ILDM KERALA- NLRMP Revenue notes.

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ILDM KERALA- NLRMP Revenue notes -related to KERALA LAND REVENUE DEPARTMENT uploaded by T J Joseph Additional Tahsildar, Meenachil- mob 9447464502

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ILDM KERALA- NLRMP Revenue notes.

  1. 1. Training Course NATIONAL LAND RECORDS MODERNISATION PROGRAMME NLRMP tZiob `qtcJ B[p-nIh¡-cW ]cn-]mSn Study notes INSTITUTTE OF LAND & DISASTER MANAGEMENT P.T.P. NAGAR, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM PHONE: 0471-2365559 e-mail: nlrmptrngildm@gmail.com
  2. 2. tZiob `qtcJ B[p-nIh¡-cW ]cn-]mSn DÅS- ¡w {Ia--¼À A²ymbw t]Pv 1 s]m¶pw-hne S-]-Sn-IÄ 3 2 emâv dhyq nb-a-§-fnse (1894 se FÂ.-G.-BIväv Hgn-sI) kÀsÆ kw_-Ôn-bmb hIp-¸p-IÄ 5 3 tImSXn S-]-SnIÄ 13 4 sNbn³ kÀsÆ 16 5 Xotbm-U-sseäv kÀsÆ 25 6 tamtU¬ kÀsÆ 34 7 FÂ.-BÀ.Fw 38 8 hnhn-[-Xcw B[m-c-§Ä 41
  3. 3. Institute of Land and Disaster Management Study material for Course on NLRMP 3 A²ymbw þ 1 s]m¶pwh- ne S]- S- nI- Ä 1. Asse³saâv kvsI¨v: AÀ²-m-[n-Imcn PnÃm-If- -ISv À hgn Abb- v¨p-Xc- p¶ AÀ²-b- n Bhi- ya- mb hnh-c§- Ä AS-§nb Asse³saâv kvsI¨v Dt­m F¶v ]cntim[n-t¡-­- Xm-Wv. CsÃ-¦n Gsä-Sp-t¡­` qan-bpsS AXn-cp-IÄ ImWn¡p¶ Asse³saâv kvsI¨v AÀ²- m-[n-Im-cn-tbmSv Bh-iy-s¸-tS-­Xpw hnhcw PnÃm If-IvS-sdbpw AÀ²-m-[n-Im-cn-bpsS ta A[n-Im-cn-tbbpw Adn-bn-t¡-­- Xm- Wv. 2. kwbpà ]cn-tim-[: s]m¶pw-hne hnÚm-]w ]pd-s¸-Sp-hn-¡p-¶-Xn-p-ap¼v S-]-Sn-bv¡m-kv]-Z-amb `qan FÂ.-F.H bpw kwLhpw AÀ²-m-[n- Imcn nÀt±-in¨ DtZym-K-Ø-p-ambn tNÀ¶v kwbpà ]cn-tim-[ S-¯-Ww. Asse³saâv kvsI¨n n¶pw `qan-bn ImWp¶ kwK-Xn-I-fn Fs´-¦nepw hyXym-k-ap-s­- ¦n AXv icn-s¸-Sp-¯nbXn-p-tijw thWw hnÚm-]w ]pd-s¸-Sp-hn-¡m³. {]mY-anI hnÚm-]--¯n-sm¸w Xs¶ kÀsÆ hnÚm-]-hpw ]pd-s¸-Sp-hn-¡m-hp-¶-Xm-Wv. GsX-¦nepw kÀsÆ--¼-cp-IÄ hn«p-t]m- Ip-¶-Xp-aqew Xncp-¯Â hnÚm-]w ÂIp-¶Xv Hgp-hm-¡m-mbn B {][mkÀsÆ ¼À apgp-h-mtbm AsÃ-¦n Asse³saân tNÀ¶v ht¶¡mw F¶v kwib- n-¡p¶ GsX-¦nepw kÀsÆ ¼cpw IqSn tNÀ¯v {]mYa- nI hnÚm-]w ÂIp- ¶-Xn kmt¦-Xn-I-ambn sXän-Ã. F¶m kwbpà ]cn-tim-[m ka-b-¯p-Xs¶ kÀsÆ-bÀ AXn ]s¦-Sp-¡p-Ibpw dn¡mÀUp- IÄ h¨v `qan ]cn-tim-[n¨v Bh-iy-amb kÀsÆ ¼-cp-IÄ am{Xw hnÚm-]--¯n DÄs¸-Sp-¯p-¶-XmWv Hcp kÀsÆ-b-dpsS HutZym-KnI HuNn-Xyw. kwbpà ]cn-tim-[-m-th-f-bn kÀsÆ-bÀ Xmsg-¸-d-bp¶ Imcy-§Ä {i²n-¨n-cn-¡-Ww. 1. mfXp kÀsÆ dn¡mÀUp-IÄ {]Imcw DÅ F^v.-Fw. kvsI¨p-IÄ {]Im-c-apÅ kÀsÆ ^oÂUp-Ifpw ¼-cp-Ifpw Asse³saâv kvsI¨nse tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯-ep-I-fp-ambn tbmPn-¡p-¶pt­m ? 2. Asse³saâv IÃp-IÄ {]Imcw Gsä-Sp-t¡­FÃm kÀsÆ ¼-cp-Ifpw k_v ¼-cp-Ifpw dnIzn-kn-j-n hyà-ambn tNÀ¯n-«pt­m ? 3. ]n¶oSv FÂ.F kÀsÆ S-¯p-¶-Xn-m-h-iy-amb FÃm hnh-c-§fpw AÀ°-m-[n-Imcn e`y-am-¡n-bn-«pt­m? Cu ]cn-tim-[--bn _Ô-s¸« hntÃPv -AknÌâv, hmeyp.- AknÌâv, kÀsÆ-bÀ, Xl-knÂZmÀ F¶n-hsc IqSmsX Hcp sNbn³ampw lmP-cp-­m- I-Ww. Asse³saâ n-I-¯pÅ Na-b-§-fpsS Hcp ]«nI X¿m-dm-¡n-s¡m-Åm-pÅ hn.A bpw (Cu L«w apX Xs¶ `qhp-S-a-bp-sSbpw XÂ]-c-I-£n-I-fp-sSbpw kl-I-cWw tSm³ FÂ.G bqWn-änse FÃm-hcpw) {i²n-¨p-sIm-Å- Ww, {]mY-anI hnÚm-]w ]pd-s¸-Sp-hn-¡p-¶-Xn-mbn Øe-¯p-n¶pw ne-hn `qan ne-tam, ]pc-bn-Stam tXm«-tam, dn¡mÀUp-IÄ{]- Imcw F´v F¶o hnh-c-§fpw tiJ-cn-¡-Ww. 4(1) hnÚm-]w FÂ.F BIvänse 4(1) hIp¸p hnÚm-]-hpw kÀsÆ BIvänse 6-þmw hIp¸p ]c-kyhpw shtÆ-sd-bm-sW-¦nepw H¶n-¨p- Xs¶ ]c-ky-s¸-Sp-¯m-hp-¶-Xm-Wv. kÀsÆ ]c-ky-¯nse ]«n-I-bn s]m¶pw-hne dokÀsÆ-s¡-Sp-¡p¶ `qan-I-fpsS kÀsÆ ¼À am{Xw ImWn-¨m aXn-bmIpw F¶m 4(1) hnÚm-]--¯n Hmtcm kÀsÆ/k_v Unhn-j³ ¼-cn-sâbpw IqsS Gsä-Sp-¡m-p-t±- in-¡p-¶ hnkvXoÀ®w IqSn ImWn¨ncn-¡-Ww. GsX-¦nepw kÀsÆ ¼À/k_v ¼À hn«p-t]m-bn-F¶p kÀsÆ ka-b¯p Is­- ¯n-bm B ¼-cn-sbpw hnkvXoÀ®-s¯bpw kw_-Ôn¨ s]m¶p-hne S-]Sn Bcw`n-¡-W-sa-¦n AXn-mbn {]tXyIw hnÚm-]-hpw kÀsÆ ]c-kyhpw ]pXp-Xmbn sNt¿-­n- hcpw F-¶-Xn-m kwbpà ]cn-tim-[m ka-b-¯p-Xs¶ C¡mcyw th­{ X {i²n-¨p-sIm-Å-Ww.
  4. 4. Institute of Land and Disaster Management Study material for Course on NLRMP 4 kÀsÆ-¡p-ap-¼pÅ dn¡mÀUp-ti-J-cWw Cu tPmen kwbpà ]cn-tim-[-¡p ap¼p-Xs¶ ]qÀ¯n-bm-¡p-¶Xp Bh-iy-am-Wv. _n.-Sn.-BÀ, X­- t¸-cp-]-IÀ¸v, F^v.- Fw. kvsI¨p-IÄ nÀ±njvS `qan-Isf kw_-Ôn¨v ]pd-t¼m¡v cPn-Ì-dp-ambn ]cn-tim-[n-¨-Xnsâ dnt¸mÀ«v, `qan-]-Xnhv/ap³ s]m¶pw-hne S-]Sn hnh-cw(-D-s­- ¦nÂ), Sn `qan kw_-Ôn¨v tImS-Xn-t¡-kp-IÄ, an¨-`qan tIkp-IÄ/Pmayw, ]Wbw apX-em-bh Dt­m F¶pw tm¡-Ww. F¶p-hsc/Bcv `qn-IpXn HSp-¡n-bn-«p­v F¶pw ]cn-tim-[n-¡-Ww. s]m¶pw-hne kÀsÆ S-]Sn Hcp `qan-bn kÀsÆ S-]-Sn-¡mbn {]th-in-¡p-¶-Xn-p-ap¼v _Ô-s¸-«-hÀ¡v N«-{]-Im-c-apÅ tm«okv ÂIn-bn-cn-¡- Ww. s]m¶pw-hne S-]-Sn-bn n¶pw Hgn-hm-¡-W-sa¶ `qhp-SabpsS At]-£tbm AÀ°-m-[n-Im-cn-bpsS D]tZitam FÂ.F kÀsÆ-bÀ tcn«v ]cn-K-Wn-t¡-­- Xn-Ã. A¯cw kwK-Xn-I-fn PnÃm IfIvSsd tcJm-aqew kao-]n-¡m³ D]-tZ-in-¡p-I-bmWv DNn- Xw. FÂ.F k_v Unhn-j³ tcJ-IÄ X¿m-dm-¡p-t¼mÄ AXn Na-b-§sf¸än N«-{]-Im-c-apÅ tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯-ep-IÄ DÄs¸-Sp-¯- Ww. jvS-]-cn-lmcw nÀ®-bn-¡p-¶-Xnpw FÂ.-F.-BÀ. tIkp-I-fpsS S-¯n-¸npw CXv {]tbm-P--s¸-Spw. k_v Unhn-j³ kvsI¨p-I-fp-sSbpw 7þmw ¼À ^md-¯n-epÅ tÌävsaâ n-sâbpw aq¶v {]Xn X¿m-dm¡n FÂ.-F.H bpsS ]cn-K-Wbv¡v ÂI-Ww. Hmtcm k_v Unhn-jpw kÀsÆ-bdpw FÂ.-F.H bpw H¶n¨v ]cn-tim-[n¨v t_m[y-s¸-«-Xn-p-tijw thWw FÂ.-F.H k_v Unhn-j ³ Ap-h-Zn-t¡-­- Xv. Cu hI kwK-Xn-IÄ AwKo-I-cn¨v H¸v hbv¡p-t¼mÄ AhÀ FÃmhcpw t]cv, Øm-t¸-cv, XobXn F¶nhIqSn tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cn-¡-Ww. PnÃm kÀsÆ kq{]­v kmt¦-XnI ]cn-tim-[ ]qÀ¯n-bm¡n DÄs¸« FÃm kÀsÆ/k_v Unhn-j-p-Ifpw Ah-bpsS hnkvXr-Xnbpw AwKo-I-cn¨v 2 ]IÀ¸v FÂ.-F.H bv¡v aS¡n ÂI-Ww. AtXm-sSm¸w Xsâ B^o-knse F^v.-Fw.