nations – Single (never married – Married and not legally separated – Married but legally separated – Widowed and not remarried – Divorced and not remarried
  9. Population Composition 9. Duration of Marriage Age at first marriage or number of years since first marriage, are probably the most useful fact for the study of their fertility 10. Education – School Enrollment – School Attendance – Literacy And Boredom!!!
  10. Population Composition 11.Socioeconomic Status SES is a construct that reflects one’s access to collectively desired resources, be they material goods, money, power, friendship networks, healthcare, leisure time, or educational opportunities Comprises of Income Education Occupation Wealth Social standing etc 12. Economic Participation/ Labor Force Involves the carrying on of an activity from which the person derives, or attempts to derive, pay or profit. In censuses and surveys, the entire population can be subdivided into the employed and the unemployed
  11. Population Composition 13. Occupation Refers to the kind of work done by the employed person Examples: Teacher, sales clerk, farmer, car washer, etc.
  12. Gender / Sex
  13. Sex Ratio Sex Ratio—Proportion of males relative to females in a population General formula:
  14. Sex Ratio at Birth
  15. Sex Ratio • Varies from one population to another • Desirable to consider separately the sex ratio of important component subgroups (e.g. by race, by ethnicity) • Pattern by age– Higher at very young ages. In human populations, there are more male births than female births, with ratio generally between 104 and 107 –Gap narrows with increasing age –Goes below 100 by middle age
  16. Sex Ratio of Births Sex Ratio of Births—Number of male births per 100 female births Ratio < 100 → More female than male births Ratio = 100 → Same number of male and female births Ratio > 100 → More male than female births
  17. Sex Ratio of Deaths • Much more variable from area to area than sex ratio at birth • Often well above 100, i.e. males have a higher mortality • Important characteristics to include in further analyses are age, race, ethnic group, residence, marital status, and occupation
  18. Sex Ratio of Migrants • Shows more extreme values than sex ratio of either birth or death • Less uniform from area to area • Patterns of sex-selectivity of migrants vary depending largely on types of occupational opportunities and on cultural factors
  19. Source: Tabulated using data from United Nations Demographic Yearbook
  20. Age • Demographers’ definition of age—Completed age, i.e. age of an individual at last birthday • Most important variable in demographic analyses
  21. Age P0-14=Proportion of children under 15 P65+ = Proportion of aged persons P15-64 = Proportion of persons of “working age”
  22. Age Dependency • Dependent Population • Active Population
  23. Age-Dependency Ratios Age-Dependency Ratios—Proportion of children less than15and elderly 65+ relative to the population of “working ages”
  24. Child-Dependency Ratio Child-Dependency Ratio—Proportion of children less than 15 relative to the population of “working ages”
  25. Old-Age Dependency Ratio Old-Age Dependency Ratio—Proportion of adults over age 65 relative to the population of “working ages”
  26. Data Collection on Age Data on age may be secured by– Asking a direct question on age – Asking a question on date of birth, or month and year of birth – Or a combination of these
  27. Age-Reporting Errors • Centenarians Those close to 100 years tend to overestimate their age • Understatement Women tend to understate their age
  28. Age-Reporting Errors • Overstatement Mothers tend to round up the age of their children • Heaping/Digit preference People tend to report certain ages at the expense of others, Can occur at any digit but happens most often with 0 and 5
  29. Age-Reporting Errors • Coverage—Missed or counted twice– There is a tendency to miss the people in certain age groups (e.g. young men) Some people are counted twice
  30. Method for Detecting the Extent of Age Errors
  31. Method for Detecting the Extent of Age Errors…
  32. Method for Detecting the Extent of Age Errors -Age ratios • In the absence of sharp changes in fertility or mortality, significant levels of migration or other distorting factors, the enumerated size of a particular cohort should be approximately equal to the average size of the immediately preceding and following cohorts • The age ratio for a particular cohort to the average of the counts for the adjacent cohorts should be approximately equal to 1 (or 100 if multiplied by a constant of 100) • Significant departures from this “expected” ratio indicate either the presence of census error in the census enumeration or of other factors
  33. Method for Detecting the Extent of Age Errors -Age ratios The age ratio is then:– Compared to 100 – Plotted by single year of age – Indices and methods have been developed to summarize the preference of or avoidance of particular terminal digits, e.g. Whipple’s index, Myer’s blended method
  34. Age Heaping Age heaping or age preference is the tendency for people to incorrectly report their age or date of birth. Individuals’ heaping behaviors favor certain ages, commonly those ending in ‘0’ or ‘5’ although there is some evidence of minor heaping at eight
  35. Summary indices - Whipple`s Index • Developed to reflect preference for or avoidance of a particular terminal digit or of each terminal digit • The original Whipple`s index measures age heaping for the ages ending in 0 or 5 • It assumes a linear distribution of ages in each five year age range- linear decrease in the number of persons of each age within the age range considered • The choice of the range 23 to 62 is standard, but largely arbitrary. In computing indexes of heaping, ages during childhood and old age are often excluded because they are more strongly affected by other types of errors of reporting than by preference for specific terminal digits Source: Shryock and Siegel, 1976, Methods and Materials of Demography