-_n, Gcnb cPn-ÌÀ F¶n-h-bn th­amä- §Ä hcp¯n kq£n-¡p-Ibpw thWw. A{]-Imcw s]m¶pw-hne dokÀsÆ dnt¡mÀUp-IÄ AwKo- I-cn¨v In«n-¡-gn-ªm FÂ.F N«w Bdv {]Im-c-apÅ {]Jym-]--¯nsâ IcSv FÂ.-F.H X¿m-dm-¡p-¶-Xm-Wv. 4(1) hIp-¸p-{]-Im-c-apÅ hnÚm-]w kÀ¡mÀ Kk-änepw Øe¯v {]Nm-c-ap-Å c­v Zn-]-{X-§-fnepw (A-Xn Hs¶-¦nepw {]mtZ-inI `mj-bn-em-bn-cn-¡-Ww) {]kn-²o-I-cn-¡-Ww. IqSmsX B hnÚm-]--¯nsâ kmcw B {]tZ-i¯v kuI-cy-{]-Z-amb {]tZ-i¯v ]c-kys- ¸-Sp¯- p-Ibpw thWw. A¯cw {]kn²- o-I-c-W-¯ns- âtbm ]ck- y-¯ns- âtbm XobX- n-I-fnse Ah-km- s¯XmWv 4(1) hnÚm- ] Xob-Xn. AXn-p-tijw am{Xta FÂ.F DtZym-K-سamÀ A¯cw kzIm-cy-`q-an-bn {]th-in¨v kÀtÆ S-]-Sn-I-fn GÀs¸- Sp-¶Xv nb-a-{]-Im-c-am-Iq. F¶n-cp-¶mepw Ggp Znhkw aps¼-¦nepw Adn-bn¸v ÂImsX bmsXm-cmfpw GsX-¦nepw ho«n-p-Åntem sI«n-b-S¨ A¦-W-¯ntem hoSnt- mSv tNÀ¶ tXm«¯- ntem (DS- a- b- psS k½X- a- nÃ- ms- X) {]thi- n¡- m³ ]mSnÃ- . 4(1) hnÚm-]--Xo-b-Xn-ap-X Hcp hÀj-¯n-Iw kÀsÆ S-]-Sn-IÄ ]qÀ¯n-bm¡n FÂ,.F {]Jym-]w ]pd-s¸-Sp-hn-¨n-cn-¡-Ww. CsÃ-¦n AXp-hsc sNbvX S-]-Sn-I-sfÃmw Imem-l-c-W-s¸-Sp-¶-Xm-Wv.- IcSv {]Jym-]--¯nsâ IqsS aäv dnt¡mÀUp-I-tfm-sSm¸w hkvXp-hnsâ kvsI¨v s]m¶pw-hne `qan-bpsS skänÂsaâv /AS-¦Â / emâv SmIvkv cPn-ÌÀ FIvkv{SmIvSv k_vUn-hn-j³ tÌävsaâv do I¬kn-te-j³ tÌävsaâv F¶nhIqSn kaÀ¸n-¡-Ww. kw-Øm--¯nsâ Bh-iy-§Ä¡pÅ FÂ.F {]Jym-]w emâv dhyq I½o-j-W-td-än n¶pw I¼-n-IÄ, tI{μ kÀ¡mÀ Øm]- -§Ä F¶n-h-bv¡p-Åh kwØm kÀ¡m-cn n¶p-am-Wv ]pd-s¸-Sp-hn-t¡-­- Xv. {]Jym-]w kÀ¡mÀ Kkänepw s]m¶pw-hn-e-bv¡ m-kv]-Z-amb Øe¯v {]Nm-c-¯n-epÅ c­v Zn-]-{X-§-fnepw (A-h-bn-sem¶v {]mtZ-inI `mj-bn-em-bn-cn-¡Ww) {]kn²s¸Sp-¯- Ww. IqSmsX {]Jym-]--¯nsâ kmcw Øes¯ {][m tI{μ-§-fn ]c-ky-s¸-Sp-¯p-Ibpw thWw. B {]kn-²-s¸-Sp-¯-en-sâtbm ]c-ky-s¸-Sp-¯-en-sâtbm Ah-km--Xo-b-Xn-bmWv {]Jym-] Xob-Xn-bmbn ]n¶oSv ]cm-aÀin-¡p-¶- Xv. {]Jym-]--¯n s]m¶pw-hn-e-bv¡m-kv]-Z-amb `qan kw_-Ôn¨ PnÃ, Xmeq-¡v, hntÃ-Pv, `qan Gsä-Sp-¡-ensâ Dt±-iw, GI-tZi hnkvXoÀ®w, Øe-¯nsâ ¹m³ GXv Hm^o-kn ]cn-tim-[-bv¡v e`y-amWv F¶o hnh-c-§Ä ]d-ªn-cn-¡pw. hnÚm-]-tam {]Jym-]-tam AwKo-I-cn-¡p¶ A[n-Imcn Xs¶-bmWv AXnv t`Z-K-Xntbm d±m-¡tem sN¿m-pÅ nivNnX A[n- Imcn ( dqÄ 17)
  5. 5. Institute of Land and Disaster Management ASn-b-´-c-ambn `qan Gsä-Sp¯v ÂtI­kml- N-cy-§-fn 17-þmw hIp¸v {]Imcw km[m-cW coXn-bn AhmÀUv ]mkm- ¡nb tijhpw `qan AXnsâ DS-a-bn n¶pw Gsä-Sp-¡m-hp-¶-Xm-Wv. GXv hn[-¯n-em-bmepw `qan Gsä-Sp-¡p¶ L«-¯n kÀsÆ-b- dpsS kmn²yw D­m- bn-cn-¡m³ FÂ.-F.H {i²n-¡p-¶Xv Gsd Ã-Xm-Wv. Gsä-Sp-¡Â tPmen-bn `qan nÀ±njvS Na-b§tfmsS ncp-]m-[nIw hn«p-X-¶-Xmbn c­v ]IÀ¸p-I-fn `qD-S-a-bpsS / DS-a-I-fpsS H¸pw, Xob-Xn-bpw, t]cpw klnXw hmt§-­- Xm-Wv. AhnsSh¨v Xs¶ AXn nÂ]p Na-b-§Ä AÀ°-m-[n-Im-cn-bpsS nÀ±njvS {]Xn-n-[nsb t_m[y-s¸-Sp¯n Hmtcm t¹m«n-sâbpw kvsI¨nsâ Hcp ]IÀ¸pw Gsä-Sp-¡Â tcJ-bpsS Cc-«n-¸p-I-fn H¶pw Snbm-p-ÂIn asä tIm¸n-bn CXn ]d-bp ¶ Na-b-§fpw Cu hkvXp-hnsâ F^v.Fw kvsI¨v {]Im-c-apÅ AXn-cp-Ifpw t_m²y-s¸«v Cu tcJ-bp-sSbpw F^v.-Fw. kvsI¨nsâ Hcp ]IÀ¸pw klnXw AÀ°-m-[n-Im-cn-bv¡p-th­n FÂ.-F.-H-.bn n¶pw Gäp-hm-§n-bn-cn-¡p-¶p”. F¶v (H¸pw t]cpw, Hut±m-KnI Øm-t¸cpw, Xob-Xnbpw tNÀ¯v) km£y-s¸-Sp¯n hmt§-­Xpw ^ben Ønc-ambn kq£n-t¡-­- Xp-am-Wv. `qan Gsä-Sp-¯m-ep-S³ 14-þmw ¼À ^md-¯n-epÅ Adn-bn¸v _Ô-s¸« k_v cPn-ÌmÀ¡v ÂIn ssI¸än ckoXv hm§-Ww. `qan Gsä-Sp¯v AÀ°-m-[n-Im-cnbv¡v ssIam-dn-¡-gn-ªm AhmÀUnsâ ]IÀ¸pw AXn DÄs¸« F^v.-Fw. kvsI¨nsâ ]IÀ¸pw k_vUn-hn-j³ tÌävsaâ nsâ ]IÀ¸pw tNÀ¯v FÂ.F H _Ô-s¸« Xmeq¡v Xl-koÂZmÀ¡v emâv dnt¡mÀUp-I-fn Bh-iy-amb amä-§Ä hcp-¯p-¶-Xn-mbn Ab-¨p-sIm-Sp-t¡- ­Xpw Xmeq¡v, FÂ.-BÀ.-Fw. hn`m-K-¯npw _Ô-s¸« hntÃ-tPm-^okv dnt¡mÀUp-I-fnepw Bh-iy-amb amä-§Ä / tcJ-s¸- Sp-¯-ep-IÄ hcp-¯n-b-tijw Bb-Xnsâ km£y-]{Xw Xl-koÂZmÀ FÂ.-F.-H.bv¡v Ab¨v sImSp-t¡-­Xpw AXv FÂ.F. ^b-en Ønc-ambn kq£n-t¡-­- Xp-am-Wv. IqSp-X hnh-c-§Ä `qtc-Jm-]-cn-]m-ew F¶ A²ym-b-¯n ImWp-I. Study material for Course on NLRMP 5 A²ymbw þ 2 emâ v dhyq nba- §- f- nse (1894 se FÂ.G- .B- Iäv v Hgns- I) kÀsÆ kw_Ô- nb- mb hIp¸- pI- Ä Kerala Govt. Land Assignment Act, 1960 • kÀ¡mÀ `qan ]Xn¨p ÂIp¶XnpÅ nbaw • ]Xn¨p ÂIm³ Dt±i- n¡- p¶ kÀ¡mÀ `qan {]tXyIw kÀsÆ sNbvXv Demarcation sN¿Ww • Hmtcm Holdings Dw Af¶v Xn«-s¸-Sp¯n kvsI¨v X¿m-dm-¡n-b-Xnv tij-amWv ]Xnhv S-]Sn Bcw-`n-t¡-­Xv • hn.H X¿m-dm-¡p¶ kvsI¨v semt¡-j³ kvsI¨v am{X-amWv • AXv Xmeq¡v kÀth-bÀ apJm-´ncw ]cn-tim-[n¨v {]tXyIw kvsI¨v X¿m-dm¡nbXnv tij-amWv ]«b S-]-Sn-IÄ Bcw-`n-t¡ ­Xv • tem¡Â AtXm-cn-änbvt¡m s]mXp Bh-iy-¯ntm {]tXyIw Survey and demarcation S¯n amän CtS-­- Xm-Wv. 1964 se Kerala Land Assignment Rules ]©m-b¯v {]tZ-is¯ `qan-]-Xn-hn-s-¸än ]d-bp-¶p. Irjn Bh-iy-¯n-pw, hoSv hbv¡p-¶-Xnpw, ]«-b-`q-an-bpsS Beneficial enjoyment pw kÀ¡mÀ `qan ]Xn¨v ÂIp-¶p. Beneficial enjoyment v ]Xnhv S]- -Sn-IÄ kzoIc- n¡- p¶- X- nv kÀ¡mÀ `qanb- pw ]«-b-`q-anbpw {]tXyIw Survey and demarcation S¯n kvsI¨v X¿m-dm-t¡-­- Xp-­v. CXnv Xmeq¡v kÀth-b-dpsS Bhiyw D­v. Irjnbv¡v ka-X-e-{]-tZ-i-§-fn 50 skâpw ae-{¼tZ-i-§fn -Hcp G¡-dnepw IqSp-X ]Xn¨p ÂIm³ ]mSn-Ã. hoSp-h-bv¡p- ¶-Xn-pw Beneficial enjoyment pw 15 skâ n IqSp-X ÂIm³ ]mSn-Ã. Survey and demarcation S¯nb Gcn-b-bmWv ]«-b-¯n tcJ-s¸-Sp-t¯-­- sX¶v Rule 9 {]tXyIw Ap-im-kn-¡p¶p. Rule 9 {]Imcw Survey and demarcation charges Assignee AS-¡-Ww. dokÀsÆ Ignª hntÃ-Pp-I-fn ]Xnhv kw_-Ôn¨v k_vUn-hn-j³ kvsI¨v Bh-iy-amWv
  6. 6. Institute of Land and Disaster Management Assk³saân- pt- h­n ksv I¨ v X¿md- m¡- pt- ¼mÄ ]»nI v tdmU vhnIk- - ¯- n v 3 aoäÀ amän CSWw ]Xnh v S]- S- n-IÄ¡mbn dqÄ 11 {]Imcw enÌv X¿md- m¡n AwKo-I-cn¡- W- w. kÀsÆb- ÀamÀ ]Xnh- nv kvsI¨v X¿m-dm¡- p-t¼mÄ hkvXp ]Xnhv enÌnÂs¸«XmsW¶v Dd-¸p-h-cp-¯-Ww. dqÄ 12(1) {]Imcw Xl-koÂZmÀ 15 Znh-ks¯ tm«okv Xmeq-¡m-^o-knepw hntÃPv Hm^o-knepw, _Ô-s¸« Xt±i kzbw `cW Øm]--¯nepw ]c-ky-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶p. ]cm-Xn-IÄ CsÃ-¦n Xmeq¡v em³Uv Assk³saâv I½-än-I-fnÂh¨v AwKo-I-cn¨v Xl-koÂZmÀ ]«bw ÂIp-¶p. apnk- n¸-  tImÀ¸t- dj- ³ Gcnb- I- f- n ]Xnh vS]- Sn kzoIc- n¡- p¶- X- n v 1995 se Assignment of Land within Municipal and Corporation Areas Rules {]Imc- a- mW- .v Maximum 10 cent in Municipal area, 5 cent in Corporation area Subdivision sketch IÄ ta ]dª Gcn-bbv¡v am{Xta X¿m-dm-¡m³ ]mSp-Åq. 7(1) tm«okv {]kn-²o-I-cn¨v apn-kn-¸Â / tImÀ¸td--j³ em³Uv Assk³saâv I½n-än-bn h¨v AwKo-I-cn¨v PnÃm-I-f-IvSÀ ]«bw ÂIp-¶p. dqÄ 16  Assk³ sNt¿­` qan Survey and demarcation S¯Wsa¶v {]tXyIw Api- mk- n¡- p¶- p. Survey and demarcation charges Assignee AS-bv¡-Ww. Assignment order epw ]«-b-¯nepw Assign sN¿p¶ `qansb kw_-Ôn¨ hnh-c-§Ä tNÀ¡p-¶Xv Survey and demarcation sketch s ASnØ- m--am¡- n-bmWv F¶X v {]tXyIw {it²b- a- m-Wv. ]«bw sImSp¯- t- ijw dokÀsÆ kq{]­v AwKoI- c- n¨ Survey and demarcation sketch s ASn-Øm--am¡n hntÃPv dn¡mÀUp-I-fn amäw hcp-¯p-¶p. Land Assignment kw_-Ôn¨v Xmsg-¸-d-bp¶ dqÄkv Ap-k-cn¨v ]«-b-§Ä ÂIp¶Xnpw kÀsÆ k_vUn-hn-j³ kvsI¨v Bh-iy-am-Wv. (a)The Kerala Land Assignment (Regularisation of occupations of Forest Land prior to 1-1-97) Special Rules 1993. (1) dhyq Un¸mÀ«p-saâpw hw-h-Ip¸pw Hcp kwbpà ]cn-tim-[ S-¯n-bmWv ]Xnhv S-]-Sn-IÄ kzoI-cn-¡p-¶-Xv. (2) Hmtcm-cp-¯-cp-tSbpw ssIhiw Af¶vXn«-s¸-Sp¯n Survey and demarcation Sketch X¿mdm-¡n-bmWv ]«bw ÂIp-¶-Xn- Study material for Course on NLRMP 6 pÅ S-]-Sn-IÄ kzoI-cn-¡p-¶-Xv. (3) ]c-am-h[n 4 G¡À Øe¯nv am{Xta Assignee bv¡v Ah-Im-i-apÅq. (4) AXn IqSp-X-epÅ Øew kÀ¡mÀ Gsä-Sp-¡p-¶p. (5) ]«bw ÂIp¶ Øehpw kÀ¡mÀ Gsä-Sp-¡p¶ Øehpw {]tXyIw kvsI¨v tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯-Ww. XpSÀ¶v Survey Superintendent Sketch & Subdivision Statement Dw AwKo-I-cn¨v dnt¡mÀUn amäw hcp-¯Ww (6) 1961 se Kerala Survey and Boundaries Act {]Imcw kÀsÆ S¯n X¿m-dm-¡nb kvsI¨v BWv ]«bw ÂIp-¶-Xnv th­n ]c-ky-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶-Xv. (7) {]kvXpX kvsI¨v {]Im-c-amWv Xl-koÂZmÀ ]«bw ÂIp-¶-Xv. (b) The Arable Forest Land Assignment Rules, 1970 (1) kÀ¡m-cnsâ {]tXyI D¯-chv {]Imcw t^mdÌv Un¸mÀ«vsaâ n n¶pw dhyq Un¸mÀ«vsaâ n-tebv¡v Cu nb-a-{]-Imcw ]Xn-hn-mbn hkvXp amäp-¶p. (2) ]c-am-h[n 2 G¡-dmWv ]Xn¨v ÂIp-¶-Xv. (3) kÀsÆ S-]-Sn-IÄ kzoI-cn¨v `qan-bpsS hnkvXrXnbpw semt¡-jpw Xn«-s¸-Sp-¯n-btijw BWv Assignable list X¿m-dm¡ n {]kn-²o-I-cn-¡p-¶-Xv. (4) At]-£-IÀ¡v ÂIp¶ `qan-bpsS Survey and demarcation hnh-c-§Ä ]Xnhv D¯-c-hnepw,, ]-«-b-¯nepw tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯p- ¶-Xn-m IrXy-amb kÀsÆ k_vUn-hn-j³ Bh-iy-amWv. (c) Rules Assignment of Govt. Land for Industrial purposes 1964
  7. 7. Institute of Land and Disaster Management (1) hymh-km-bnI Bh-iy-¯nv `qan ]Xn¨v In«p-¶-Xnv hyh-kmb hIp¸v Ub-d-IvSÀ¡v At]£ ÂIp-¶p. (2) Ub-d-IvSÀ Atz-jWw S¯n ip]mÀi klnXw Kh¬saâ nv kaÀ¸n-¡p-¶p. (3) ]Xn¨p ÂtI­` qan-bpsS hnkvXoÀ®w hyh-kmb hIp¸v Ub-d-IvS-dpsS ip]mÀi-{]-Imcw kÀ¡mÀ Xocp-am-n-¡p-¶p. (4) At]-£-bn kÀsÆ w, Gcnb- , AXnÀ¯nI- Ä F¶nh hyàa- mbn ÂtI­- X- p-­v. (5) CXv Xmeq¡v kÀtÆ-bÀ hni-Z-amb ]cn-tim-[ S¯n Survey and demarcation S¯n PnÃm kÀtÆ kq{]­v AwKo-I-cn¨ kvsI¨nsâ ASn-Øm--¯n BWv Xl-koÂZmÀ ]«bw ÂIp-¶-Xv. (6) ]Xnh v D¯chv kÀ¡mÀ ]pd-s¸S- ph- n¨v PnÃm IfI- vSÀ¡v Abb- v¡p-¶p. PnÃm IfI- vS-dpsS nÀt±i{]Im-c-amW vkÀth k_vUn-hn- j³ S¯n Xl-koÂZmÀ ]«bw ÂIp-¶-Xv. (d) Bhoodan Assignment Rules 1962 (1) `qan CÃm¯ ]mhs- ¸-«h- À¡ v `qan ]Xn¨- p- ÂIp-¶-Xnpth­n BNmcy hntm-_`msh Bcw`- n¨ {]Øm--amW v `qZm³ aqhvsa³dv (2) Zm ]{Xw FgpXn kzta-[bm kÀ¡m-cnv `qan ÂImw (3) Xl-koÂZmÀ {]kvXpX Øew kÀsÆ & k_vUn-hn-j³ sNbvXv BWv Zmw kzoI-cn-¡p-¶-Xv. (4) kÀsÆ k_vUn-hn-j³ ka-b¯v {]kvXpX Øew ]pd-t¼m-¡n DÄs¸-«-X-söv kÀthbÀ Dd-¸p-h-cp-¯-Ww. (5) Bhoodan Committee / Land Assignment Committee BWv KpW-t`m-àm-¡-fpsS enÌv AwKo-I-cn-¡p-¶-Xv. (6) Xl-koÂZmÀ ÂIp¶ ]«-b-{]-Imcw hn.-H, dhyq dn¡mÀUp-I-fn amäw hcp-¯p-¶p. kÀsÆ kq{]­v AwKo-I-cn¨ kvsI¨pw k_vUn-hn-j³ tÌävsaâpw {]Im-c-amWv dn¡mÀUp-I-fn amäw hcp-¯p-¶-Xv. (e) Kandukrishi Land Assignment Rules, 1958 (1)Irjn Bh-iy¯- nv I­p- Irjn hnfw-_-c-{]I- mcw Gsä-Sp¯ Øea- mW v I­p Irjn `qan (2)ssIh-i-¡m-cv nb-a-{]-Imcw tIm¼³tk-j³ hm§n ]Xn¨v ÂIp-¶p. (3)]-Xnhv S-]-Sn-IÄ kzoI-cn-¡p-¶-Xnv ap³]mbn dn¡mÀUp-{]-Imcw DÅ I­p- Irjn Øew kÀsÆ S¯n Xn«-s¸-Sp¯n kvsI¨v X¿m-dm-¡p-¶p. (4)Hmtcm ssIhi- ¯- npw {]tXyIw k_vUnh- nj- ³ kvsI¨v X¿md- m¡- nb- mWv ]Xnhv D¯c- hv ]pds- ¸S- ph- n¡- p¶- X- v. (f) tXbn-e, Im¸n, d_À, Gew F¶nh Irjn-sN-¿p¶ Bh-iy-¯n-te¡v ]Xnhv S-]-Sn-IÄ kzoI-cn-¡p-¶-Xnv {]tXyIw N«-§Ä cq]o- I-cn-¨n-«p-­v. Sn N«-§-fpsS S-¯n-¸npw kÀsÆ kw_-Ô-amb S-]-Sn-{I-a-§Ä Bh-iy-amWv. (g) Kerala Land Conservancy Act, 1957 £ Rule, 1957 (1) kÀ¡mÀ Øew A-[n-Ir-X-ambn ssIt¿-dp-¶Xv XS-bp-¶-Xnv th­n cq]o-I-cn-¨n-«pÅ nb-a-am-Wn-Xv. (2) 2009 se tIcf em³Uv I¬kÀh³kn Aa³Uvsaâv BIväv {]Im-cw, kÀ¡mÀ hI `qan ssIt¿-ä-¯nv IqSp-X in£ GÀs¸-Sp-¯n. (a) kÀ¡mÀ `qan ssIt¿-ä-¡m-cv 3 hÀjw apX 5 hÀjw hsc XShpw 50000/-þ cq]m-ap-X 2 e£w hsc ]ngbpw in£ e`n-¡mw. (b) hymP-tc-J-IÄ X¿m-dm¡n kÀ¡mÀ `qan ssIamäw S-¯p-Itbm DS-a-Øm-h-Imiw Øm]n-¡m³ hymP-tc-J-IÄ X¿m-dm- ¡p-Itbm sNbvXm 5 hÀjw ap 7 hÀjw hsc XShpw 50,000/þ apX 2 e£w hsc ]ngbpw in£e`n-¡mw. (c) A-[n-Ir-X- `qan ssIt¿äw dnt¸mÀ«p sN¿p-Itbm Hgn-¸n-¡p-Itbm sN¿m³ Npa-X-e-s¸« DtZym-K-س AXv sN¿p¶Xn hogvN hcp-¯n-bm 3 hÀjw apX 5 hÀjw hsc XShpw 50,000/þ cq]m-ap-X 2 e£w hsc ]ngbpw in£ e`n-¡mw. (d) kÀ¡mÀ `qanb- n A[- nI- rX nÀ½mWw S¯- nb- m Hcp hÀjw apX c­v hÀjw hsc XShpw 10,000/þcq] apX 25,000/þ ]qc hsc ]ngbpw in£ e`n¡- mw. ta tNÀ¯ in£m S-]-Sn-IÄ kzoI-cn-¡p-¶-Xnv kÀ¡mÀ hI Øew ssIt¿-dnbXv ImWn-¡p¶ hyà-amb kvsI¨v Study material for Course on NLRMP 7 Bh-iy-am-Wv.