  36. Whipple’s index… • Essentially designed to detect concentration or heaping in terminal digits 0 and 5 • Applicable when ages are reported in single years • Designed over the range 23-62 inclusive • Assumptions of rectangularity (ages are evenly distributed )
  37. Summary indices - Whipple`s Index Ranges between 100, representing no preference for “0” or “5” and 500, indicating that only digits “0” and “5” were reported in the census If heaping on terminal digits “0” and “5” is measured;
  38. Whipple’s index…
  39. Whipple’s index around the world •Many of the countries that continue to havehigh Whipple’s Index values are in Sub- Saharan Africa United Nations Workshop on Census Data Evaluation, Hanoi, Viet Nam Data source: Demographic Yearboo2k-6sDpeeccemiableris2s01u3eon age heaping:
  40. Improvement in the accuracy of age reporting over time
  41. Summary indices – Myers` Blended Index • It is conceptually similar to Whipple`s index, except that the index considers preference (or avoidance) of age ending in each of the digits 0 to 9 in deriving overall age accuracy score • It is based on the principle that in the absence of age heaping, the aggregate population of each age ending in one of the digits 0 to 9 should represent 10 % of population • The theoretical range of Myers` Index is from 0 to 90, where 0 indicates no age heaping and 90 indicates the extreme case where all recorded ages end in the same digit
  44. •The current population of Pakistan in 2023 is 240,485,658, a 1.98% increase from 2022. •The population of Pakistan in 2022 was 235,824,862, a 1.91% increase from 2021. The current population density of Pakistan in 2023 is 302.08 people per square kilometer, a 1.98% increase from 2022.
  45. Demographic profile of Pakistan
  46. Demographic profile of Pakistan
  47. Demographic profile of Pakistan
  48. • provisional-summary-results-6th- population-housing-census-2017-january-03- 2018
  49. 1 What words could be used to describe the growth of world population? A. Exponential B. Arithmetic C. Logarithmic D. Steady E. Constant
  50. 2 How is population density calculated? A. Area divided by population B. Population divided by GNP C. Resource capacity divided by population D. Population multiplied by area E. Population divided by area
  51. 3 What is the geographic term for a country with a high population density? A. A densely populated country B. An open country C. An overpopulated country D. A sparsely populated country E. An under populated country
  52. 4 The dependency ratio is the ratio of: A. young to middle-aged people B. young and old to working-aged people C. old to middle-aged people D. young to old people E. young to working-aged people
  53. 5 Census is not affected by: A. Seasonal migration B. Geographical inaccessibility of areas C. Birth and death rate of population D. Political influence
  54. THANK YOU!

Notas do Editor

  1. School Enrollment—Enrollment at any regular educational institution, public or private, for systematic instruction at any level of education during a well-defined and recent time period (United Nations) School Attendance—While enrollment data are available at yearly intervals, attendance data may be collected daily in school classrooms
  2. When a large number of ages are estimates, age distribution contains visible peaks at preferred ages. Often these are ages that end in zero or five, but they can also be other preferred digits that are of cultural significance. This pattern is known as “age heaping”, and can be easily measured. Age heaping causes artificial distortion of the age structure of a population, resulting in inaccurately reported population indicators, and leads to erroneous conclusions about demographic patterns in the population.
  3. Age Heaping: Age heaping or age preference is the tendency for people to incorrectly report their age or date of birth. Individuals’ heaping behaviours favour certain ages, commonly those ending in ‘0’ or ‘5’ although there is some evidence of minor heaping at eight Whipple's index (or index of concentration), invented by American demographer George Chandler Whipple (1866–1924), is a method to measure the tendency for individuals to inaccurately report their actual age or date of birth. Respondents to a census or other survey sometimes report their age or date of birth as a round number (typically ending in 0 and 5), or to be more culturally favorable, for example, so that they appear younger or to have been born on a date considered luckier than their actual date of birth. The process of reporting a rounded or “lucky” age is known as age-heaping. The index score is obtained by summing the number of persons in the age range 23 and 62 inclusive, who report ages ending in 0 and 5, dividing that sum by the total population between ages 23 and 62 years inclusive, and multiplying the result by 5. Restated as a percentage, index scores range between 100 (no preference for ages ending in 0 and 5) and 500 (all people reporting ages ending in 0 and 5).[1] Although Whipple's index has been widely applied to test for age heaping, it assumes that the heaping is most likely to occur in 5 and 10 year intervals or some other fixed interval based on digit preference or rounding. While other measures of age heaping, such as Myers' Blended Index,[3] can be applied to find preferences for any terminal digit, the patterns of heaping may be complex.