  8. 8. Institute of Land and Disaster Management ssIt¿-dnb kÀsÆ ¼-cnÂs¸« BsI ]pd-t¼m-¡n-tâbpw ssIt¿-dn-b-Xn-tâbpw kvsI¨v X¿m-dm¡n Xn«-s¸-Sp¯nbti-j- amWv nb-a-{]-Imcw Hgn-¸n-¡Â prosecution DÄs¸sS-bp-Å XpSÀ S-]-Sn-IÄ kzoI-cn-t¡-­- Xv. (h) Kerala Land Development Act, 1964 Rule, 1977 (1) `qhnI-k--¯n-mbn {]tXyIw kvIoap-IÄ GÀs¸-Sp-¯p-¶-XnpÅ nbaw. (2) ]mS-ti-J-c-I-½-än-IÄ Cu nb-a-{]-Imcw cq]o-I-cn-¡p-¶p. (3) ]mS-ti-Jc I½-än-IÄ hnI-k--]-²-Xn-IÄ X¿m-dm-¡p-¶p. (4) Hmtcm ]²-Xnbv¡pw Bh-iy-amb Øe-§Ä kÀth sNbvXv kvsI¨pIÄ X¿m-dm-t¡-­- Xp­v. (5) AXnptija- mW v tm«n-^nt- ¡-j³ S¯n AwKoI- c- n¨v kvIoapI- Ä S¸- m-¡p¶- X- .v (h) Kerala Land Relinquishment Act, 1958 Rule, 1958 (1) `qan kzta-[bm kÀ¡m-cn-te¡v hns«m-gn-bp-¶-Xnv th­nbpÅ nb-aw. (2) `qan hns«m-gn-bp-¶-Xn-pÅ At]£ BÀ.-Un.H bv¡v ÂIp-¶p. (3) {]kvXpX At]-£-bn hn.H hgn Atz-jWw S-¯n-bmWv XpSÀ S-]Sn kzoI-cn-¡p-¶-Xv. (4) dnt¸mÀ«n-sm¸w kvsI¨pw al-Êdpw X¿m-dm¡n kaÀ¸n-¡-Ww. (5) hns«m-gn-bp¶ `qan ]pd-t¼m-¡-söv Dd¸v hcp-¯p-¶-Xnv Xmeq¡v kÀth-bÀ apJm-´n-c-amWv kvsI¨v X¿m-dm-t¡-­- Xv. Cu kvsI¨pw k_vUn-hn-j³ tÌävsaâpw kÀsÆ kq{]­v AwKo-I-cn-¡-Ww. (6) BÀ.-Un.-H, dnt¸mÀ«pw, kvsI¨pw al-Êdpw {]Imcw kn ^mdw tm«okv ]c-ky-s¸-Sp¯n ]cmXn H¶pw Csöv I­m hns«m-gn- b AwKo-I-cn-¡p-¶p. kÀsÆ kq{]-­nsâ AwKo-IrX kvsI¨v {]Imcw field map subdivision tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯Ww. (7) BÀ.-Un.H bpsS D¯-chv {]Imcw hntÃPv X­- t¸-cn Ipdhv hcp-¯-Ww. hns«m-gnª hkvXp ]pd-t¼m-¡n IqSp-X Bbn tNÀ¡Ww. i) Kerala Land Tax Act, 1961 Rule, 1972 (1) Basic Tax AYhm `qnI- pXn ]ncn¡- p¶- X- n v th­nb- mW v Cu nbaw S¸- m¡- nb- n«- pÅ- X- v. (2) dokÀsh dn¡mÀUp-IÄ X¿m-dm-¡p-t¼mÄ Gähpw {][m--ambn X¿m-dm-¡p¶ cPn-ÌÀ BWv ASn-Øm `qn-IpXn cPn-ÌÀ Study material for Course on NLRMP 8 AYhm BTR. (3) BTR  hkvXp-hnv tsc `qn-IpXn F{X-sb¶v ImWn-¨n-cn-¡-Ww. ne-hn-epÅ nIpXn nc-¡p-IÄ Ap-k-cn-¨mWv BTR X¿md- m-¡p¶- Xv. Ct¸m-gs¯ `qn-IpXn nc-¡p-IÄ Xmsg sImSp-¡p-¶p. tImÀ¸-td-j³ 2 BÀ hsc 1 Bdnv c­v cq] 2 Adnv apI-fn 1 Bdnv 4 cq] ap³kn-¸m-enän 6 BÀ hsc 1 Bdnv 1 cq] 6 Bdnv apI-fn 1 Bdnv 2 cq] ]©m-b¯v 20 BÀ hsc 1 Bdnv 50 ss] 20 Bdnv apI-fn 1 Bdnv 1 cq] j) Kerala Land Utilisation Order, 1967 (1) kwØm-s¯ ImÀjnI cwKw sa¨-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶-Xnpw A-[n-Ir-X-ambn sÂh-b-ep-IÄ nI-¯p-¶Xv XS-bp-¶-Xnpw ]pd-s ¸-Sp-hn¨ Hcp D¯-c-hmWv KLU Order. (2) Hcp nÝnX {]tZ-i¯v Hcp nÝnX hnf Irjn sN¿-W-sa¶v ImWn¨v kÀ¡m-cnv tm«n-^n-t¡-j³ ]pd-s¸-Sp-hn-¡mpw AX- p-k-cn¨v FÃm `q DS-a-IÄ¡pw tm«okv ÂImpw Cu nbaw If-IvSÀ¡v A[n-Imcw ÂIp-¶p. (3) Irjn `qan Xcn-imbn CSp-Itbm tm«okv {]Imcw Irjn sN¿m-Xn-cn-¡p-Itbm sNbvXm Irjn sN¿m-pÅ Ah-Imiw teew sNbvXv aq¶mw I£nsb G¸n-¡m³ Cu nbaw If-IvSÀ / BÀ.-Un.H bv¡v A[n-Imcw ÂIp-¶p.
  9. 9. Institute of Land and Disaster Management (4) F¶m Sn nbaw ^e-{]-Z-a-söv kÀ¡m-cnv t_m[ys¸-«-Xn-mepw h³tXm-Xn sÂh-b-ep-Ifpw X®oÀ¯-S-§fpw cq]m- ´-c-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶-Xmbn kÀ¡m-cnsâ {i²-bnÂs¸«-Xn-mepw 2008  tIcf sÂh-b X®oÀ¯S kwc-£W nb-ahpw N«-§fpw kÀ¡mÀ GÀs¸-Sp-¯n. (5) Kerala Conservation of Paddy Land and Wet Land Act & Rules 2008. (6) Cu nb-a-¯nsâ 3þmw hIp¸v sÂh-b ]cn-hÀ¯w sN¿p-¶Xpw 11-þmw hIp¸v X®oÀ¯-S-§Ä ]cn-hÀ¯w sN¿p- Study material for Course on NLRMP 9 ¶Xpw hne-¡p-¶p. (7) Cu nb¯- nsâ S¯- n-¸n- mbn Hcp Local Level Monitoring Committee bpw District Level Authorised Committee bpw State Level Committee bpw cq]o-I-cn-¨n-cn-¡p-¶p. (8) Local Level Monitoring Committee bn Panchayat President(Chairman), Agricultural Officer, V.O, bpw F¶n-hÀ AwK- §fpw BWv. IÀjI {]Xn-n-[n-I-tfbpw tman-täv sN¿p-¶p. (9) hoSv hbv¡p-¶-Xnv hb nI-¯m³ ip]mÀi ÂIp-¶p. (10 cents in Panchayat area 5 cents in Municipal / Corporation area) (10) A-[n-IrX hb nI-¯Â BÀ.-Un.-Hbv¡v dnt¸mÀ«v sN¿pI F¶n-h-bmWv Cu I½-än-bpsS A[n-Im-c-§Ä. (11) Cu I½-än-bpsS asämcp {][m--Np-a-Xe sÂh-b-ep-I-fp-tSbpw X®oÀX-S-§-fp-tSbpw Hcp Data Bank X¿m-dm-¡p-I-bm-Wv. (12) CXn- mbn kÀsÆ hn`mK- ¯- nsâ tkhw Bhi- ya- mW- v. Satellite map  kÀsh hnhc- §- Ä kq£vaX- t- bmsS tcJs- ¸S- pt- ¯­- X- p- ­v. Cu Data Bank ]ck- ys- ¸S- pt- ¯­- X- p­- v. (13) PnÃm-Xe Authorised Committee bpsS sNbÀam³ BÀ.-Un.H bpw Principal Agricultural Officer Dw aäpw 3 IÀjI {]Xn-n- [n-Ifpw CXnse AwK-§Ä BWv. (14) kz´a- mbn Xmak- n¡- p¶- X- n vhoSp hb- v¡p¶- X- n vCu nba- {- ]I- mcw hbÂnI- ¯- m³ Aph- mZw ÂIpI- , A[- nI- rX- a- mbn sÂh-bÂ, X®oÀ¯Sw F¶nh nI¯- p¶- X- nsXnsc S]- Sn kzoIc- n¡- pI F¶nh Cu I½ä- nb- psS A[nI- mc- a- mW- v. (15) State Level Committee bn Agri. production Commissioner  I¬ho-dpw dhyp I½o-j-WÀ, ]cn-ØnXn taJ-e-bnse Hcp hnZ-Kv²³, sÂIrjn taJe-bnse Hcp imkv{X-Ú³ F¶n-hÀ aäv AwK-§fpw BWv. (16) s]mXp Bh-iy-¯n-mbn new nI-¯p-¶-Xn-pÅ Ap-hmZw ÂIp-¶Xv State Committee BWv. (17) A-[n-Ir-X-ambn sÂh-btem X®oÀ¯-Stam ]cn-hÀ¯--s¸-Sp-¯p¶ GsXm-cmfpw 6 amkw apX 2 hÀjw hsc XS-hn pw 50,000/-þcq] apX Hcp e£w hsc ]ngbpw ÂtI­n hcpw. (18) 4þmw N«-{]-Imcw tUäm-_m¦v X¿m-dm-¡p-¶-Xnv kÀsh hn`m-K-¯nsâ tkhw An-hm-cy-am-Wv. k) Kerala Revenue Recovery Act, 1968 Rules, 1968 (1) nIpXn C-¯ntem CXc C-§-fntem e`n-t¡-­- XpI bYm-k-abw HSp-¡p-¶-Xn hogvN hcp-¯p-t¼m-gmWv BÀ.-BÀ S- ]Sn kzoI-cn-¡p-¶-Xv. (2) Movable Property P]vXn sN¿p-¶-Xnv 7þmw hIp¸v {]Imcw Unamâv tm«okv ÂIp-¶p. DSs XpI AS-bv¡-Ww. (3) Immovable Property P]vXn sN¿p-¶-Xnv 34-þmw hIp¸v {]Imcw Unamâv tm«okv ÂIp-¶p. XpI AS-bv¡p-¶-Xnv Ipd-ªXv 7 Znh-ks¯ kabw F¦nepw Ap-h-Zn¡- W- w. (4) Immovable Property P]vXn sN¿p-¶-Xnv 36-þmw hIp¸v {]Imcw tm«okv hkvXp-hnepw ]Xn-¡-Ww. (5) CXn-mbn Defaulter sS hkvXp- identify sN¿p-¶-Xnv P]vXn dn¡mÀUv X¿m-dm-¡p-¶-Xnpw kÀsÆ-b-dpsS Bhiyw D­m- Ipw. (6) IpSnÈ- nI- ¡- mc- sâ _nkn- Êv Aäm¨v sN¿p¶Xv 43þ- mw hIp¸v {]Imcw PnÃmI- f- I- vSd- mW- v. (7) Immovable Property hn¡p-¶-Xn-pÅ S-]Sn {Ia-§Ä 49þmw hIp¸n ]d-bp-¶p. (8) P]vXn sNbvX Immovable Property teew sN¿p-¶-Xnv ap³Iq«n XobXn nÝ-bn¨v ]c-ky-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶-p. A{]-Imcw teew S¯n IqSp-X teew hnfn-¡p¶ Bfnsâ t]cn teew Ønc-s¸-Sp¯n tee kÀ«n-^n-¡äv ÂIp-¶p. (9) XpSÀ¶v hkvXp tee-¡m-csâ t]cn {]amWw sNbvXv ÂIp-¶p. {]am-W-t¯m-sS¸w lmP-cm-t¡­hkvXphnsâ Demarcation Skatch Surveyer X¿m-dm¡Ww.
  10. 10. Institute of Land and Disaster Management (10)BÀ.- BÀ BIvänsâ sk£³ 50 {]Imcw tee-¯n ]s¦-Sp-¡m³ BÄ CsÃ-¦ntem teew sIm­XpI Xosc Ipd-hm-sW- ¦ntem asämcp Xob-Xnbv¡v (60 Znh-k-¯n-Iw) teew amäWw. (11)ho­pw teew S-¯n-bn-sÃ-¦n tÌäv Hm^o-kÀ¡v Xs¶ Hcp cq] AS¨v kÀ¡m-cnv th­n teew ]nSnbv¡mw. AtXmsS hkvXp kÀ¡m-cn-sâ-Xm-Ip-¶p. CXmWv Bought-in-Land. Study material for Course on NLRMP 10 (12)Bought-in-Land sâ hnhcw X­- t¸À BTRF¶n-h-bn tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯p-Ibpw Bought-in-Land v {]tXyIw cPn-ÌÀ kq£n- ¡p-Ibpw sN¿p-¶p. Transfer of Registry Rules, 1966 (1) `qan-bn taepÅ DS-a-Øm-h-Imiw amdp-¶-Xn--p-k-c-W-am-bn, `q DS-a-I-fpsS t]cn nIpXn ]ncn-¡p-¶-Xn-mbn hntÃPv tcJ-I-I-fn Bh-iy-amb amäw hcp-¯p-¶-Xn-mWv t]m¡p-h-chv AYhm Pa-amäw F¶p-]-d-bp-¶-Xv. (2) Pa-amäw Bh-iy-ambn hcp-¶Xv aq¶v kml-N-cy-§-fn-em-Wv. (1) kza--Êm-se-bpÅ hkvXp ssIam-äw. (2) tImSXn D¯-chv, dhyq teew F¶nh hgn-bpÅ nÀ_-ÔnX ssIam-äw. (3) ]n´p-SÀ¨m-h-Im-iw. (3) k_vUn-hn-j³ Bh-iy-an-Ãm¯ Pa-amäw hn.H bv¡v Ap-h-Zn-¡mw. (4) t]m¡p-h-c-hnv Bkv]-Z-amb hkvXp-hnv k_vUn-hn-j³ Bh-iy-apÅ ]£w k_vUn-hn-j³ kvsI¨v / hntÃPv Akn-Ìâv / kÀth-bÀ X¿m-dm-t¡-­Xpw AXv ‘F’^md-t¯msSm¸w h¨v Xl-koÂZmÀ¡v kaÀ¸n¨v AwKo-Imcw hmt§-­- Xp-am-Wv. (5) t]m¡phchv tIkv XoÀ¨ sNbvXp Ign-ªm X­- t¸À A¡u-­n hnhcw tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯-Ww. (6) ]«b I£n ac-W-s¸-Sp-I-bm-sW-¦n ]n´p-SÀ¨m-h-Imi t]m¡p-h-chv hgn hkvXp ac-W-s¸« I£n-bpsS ]n´p-SÀ¨m-h-Im-in- I-fpsS t]cn Iq«m-hp-¶-Xm-Wv. CXnv 15 Znh-ks¯ tm«okv ]c-ky-s¸-Sp-¯-Ww. t]m¡p-h-c-hn-mbn hkvXp identify sN¿p-¶-Xnpw Boundary IÄ CsÃ-¦n AXv ^nIvkv sN¿p-¶-Xnpw k_vUn-hn-j ³ kvsI¨v X¿m-dm-¡p-¶-Xnpw kÀsÆ kw_Ôn¨ S-]Sn {Ia-§Ä th­n- h-cp-¶p. (7) t]m¡p-h-chv nb-a-¯nse dqÄ 12, k_vUn-hn-js kw_-v[n¨v hyà-amb amÀ¤-nÀt±iw ÂIp-¶p. XlkoÂZmÀ k_vUn-hn-j³ AS-§p¶ ‘A’ Form AwKo-I-cn-¨mepw kÀsh k_vUn-hn-j³ A´n-a-am-Ip-¶n-Ã. k_vUn-hn-j ³ kvsI¨p-Ifpw tÌävsaâpw kq£va ]cn-tim-[ S¯n kÀsÆ kq{]­v AwKo-I-cn-¡-Ww. CXn-mbn X¿m-dm-¡nb kvsI¨ntâbpw k_vUn-hnj- ³ tÌävsaânt- âbpw 3 tIm¸n kÀsh kq{]-­n v Abb- v¡-Ww. kÀsh kq{]­v AwKo-I-cn¨ kvsI¨pw k_vUn-hn-j³ tÌävsaâpw {]Imcw hn.H hntÃPv dnt¡mÀUp-I-fn amäw hcp-¯-Ww. kÀsh ^oÂUv_p¡nepw th­amäw hcp- ¯-Ww. Xmeq¡m^oknse kÀsh ^oÂUv_p¡nepw th­- amäw hcp-¯-Ww. Subdivision changes Hmtcm aq¶v amk-¯n-sem-cn-¡Â Xl-koÂZmÀ _Ô-s¸« Registering Officer s Adn-bn-t¡-­- Xm- Wv. Kerala Tresure Trove Act, 1968 £ Rules 1971 (1) Treasure Trove means money, bullion, or other valuable found hidden in the earth (2) n[n I­hnhcw PnÃm-I-f-IvSsd Adn-bn-¡-Ww. (3) DS-a-Øsâ hnlnXw nÀ®-bn-¡p-¶-Xnpw kÀ¡m-cnv th­n n[n Gsä-Sp-¡mpw DÅ A[n-Imcw PnÃm If-IvSÀ¡v D­v. (4) n[n ImW-s¸« Øe-¯nsâ dnt¸mÀ«v , al-ÊÀ F¶nh X¿m-dm-¡p-¶-Xnv Npa-X-e-s¸-Sp-¯s¸« DtZym-K-Øv {]kvXpX Øe-¯nsâ kvsI¨v kÀth-bÀ apJm-´ncw X¿m-dm-t¡-­n- h-cp-¶p. Kerala Escheats and Forfeitures Act, 1964 £ Rule 1965 (1) Ah-Im-in-IÄ Bcpw CÃmsX acn¡p¶h-cpsS hkvXp-¡-fmWv Escheats F¶-dn-b-s¸-Sp-¶-Xv. CXv kÀ¡m-cnsâ DS-a-Ø-X-bn h¶p tNcp-¶p. (2) Escheats s kw_-Ôn¨ hnhcw e`n-¨m-ep-S³ If-IvSÀ sk£³ 5 {]Imcw hnhcw Kk-än {]kn-²o-I-cn-¡p-¶p. (3)Ah-Im-in-IÄ Ds­- ¦n 6 amk-¯n-Iw sXfnhv klnXw Ah-Imiw D¶-bn-¡mw.
  11. 11. Institute of Land and Disaster Management (4)Ah-Im-i-¯n³ta Atz-jWw S¯n If-IvSÀ XoÀ¸v I¸n¡p-¶p.- (5) XpSÀ¶v D¯-chv {]Imcw Øew If-IvSÀ Gsä-Sp-¡p-¶p. (6) Gsä-Sp¯ {]kvXpX Øew Kerala Land Assignment Act, 1960 {]Imcw ]Xnhv S-]-Sn-IÄ kzoI-cn-¡p-¶-Xnv D]-tbm-Kn-¡mw. (7)Øew Gsä-Sp-¡p-¶-Xnv th­n X¿m-dm-¡p¶ al-Ê-dn-sm¸w kÀth-bÀ X¿m-dm-¡nb kvsI¨pw Bh-iy-am-Wv. Cu kvsI¨n BWv ]Xnhv kab¯v k_vUn-hn-jpIÄ D­m- t¡-­- Xv. CXnv kÀth hnwKnsâ klmbw Bh-iyamWv-. Kerala Service Inam Land (Vesting and Enfranchisement Act, 1981 £ Rules 1981 (1) {]tXyIw tkh--§Ä¡v ÂI-s¸« Øe-amWv Service Inam Land. (2) Cu nb-aw aqew Service Inam Land IÄ kÀ¡m-cn Vest sNbvXp. (Vesting) (3) IqSmsX Land holders v {]kvXpX Øew ]Xn¨p In«p-¶-Xn-pÅ Ah-Imihpw e`n¨p (enfranchisement) (4) ]Xnhv S-]-Sn-IÄ kzoI-cn-¡p-¶-Xnv kÀsh hnwKnsâ klm-b-t¯msS hkvXp¡Ä Af¶v Xn«-s¸-Sp¯n kvsI¨v X¿m-dm¡n AwKo-I-cn-¡p-¶p. (5) ]«bw ÂIp¶- X- nv sam¯w ksv I¨n Hmtcm ssIhi- §- fpw k_vUnh- nj- ³ sN¿p¶- p. (6) kÀsh kq{]­v AwKo-I-cn¨ kvsI¨v {]Imcw hntÃPv dn¡mÀUn amäw hcp-¯p-¶p. Kerala Restriction on Transfer by and Restoration of Lands to Schedules Tribes Act, 1999 (1) ]«n-I-hÀ¤-¯nÂs¸« BÄ¡mÀ hkvXp-¡Ä ssIamäw sN¿p-¶Xv nb-{´n-¡p-¶-Xnpw Aym-[o--s¸« `qan AhÀ¡v XncnsI ÂIp-¶-Xnpw DÅ nb-aam-Wn-Xv. (2) Aym-[o--s¸« `qan Is­- ¯p-¶-Xnpw aäv S-]-Sn-IÄ kzoI-cn-¡p-¶-Xnpw kÀsh hIp-¸nsâ klmbw Bhiy-am-Wv. (3) 2001þ Schedules Tribes v `qan ]Xn¨v ÂIp¶- X- nv kÀ¡mÀ {]tXyIw N«§Ä Bhnj- v¡c- n¨- n«- p­- v. Kerala Assignment of Govt. Land to Scheduled Tribes Rules 2001 (4) Ap-tbm-Py-amb kÀ¡mÀ `qan Is­- ¯n-bmWv ]Xnhv S-]-Sn-IÄ kzoI-cn-¡p-¶-Xv. (5) Survey and Demarcation v ap³s]bmWv ]«bw ÂIp-¶-sX-¦n B hnhcw ]«-b-¯n tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶p. (6) XpSÀ¶v Survey and Demarcation ]qÀ¯n-bm¡n Bh-iy-ap-s­- ¦n ap³ kvsI¨n t`Z-KXn hcp¯n hntÃPv dn¡mÀUpI-fn Study material for Course on NLRMP 11 amäw hcp-¯p-¶p. Cu nbaw S-¸m-¡p-¶-Xn kÀsh kq{]-­nsâ ]¦v Gähpw An-hm-cy-am-Wv. Kerala Lands Reforms Act, 1963 Dt±iw (1) 1þ4-þ1964 tm AXnv ap³t]m DÅ IpSn-In-S-¸p-ImÀ, IpSn-bm-bva¡mÀ F¶n-hÀ¡v `qan-bn Ah-Imiw Øm]n-¨p-sIm-Sp-¡p- I. (2) ]cn-[n-bn Ihnª `qan ssIhiw hbv¡p¶ hyàn-IÄ/IpSpw_w/Øm]w F¶n-h-cn n¶pw an¨-`qan Gsä-Sp¯v `qc-ln- X-cmbhÀ¡v hnX-cWw sN¿p-I. IpSn-In-S-¸p-ImÀ (1) kz´-ambn hoSn-Ã. (2) tImÀ¸-td-j³ Gcn-b-bn 3 skâ n IqSp-X CÃ. (3) ap³kn-¸m-en-än-bn 5 skâ n IqSp-X CÃ. (4) ]©m-b-¯n 10 skâ n IqSp-X CÃ. (5)- hm-S-I-hm-§ntbm CÃm-sXtbm Øetam hotSm D]-tbm-Kn-¡m³ Ap-hmZw In«nb BÄ BWv IpSn-In-S-¸p-Im-c³. (6) Øehpw hoSptam/hoSv hbv¡m³ Ap-hmZw ÂInb Øetam easement Ah-Imiw DÄs¸-sS-bmWv IpSn-In-S¸v. (7) hoSv ‘Hut’ sâ nÀÆ-N--¯n hc-Ww. (8) Hut Xma-kn-¡p-¶-Xnv th­n h¨-Xm-Wv. Cost of Construction 750/ - cq]b- n IqSm³ ]mSnÃ- . amkh- mS- I 5/þ cq]b- n IqSm³ ]mSnÃ- . (9) kÀ¡mÀ `qan-bn IpSn-In-S-¸-h-Imiw CÃ.
  12. 12. Institute of Land and Disaster Management (10)750/þ cq] - cost of Construction pw 5/þ cq] amkh- mS- I- bpw IqSpX- e- mWv F¶pÅ- X- ps- Im­v am{Xw IpSnI- nS- ¸ v Aph- Z- n¡- mX- nc- n- ¡m³ Ignb- pI- b- nà F¶v tImSXn hn[nI- Ä D­. v Tenant (1) hmSI sImSp¯v hkvXp ssIhiw h¨v Ap`hn¡p¶ BÄ. (2) hmSI sImSp-¡p-¶-Xn-pÅ IcmÀ CsÃ-¦n Land Lord – Tennant _Ôw CÃ. (3) hkvXp- b-YmÀ°-¯n ssIhiw DÅ Bfpw Irjn sN¿m³ Ah-Imiw DÅ Bfpw BWv Cultivating tennant Kanam Transfer of immovable Property for enjoyment Kuzhikanam hr£-§Ä «v BZmbw FSp¡mw Karaima Xd-¸m«whm§n hoSv h¡m³ Øew sImSp-¡p¶p. Odacharthu Agreement for cutting bamboos in Malabar. ]mXn-hmcw Irjn D¸-¶-¯nsâ ]IpXn sImSp-¡-W-sa¶ IcmÀ Fixity of Tenure `qan-bn P·m-h-Imiw Øm]n¨p sImSp-¡Â. Tenure F¶m P·mhImiw F¶À°w. KLR Act {]Imcw FÃm Tenant IÄ¡pw P·mh-Imiw e`n-¨p-In-«m³ Ah-Imiw D­v. Ah-cpsS ssIhiw DÅ `qan XncnsI FSp-¡m³ ]mSn-Ã. Land Tribunal P·m-h-Imiw ]Xn-¨p-In-«mpw IpSn-In-S¸v Ah-Imiw ]Xn¨p In«mpw Land Tribunal  At]£ ÂI-Ww.- `qan DS-abv¡v thsd `qan CsÃ-¦n 20 skâ n IqSmsX XncnsI hm§mw. Plantation `qan-bn fixity of tenure CÃ. Study material for Course on NLRMP 12 A¸-teäv AtXm-dn«n Land Tribunal sâ D¯-chns-Xnsc 60 Znh-k-¯n-Iw A¸o t]mImw. kwØm-¯v ne-hn 3 A¸-teäv AtXm-dn-«n- IÄ {]hÀ¯n-¨p-h-cp-¶p. Be-¸p-g, XriqÀ, I®qÀ A¸-teäv AtXm-dn-än-bpsS Xocp-am--¯n-s-Xnsc 45 Znh-k-¯n-Iw sslt¡m-S-Xn-bn dnhn-j³ ^b sN¿mw. Xmeq¡v emâv t_mÀUv (1) `q]-cn-jvI-c-W-n-baw 83-þmw hIp¸v Ap-k-cn¨v ]cn-[n-bn Ihnª `qan hyàn-Itfm IpSpw-_-§tfm ssIhiw hbv¡m³ ]mSn-Ã. (2)]cn-[n-bn Ihnª `qan-bp-Å-hÀ TLB ap³]msI ceiling return ^b sN¿-Ww. (3)bYm-k-abw dnt«¬ ^b sN¿p-¶n-Ãm-sb-¦n tIkv _p¡v sNbvXv hnNm-cW S¯n ]cn-[n-bn Ihnª an¨ `qan Gsä-Sp- ¡p-¶p. ssIhiw hbv¡m-hp¶ `q]-cn[n Std Ordinary (1) hyàn 5 G¡À 6-þ7 1/2 G¡À (2) c­v apX 5 t]À DÅ IpSpw_w 10 12þ- 15 (3) 5 t]cn IqSp-X-epÅ IpSpw_w 10 Std Acre + 5  IqSp-X DÅ Hmtcm AwK-¯npw Hcp Std Acre 12-þ20 (4) I¼nIÄ 10 Std Acre 12þ- 15 TLB D¯-chv {]Imcw an¨-`qan Xl-koÂZmÀ Gsä-Sp-¡p-¶p. CXn-mbn Declarantsâ BsI ssIhi-apÅ Øe-¯n-tâbpw kÀ¡m-cnv hn«p-sIm-Sp-¡p¶ Øe-¯n-tâbpw ssIhiw hbv¡m-hp ¶ Øe-¯n-tâbpw kÀsh kvsI¨v X¿m-dm-¡-Ww.
  13. 13. Institute of Land and Disaster Management CXnsâ ASn-Øm--¯nemWv al-ÊÀ X¿m-dm¡n an¨-`qan Gsä-Sp-¡p-¶-Xv. Xmeq¡v kÀshbÀ TLBbpsS D¯-chv {]Imcw am{Xta kÀth kvsI¨v X¿m-dm-¡m-hq. `qc-ln-X-cm-b-hÀ¡v an¨-`qan hnX-c-Ww-sN-¿p-¶-Xnv PnÃm-I-f-IvSÀ hnÚm-]w ]pd-s¸-Sp-hn-¡ p-¶p. At]-£-IÄ ]cn-tim-[n¨v AÀl-cm-b-hsc Xnc-sª-Sp-¯-tijw {]tXyIw k_vUn-hn-j³kvsI¨v X¿m-dm¡n Deed of Assignment ÂIp-¶p. AtXm-sSm¸w ssIhiw hn«p-sIm-Sp-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p-¶p. XpSÀ¶v dhyq dn¡mÀUp-I-fn th­{ X amäw Study material for Course on NLRMP 13 hcp¯n ]«bw X¿m-dm¡n ÂIp-¶p. s]mXp-hmb Imcy-§Ä (1) ta kqNn-¸n¨ FÃm nb-a-§-fnepw kÀth S-]-Sn-IÄ Bh-iy-amsW¶ Imcyw t_m²y-s¸-«p-htÃm (2) FÃm kÀth S]- S- nI- fnepw 1961 se Survey and Boundaries Act Dw dqfpw _m[I- a- mW- .v (3) nb-a-]-c-ambn kÀth XpS-§p-¶-Xn-p-ap³]v 6(1) Notification pw kÀth Xocp-amw Adn-bn-¨p-sIm­v 9(2) Notice {]kn-²o- I-c-Whpw Boundary Dispute Xocp-amw kw_-Ôn¨v Section 10 {]Im-c-apÅ tm«okpw Bh-iy-am-Wv. (4) ta tNÀ¯ nb-a-{]-Im-c-apÅ Demarcation pw sk£³ 13 {]Imcw tm«nss^ sN¿-Ww. (5) Assignment Orders {]Imcw ]«-bhpw Approved map Dw D­m- Ip-¶Xv LRM S-]-Sn-IÄ¡v BXy-´m-t]-£n-X-amWv A²ymbw þ 3 tImSXn S]- S- nI- Ä knhn S-]Sn¨«¯nsâ 80þmw hIp-¸p-{]-Imcw DÅ tm«okp In«p¶ DtZym-K-س AXnsâ ]IÀ¸p ^b-en kq£n- ¨n«v Ak PnÃm If-IvSÀ¡v /hIp-¸-²y-£v A-´c S-]-Sn¡v Ab-¨p-sIm-Sp-¡-Ww. (C-Xn-p-tijw If-IvSÀ F¶v kqNn-¸n- ¡p-¶p) If-IvSÀ AXn-t·Â Atz-jWw S¯n AXn Ig-¼p-s­ ¶p I­m Bh-iy-apÅ ]£w kÀ¡m-cnsâ D¯-chp hm§n ]cm-Xn¡v ]cn-lmcw ÂIpw. ]cmXn Ig-¼n-Ãm-¯-Xm-sW-¦n Bb-Xnv hyà-amb adp-]Sn ]cm-Xn-¡m-cv ÂIpw kÀ¡m-cn-s-Xnsc Hcp kyq«v ^b-em-bm kn.-]n.kn bnse HmÀUÀ 27 se dqÄ 4 {]Imcw DÅ ka¬kv ssI¸-äp¶ DtZym- K-س _Ô-s¸« Un.-FÂ.H AYhm Kh¬saâv ¹oU-dp-ambn Btem-Nn¨v kÀ¡m-cn-p-th­n tIkns {]Xn-tcm-[n-¡m-pÅ ASn-b-´nc S-]Sn kzoI-cn-¡-Ww. Hcp DtZym-K-Ø-s-Xnsc Abm-fpsS HutZym-KnI ]Zhn ImWn-¨mWv tIkv ^b sNbvXn-cn-¡p- ¶-sX-¦n hIp-¸-²y-£v Xmsg-¡m-Wp¶ hnh-c-§Ä ImWn¨v ASn-b-´n-c-ambn dnt¸mÀ«p-ÂI-Ww. 1. tIknsâ ¼À 2. tIkv ^b-en kzoI-cn¨ Xob-Xnbpw GXp tImS-Xn-bn-se¶pw 3. FÃm I£n-I-fp-sSbpw t]cpw hnem-khpw 4. lmP-cm-Im³ nÀt±-in-¨n-cn-¡p¶ XobXn kÀ¡m-cns {]Xn-n-[o-I-cn-¡p¶ No^v sk{I-«-dntbm atä-sX-¦nepw hIp¸p sk{I-«-dntbm I£n tNÀ¡-s¸-«n-«p-s­- ¦nÂ, Xmsg¯«n-epÅ DtZym-K-س X¿m-dm-¡p¶ ]{Xn-I (-tÌ-ävsaâv Hm^v ^mIvkv) If-IvSÀ aptJ kÀ¡m-cn-tebv¡v Ab-¨p-sIm-Sp- ¡-Ww. nba hIp-¸nsâ ]cn-tim-[--¡p-tijw kÀ¡mÀ AXv AwKo-I-cn¨v / t`Z-KXn sNbvXv ÂIp-¶-Xm-Wv. ]{Xn-Ibpw kXy-hm-Mvaqehpw H¸p-h-¡p-¶-Xn-mbn Hcp DtZym-K-Øs kÀ¡mÀ h¡o-ensâ Hm^o-kn-tebv¡v tcJm-aqew Npa-X-e-s¸-Sp¯n Ab-t¡-­- Xp-­v. Snbm³ kÀ¡mÀ AwKo-I-cn¨v ]{Xn-I-bpsS ASn-Øm--¯n tImS-Xn-bn kaÀ¸n-¡m-pÅ tcJIÄ X¿m-dm-¡m³ kÀ¡mÀ h¡o-ens klm-bn-t¡-­Xpw Bh-iy-s¸-Sp¶ IqSp-X hnh-c-§fpw nÀt±-i-§fpw ÂIm³ _m²y-Ø-m-bn-cn-¡p-¶-Xp-am-Wv. tIkv S-¯n-¸nsâ FÃm L«-¯nepw S-]-Sn-IÄ {i²m-]qÀÆw nco-£n-¡p-¶-Xnpw kÀ¡mÀ XmÂ]cyw kwc-£n-¡m³ Imcy-£-a-ambn bXvn-¡mpw Sn nbpà DtZym-K-Øpw kÀ¡mÀ h¡o-enpw kwbpà D¯-c-hm- Zn¯w D­m- bn-cn-¡p-¶-Xm-Wv. PnÃm-Xe DtZym-K-Ø-sâtbm hIp¸p Xe-h-sâtbm AsÃ-¦n Hcp kt_mÀUn-täv DtZym-K-Ø-sâtbm {]hr¯n _lp. sslt¡m-S-Xn-bn Hcp knhn S-]-Sn-bntem dn«v -s]-äo-j-ntem tNmZyw sN¿-s¸-Sp-Ibpw AtX-k-abw Hcp Hu]-Nm-cnI I£n F¶ ne-bn kÀ¡mÀ I£n tNÀ¡-s¸-Sp-Ibpw BsW-¦n ]{XnI X¿m-dm-¡p-I, tIkns {]Xn-tcm-[n-¡pI F¶nh Cu
  14. 14. Institute of Land and Disaster Management hI DtZym-K-Ø-·m-cp-sS D¯-c-hm-Zn-¯-am-Ip-¶p. Iogp-tZym-K-Ø-cp-ambn _Ô-s¸«v taÂ]-dª DtZym-K-ØÀ s]äo-j-nse FÃm Bh-em-Xn-IÄ¡pw JWvUn-Im-p-kr-X-ambn adp-]Sn X¿m-dm-¡p-¶-Xm-Wv. ]{XnI X¿m-dm-¡p-t¼mÄ s]äo-j-nse Hcp kwK-Xnbv¡pw adp-]Sn ÂIm³ hn«p-t]m-bnà F¶v Dd-¸p-h-cp-¯n-s¡m-Å-Ww. adp-]Sn hyàhpw hni-Zhpambn-cn-¡-Ww. Hcp JWvUn-I-bn sImSp¯ adp-]-Sn¡v hncp-²-ambn asäm-cn-S¯v adp-]Sn ÂIm³ ]mSn-Ã. ]cm-Xn-bnse Hcp JWvUn-I-bnse Bh-emXn asämcp JWvUn-I-bn BhÀ¯n-¨mepw JWvUn-Im-p-kr-X-ambn shtÆsd adp-]Sn ÂI-Ww. “ap³ JWvUn-I-bn-se-t¸mse”, “tcs¯ ]d-ªn-«p-­v”, “A`n-{]mbw H¶pw CÔ CXymZn Hgp-¡³ adp-]Sn Fgp- X-cp-Xv. icnbpw hkvXp-Xm-]-c-ambn Bh-iy-ap-Å-Xp-amb Imcy-§Ä am{Xta ]{Xn-I-bn Fgp-Xm-hq. Bh-iy-amb FÃm tcJ-Ifpw {]am-W-§fpw AUz-t¡äv P-d-env / kÀ¡mÀ h¡o-env ]{Xn-I-bvs¡m¸w F¯n-¨p-sIm-Sp-¡-Ww. FXnÀ kXy-hm-Mvaqew / {]Xn-hmZ ]{XnI X¿m-dm¡- p-¶-Xnpw tIkp S¯- n-¸ns- -¸än NÀ¨ sN¿mpw h¡oe- m-^ok- n-tebv¡v t]mIp¶ DtZymK- Ø- ³ B tIknsâ FÃm Imcy-§fpw ]Tn-¨n-cn-¡-Ww. kXy-hm-Mvaqew/ ]{XnI H¸p-h-bv¡p-¶-Xn-p-ap¼v Sn DtZym-K-س AXv hyà-ambn hmbn¨p a- Ên-em-¡nbn-cn-¡Ww. Iogv tImS-Xn-I-fn tIkv S-¯p-t¼mÄ kÀ¡mÀ `mK-¯p-n¶pw sXfn-hp-IÄ lmP-cm-¡p-¶-Xnpw km£n-hn-kvXm-c-¯npw DtZym-K-سamÀ bmsXmcp hogvNbpw hcmsX {i²n-t¡-­- Xp-­v. tIkv tI«v Xocp-am--am-bm kÀ¡mÀ h¡o aptJ hn[n ]IÀ¸v hm§p-¶-Xnpw A¸o km²yX FgpXn hm§p-¶-Xnpw lmP-cm-¡nb dnt¡mÀUp-IÄ aS¡n hm§p-¶-Xnpw Sn DtZym-K-Ø ³ _m²y-Ø-m-Wv. A¸o-enp km²y-X-bn-sÃ-¶m-sW-¦n Un{In nd-th-äp-¶-Xnv/ hn[n S-¸m-¡p-¶-Xnv S-]Sn kzoI-cn-¡- Study material for Course on NLRMP 14 Ww. tImSXn S-]-Sn-IÄ (Xp-SÀ¨) (A-[nI hmb--bv¡v) dhyq `c-W-kw-hn-[mw ]p-Êw-L-Sn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xnsâ `mK-ambn GXmpw hÀj-§Ä¡p-ap¼v FÃm Ie-Ivt{S-äp-I-fnepw Hcp Xl-koÂZmÀ/ kon-bÀ kq{]-­nsâ taÂtm-«-¯n Bcw-`n¨ kyq«v sk IqSp-X iàn-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶-Xnsâ `mK-ambn Xncp-h- -´-]p-cw, sImÃw, Be-¸p-g, CSp-¡n, Fd-Wm-Ip-fw, ]me-¡m-Sv, tImgn-t¡m-Sv, ImkÀtKmUv F¶o Ie-Ivt{S-äp-I-fn nb-a-h-Ip- ¸nse Hmtcm sU]yq«n sk{I-«-dn-amsc nb-an-¨p. kyq«v skÃnsâ Npa-Xe Cn-ta ChÀ¡m-bn-cn-¡pw. 2010 Pqsse 9 p dhyq hIp-¸n n¶pw ]pd-s¸-Sp-hn¨ (Fw.-F-kv.)277/2010/BÀ.-Un. F¶ kÀ¡mÀ D¯-c-hn-emWv C¡mcyw {]Xn-]m-Zn-¨n-cn-¡p-¶-Xv. Cu D¯-c-hp-{]-Imcw Sn sU]yq«n sk{I-«-dnbpsS HutZym-Kn-I-maw Unkv{SnIvSv em Hm^o-kÀ (Un.-FÂ.-Hm.) F¶v Bbn-cn- ¡pw. Un.-FÂ.-Hm. bv¡v Xmsg-¸-d-bp¶ Npa-X-e-Ifpw D¯-c-hm-Zn-¯-§fpw G¸n-¨p-sIm-Sp-¯n-«p-ap-­v. 1. kÀ¡mtcm PnÃm A[nI- mc- ntbm I£n-bmb FÃm tImS-Xn-t¡-kp-I-fnepw kÀ¡mÀ XmÂ]cyw kwc£- n-¡p-¶X- npw kÀ¡m-cn- p-­m- Im-hp¶ sNe-hp-Ifpw jvS-§fpw Ipd-bv¡p-¶-Xn-p-ambn A¯cw tIkp-IÄ tm¡n--S-t¯-­Xv Un.-FÂ.-Hm BWv. 2. PnÃm Ie-IvSÀ d^À sN¿p¶ FÃm nb-a-{]-iv-§-fnepw D]-tZiw ÂIm³ Un.-FÂ.-Hm Npa-X-es¸«n-cn-¡p-¶p. d^À sN¿p¶Xnp-ap¼v GsXms¡ kwK-Xn-I-fn-emWv D]-tZiw tXSp-¶-sX¶v ^b-en hyà-ambn tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cn-¡-Ww. F¶m Xmsg-¸-d-bp¶ kml-N-cy-§-fn D]-tZiw ÂIm³ Un.-FÂ.Hm _m²y-Ø--Ã. (1) `c-W-hn-`mKw Xs¶ Xocp-am-n-t¡­kwK- Xn-IÄ (2) hIp-¸p-Xe DtZym-K-Ø-·mÀ¡p-Xs¶ ]cn-Úm--apÅ Un¸mÀ«p-saâ amp-hÂ, S-]-Sn-{I-a-§-Ä, D]-n-b-a-§Ä apX-em-b-h-bn hcp¶ hnj-b-§Ä (3) BÀ_n-t{S-äÀ, A¼-bÀ apX-emb Øm-§-fn DtZym-K-Ø-·mÀ {]hÀ¯n-¡p-t¼mÄ D­m- Im-hp¶ {]iv-§Ä (4) nb-a-{]-Im-c-apÅ hnth-N-m-[n-Imcw {]tbm-Kn-t¡­kμÀ`- §Ä (5) hnh-cm-h-Im-i-n-b-a-¯n³ Iogn hcp¶ kwK-Xn-IÄ (6) km¦Â]nI kwK-Xn-IÄ 3 _Ô-s¸« sk£-n X¿m-dm-¡p¶ ]{XnI (tÌävsaâv Hm^v ^mIvävkv) nb-a-Im-cy-§Ä ]cn-tim-[n-¨p-d-¸p-h-cp-¯p-¶-Xn- mbn Un.-FÂ.-Hm.bv¡p ÂIp-¶-Xnp ap¼mbn `c-W-]-c-amb Imcy-§Ä (_Ô-s¸« sk£-nse) DtZym-K-Ø-·mÀ ]cn-
  15. 15. Institute of Land and Disaster Management tim-[n-¨n-cn-t¡-­Xpw AXv Un.-FÂ.-Hmbv¡p e`n-¡p-t¼mÄ At±lw (nb-a-h-Ip-¸nsâ) 22.6.2009 se 7812/_n3/2009 F¶ kÀ¡p-e-dnsâ ASn-Øm--¯n AXp ]cn-tim-[n-¡p-Ibpw AwKo-I-cn¨ ]{XnI bYm-k-abw Kh-s×âv ¹oU-dpsS/ AUz-s¡äv P-d-ensâ ]¡Â F¯p-¶p-sh¶pw Bh-iy-amb ]{XnI / A^n-U-hnäv tImS-Xn-bn ^b sN¿-s¸-Sp-¶p-sh Study material for Course on NLRMP 15 ¶pw Dd-¸m-t¡-­- Xp-am-Wv. 4 (nb-a-h-Ip-¸nsâ) 22.6.2009 se 7812/_n3/2009 F¶ kÀ¡p-e-dnsâ ASn-Øm--¯n FÂ.-G.-d-^-d³kv, sI.-FÂ.-kn., `qan-]-Xn-hv, dhyq dn¡-hdn XpS-§nb tIkp-I-fpsS S-¯n-¸n Un.-FÂ.-Hm {]tXyIw Pm{KX ]men-¡-Ww. icn-bmb ]{XnIbpw A^n-U-hnäpw tImS-Xn-bn ^b sN¿p-¶-Xnpw FÂ.-G.-B-IvSnsâ hIp¸v 28 G {]Im-c-apÅ At]£bpsS ]cn-tim-[--bnepw FÂ.-G.-d-^-d³kv hn[n-I-fn A¸o ^b sNbvXn-«n-Ãm¯ tIkp-I-fn bYm-k-abw Un{In-¯pI sI«n-h¨v FIvkn-Iyq-j³ s]äo-j³ Hgn-hm-¡mpw {i²n-¡-Ww. 5 tImS-Xn-b-e-£y-t¡kpIfn bYm-k-abw XpSÀ-S-]SnsbSp-¡-Ww. 6 sslt¡m-S-Xn-bntem kp{]ow tImS-Xn-bntem A¸o ^b sN¿p-¶-Xn-mbn PnÃm Ie-IvStdm Iogp-tZym-K-Ø-·mtcm AUz-s¡ äv P-d-ensâ nb-tam-]-tZ-i-¯n-mbn Bh-iy-s¸-«m (nb-a-h-Ip-¸nsâ) 29.11.2008 se 19266/_n3/2008 F¶ kÀ¡p-eÀ {]Imcw sk{I-«-dn-b-änse `c-W-h-Ip-¸nÂn¶pw bpà-amb D¯-c-hp-IÄ e`y-am-¡-Ww. 7 (nb-a-h-Ip-¸nsâ) 15.1.2010 se 22148/_n3/09 F¶ kÀ¡p-eÀ {]Imcw A¸oepw kvs]jy eohv s]äo-jpw ^b sN¿p-¶-Xn-epÅ Ime-Xm-akw XoÀ¨-bmbpw Hgn-hm-¡-Ww. Ie-Ivt{S-än-sebpw k_v Hm^o-kp-I-fn-sebpw kyq«v cPn-ÌÀ Ie- Ivt{S-äp kyq«v skÃnse kon-bÀ kq{]­v aptJ Un.-FÂ.-Hm bv¡v ]cn-tim-[-bv¡v kaÀ¸n-¡-Ww. Ie-Ivt{S-äp kyq«v skÃnsâ {]hÀ¯--§Ä Un.-FÂ.-Hm {Iao-I-cn-¡p-Ibpw FÃm tImS-Xn-t¡kv hnh-c-§Ä¡pw I¼yq-«-ssdkvUv tamWn-«- dnMv GÀs¸-Sp¯n XpSÀ-S-]-Sn-IÄ Bhn-jv¡-cn-¡p-¶-Xp-am-Wv.. 8 1978 se tIcf Kh-s×âv em Hm^o-tkgvkv (n-b-a-hpw tkh--hy-h-Ø-Ifpw tIkp--S-¯n-¸pw)-dqÄknsâ A©mw Ap- _-Ô-¯n nÀt±-in-¡p¶ kyq«v tm«okv cPn-ÌÀ Ie-Ivt{S-äp kyq«v skÃn h¨p-t]m-tc-­- Xm-Wv. 9 tImS-Xnbp¯-c-hpv S-¸m-¡Â nco-£n-¡p-¶-Xn-mbn tImS-Xn-b-e-£y-t¡kpIfpsS/ tImS-Xnbp¯-c-hpv S-¸m-¡ensâ Hcp cPn-ÌÀ Ie-Ivt{S-äp kyq«v skÃn kq£n-t¡-­Xpw AXv ka-b-_-Ôn-X-ambn Un.-FÂ.-Hm ]cn-tim-[n-t¡-­- Xp-am-Wv. Cu cPn-ÌÀ icn-bmbn X¿m-dm¡n kq£n-¡p-¶ps- ­ ¶pw hogvNI- Ä I­m S]- Sn kzoIc- n¡- p¶- ps- ­ ¶pw kyq«v skÃnse kon-bÀ kq{]­v Dd-¸p-h-cp-t¯-­- Xp-­v. 10 FÂ.-G.-d^- -d³kv, tImS-Xnb- -e-£yw, dhyq dn¡-hdn XpS-§nb tIkp-I-fn Khs- ×âv ]vfoUÀ/AUz-s¡äv P-d F¶n-h- cp-ambn Un.-FÂ.-Hm ]Xn-hmbn _Ô-s¸«v sIm­n- cn-¡-Ww. kÀ¡m-cn-tebv¡v henb XpI-IÄ hkq-em-Im-pÅ tIkp- I-fn {]tXyIw {i² h¨p-t]m-tc-­- Xm-Wv. 11 kÀ¡mtcm PnÃm A[n-Im-cntbm I£n-bmb FÃm tImS-Xn-t¡-kp-I-fpsSbpw ]ptcm-KXn ]cn-tim-[n-¡m-pÅ {]Xn-amk tbmKw Un.-FÂ.-Hm I¬ho--dmbn PnÃm Ie-IvSdpsS A²y-£-X-bn B PnÃ-bnse FÃm PnÃm-Xe DtZym-K-Ø-·m-scbpw tNÀ¯v IqtS-­- Xm-Wv. Unkv{SnIvSv em Hm^o-kÀ (Un.-FÂ.-Hm.) PnÃm Ie-IvSdpsS tcn-«pÅ nb-{´-W-¯n-em-bn-cn¡pw. sU]yq«n Ie-IvSÀamcpw kyq«v skÃnse kon-bÀ kq{]­pw tImS-Xn-t¡kv kw_-Ôn¨ ^b-ep-Ifpw X]m-ep-Ifpw Un.-FÂ.-Hm aptJ thWw PnÃm Ie- IvSÀ¡v Ab-bvt¡-­- Xv. PnÃm-t¡m-S-Xn, AUo-j-W PnÃm-t¡m-S-Xn, k_v tImSXn F¶n-hn-S-§-fnse Kh-s×âv ¹oUÀamcpsS Hm^o-kp-IÄ Un.- FÂ.-Hm.bpsS taÂtm-«-¯n-em-bn-cn-¡pw. Unkv{SnIvSv em Hm^o-kÀ kyq«v cPn-ÌÀ hÀj-¯n-sem-cn-¡Â em sk{I-«-dn, emâv dhyq I½o-j-WÀ, dhyq sk{I-«-dn, F¶n-h-cpsS ]cn-tim-[-bv¡p ÂI-Ww. PnÃm Ie-IvSdpsS Iogn-epÅ Hm^o-kp-IÄ aq¶p-am-k-¯n-sem-cn-¡-se-¦nepw Un.-FÂ.- Hm ]cn-tim-[n¨v dnt¸mÀ«v PnÃm Ie-IvSÀ aptJ em sk{I-«-dn, emâv dhyq I½o-j-WÀ, dhyq sk{I-«-dn, F¶n-hÀ¡pw em (tam- Wn-«-dn-Mv) skÃn-tebv¡pw ÂI-Ww. þ kyq«p-IÄ, knhn dn«v s]äo-j-p-IÄ, A¸o-ep-IÄ F¶n-h-bpsS Hcp kwbpà kw{Kl cPn-ÌÀ kyq«v skÃn h¨p-t]m-cWw nÝn-X-s{]m-t^mÀa-bn-epÅ Hcp kyq«v cPn-ÌÀ Ie-Ivt{S-än-sebpw k_v Hm^o-kp-I-fn-sebpw ¢mÀ¡p-amÀ ]ptcm-KXn hnhcw Fgp-Xn-t¨À¯v kq£n-t¡-­- Xp-am-Wv.
  16. 16. Institute of Land and Disaster Management nÝn-X-s{]m-t^mÀa-bn-epÅ Hcp ss{Xam-k-B-p-Im-en-I-]-{XnI (amÀ¨v 31, Pq¬ 30, sk]vXw-_À 30, Unkw-_À 31) nb-a-h- Ip-¸nsâ tam-Wn-«-dn-Mv skÃn-tebv¡p PnÃm Ie-IvSÀ ÂtI-­- Xp-­v. AXp-t]mse s]â nMv tIkp-IÄ kw_-Ôn¨v nÝn-X-s{] m-t^mÀa-bn-epÅ Hcp kw{K-l-¸-«nI Pq¬ 30pw Unkw-_À31 pw h¨v ÂI-Ww. Study material for Course on NLRMP 16 A²ym-bwþ 4 sNbn³ kÀsÆ SURVEY GsX¦nepsam¶ns¸än kq£anco£Ww S¯n hkvXp-n-jvS-amb FÃm tcJ-Ifpw X¿m-dm¡p¶ nÀZnjvS ]cn-]m- Sn¡v kÀsh F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. LAND SURVEY Hcp `qhn-`m-K-¯nsâ icn-bmb cq]w Npcp-§nb tXmXn t]¸-dn hc¨p-­m-¡ p-¶-Xnpw B `qhn-`m-K-¯n¡mWp¶ ØnXn Øm]I NnÓ-§Ä tcJs¸Sp¯p-¶-Xnpw th­n imkv{Xo-b-amb coXn-bn Af-hp-IÄ Af-s¶-Sp¯v dn¡mÀUpIÄ X¿m-dm-¡p¶ k{¼-Zm-b-amWv LAND SURVEY kÀsh sN¿p-¶-Xn-p-]-tbm-Kn-¡p¶ D]-I-c-W-§sf ASn-Øm--am¡n LAND SURVEY A©mbn Xncn-¨n-«p-­v. 1. Theodolite Survey 2. Chain Survey 3. Compass Survey 4. Plane Table Survey 5. Levelling Survey Revenue Survey or Cadastrtal Survey Hcp `qhn-`m-K-¯nsâ icn-bmb cq]w Hä tm«-¯n ImW¯¡ hn[w Npcp§nb tXmXn t]¸-dn hc¨p-­m-¡ p-¶- Xnpw ØnXn Øm]I NnÓ-§Ä tcJs¸Sp¯p-¶-Xnpw hnkvXoÀ®w IW-¡m-¡p-¶-Xnpw Bh-iy-amb Af-hp-IÄ FSp-¡p¶ k{¼-Zm-bs¯ dhyp kÀsÆ AsÃ-¦n IUm-kv{S kÀsÆ F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. dhyp kÀsÆbpsS Dt±-i-§Ä Hmtcm hkvXp-hn-s-bpw ]Xnhv, X-cn-iv, ]pd-t¼m¡v, ssIh-im-h-Im-iw, aäp _Ô-s¸« dn¡mÀUp-IÄ F¶nhbv¡pk-c-W-ambn AXnÀ¯n Xncn¨v Ønc-amb kÀsÆ ASbmf§Ä Øm]n-¨-tijw Af-hp-IÄ FSp¯v dn¡mÀUp X¿m-dm¡n kq£n¡pIbpw hnkvXoÀ®w Xn«-s¸-Sp-¯p-I-bp-amWv dhyp kÀsÆ sIm­p- t±-in-¡p-¶-Xv. dhyp kÀsÆ-bn Xntbm-U-sseäv kÀsÆbpw sNbn³ kÀsÆbpw DÄs¸-Sp¶p. cmPym-XnÀ¯nbpw dhyp `c-W-¯nsâ kuI-cy-¯n-mbn hn`-Pn-¡-s¸-«n«pÅ PnÃ, Xmeq-¡v, hntÃPv F¶n-h-bpsS AXnÀ¯n-I-fpw Xntbm-U-sseäv sIm­v kÀsÆ sNbvXn- «p-­v. kÀsÆ sNbvXv dn¡mÀUpIÄ X¿m-dm-¡n ssIImcyw sN¿p-¶-Xnpw dn¡mÀUp-I-fn hcm-hp¶ sXäp-IÄ {IaoI-cn-¡p-¶- Xnpw Hmtcm hntÃ-Pn-sbpw ]e t»m¡p-I-fmbpw t»m¡p-Isf ]e JWvU-§-fmbpw Xncn¨v Xntbm-U-sseäv sIm­p kÀsÆ sNbvXp hcp-¶p. UoamÀt¡j³ `qan-bpsS Cw, Xcw, ssIh-iw, _Ô-s¸« dn¡mÀUp-IÄ apX-embh ASn-Øm--s¸-Sp¯n hkvXp-¡Ä ]c-kv]cw thÀXn-cn ¨v AXnÀ¯n-I-fn Bh-iy-amb `mK¯v nÝnX coXn-bn-epw hep-¸-¯n-ep-apÅ kÀsÆ AS-bm-f-§Ä Øm]n-¡p-¶-Xns UoamÀt¡j³ F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. UoamÀt¡äv sN¿p-t¼mÄ {i²n-t¡­kwK- Xn-IÄ 1. Hcp kÀsÆ ^oÂUv ne-am-sW-¦n 2 slIvSdpw ]pc-bn-S-am-sW¦n 4 slIvSdpw hc-¯-¡-hn[w UoamÀt¡äv sN¿Ww 2. Hcp kÀsÆ ^oÂUn 15 k_vUnhn-j-n IqSp-X hcm³ ]mSn-Ã. 3. nehpw ]pc-bn-S-hpw H-cm-fnsâ hI-bm-sW-¦n t]mepw H¶n¨p tNÀ¯v UoamÀt¡äv sN¿-cpXv
  17. 17. Institute of Land and Disaster Management 4. 10 aoä-dn IqSp-X hoXn hcp¶ tdmUv, tXmSv apX-emb 100 apX 150 aoäÀ hsc of-¯n {]tXyIw kÀsÆ ^oÂUp-I-fm¡ Study material for Course on NLRMP 17 n Xncn¨v UoamÀt¡äv sN¿Ww 5. 10 aoä-dnpw 5 aoä-dnpw CSbv¡v hoXn hcp-¶h {]tXyIw k_v Unhn-j-m¡n UoamÀt¡äv sN¿Ww 6. 2.aoä-dn Ipd¨v hoXn hcp-¶h GXp kÀsÆ ^oÂUn IqSn-t¸m-Ip-¶thm AXnsâ Øm¯v ØnXn Øm]I NnÓ-¯m tcJs¸Sp¯n-bm aXn-bmIpw 7. Hcp hkvXp-hnsâ Awitam GXmpw Awi-§tfm tNÀ¯v UoamÀt¡äv sN¿m³ ]mSn-Ã. 8. Bbs¡«p ]Xnhv, ]p-Xp-h ]Xnhv, ]pd-t¼m¡v F¶n-§s hnhn[ Xc-¯n-epÅ hkvXp-¡Ä {]tXyIw Xncn¨v UoamÀt¡äv sN¿Ww 9. A[nIw Irjn-bn-Ãm-¯Xpw IrXy-amb AXnÀ¯nbnÃm¯Xpam-b `qan, hkvXp DS-a-Ø-cpsS Ap-a-Xn-tbmSv IqSn ne-am-sW- ¦n 4 sUkn aoädpw ]pc-bn-S-am-sW-¦n 6 sUkn-ao-ädpw DÅn hcp¶ hf-hp-IÄ Ah-K-Wn¨v hnkvXoÀ® hyXym-kw hcm- ¯-hn[w AXnÀ¯n tsc-bm¡n UoamÀt¡äv sN¿Ww 10. AXnÀ¯n-I-fn Øm]n-¡p¶ kÀsÆ AS-bm-f-§Ä nÝnX coXnbnepw hep-¸-¯n-ep-ap-Å-Xm-bn-cn¡Ww. 11. _Ô-s¸« Hm^o-k-dp-sS {]tXyI Ap-aXn IqSmsX ne-hn-epÅ dhyp ^oÂUv F{X Xs¶ hep-Xm-bn-cp-¶mepw k_vUn-hn-j ³ sN¿m³ ]mSn-Ã. 12. sdbnÂth `qan UoamÀt¡äv sN¿p-t¼mÄ _Ô-s¸« sdbnÂth DtZym-K-سamcp-ambn Btem-Nn-¡p-Ibpw sdbnÂthbv¡p th­n X¿m-dm-¡n-bn-«pÅ ¹mp-I-fpsS tIm¸n lmP-cm-¡m³ Bh-iy-s¸-Sp-Ibpw thWw 13. dnskÀÆvUv t^mdÌv, ]n.-U-»n-bq.Un ]pd-t¼m¡v XpS-§nb Øe-§Ä UoamÀt¡äv sN¿p¶Xnp ap¼mbn Sn `qan-bpsS AXnÀ¯n ImWn¨p Xcm³ Bhiy-s¸-«psIm­v kÀsÆ Hm^o-kÀ tm«okv sImSp-t¡-­- Xm-Wv. C§s hcp¶ DtZym-K-Ø ³amÀ Ah-cpsS Øe-¯nsâ UoamÀt¡jsâ IrXy-Xsb¸än km£y-s¸-Sp-t¯-­- Xpw B kÀ«n^n¡äv, dn¡mÀUp-I-tfm- sSm¸w ^b-en kq£n-t¡-­- Xpam-Wv. Cross Staff ]cnt- im[- n-¡p¶ hn[w. Cross staffþsâ Xmc-IÄ ]c-kv]cw ew_-§-fmtWm F¶-dn-bm³ th­n- bmWv AXv ]cn-tim-[n-¡p-¶-Xv. Cross staff, ka- n-c-¸mb Øe¯v ew_ambn-m-«p-I. AXnsâ Xmc-IÄ¡v ‘a’ F¶pw ‘b’ F¶pw t]cp-sImSp¡p-I. ‘a’ F¶ Xmc-bn-eqsS tm¡n Dt±iw 60 aoäÀ AIse ‘A’ F¶v sImSn hbv¡p-I. AtX Xmc-hgn FXnÀ hit¯¡p tm¡n Dt±iw 60 aoäÀ AIse ‘B’F¶ sImSn hbv¡p-I. ‘b’ F¶ XmcbneqsS tm¡n ap³]-dª AIe¯n c F¶ sImSn hbv¡pI. Ct¸mÄ sImSnIÄ aqs¶®w D­m- bn-cn¡pw. Cross staff v Øm New hcp-¯msX AXnsâ I« ImÂ`mKw Xncn¨v ‘ b’ F¶ Xmc-hgn A,B sImSnIsf tm¡p-I. AXn-p-tijw ‘a’ F¶ Xmc-hgn c sImSn ImWm³ Ign-bptam F¶p ]cn-tim-[n-¡p-I. ImWp¶psh¦n Cross staff icn-bm-sW¶pw AÃm¯ ]£w sXämsW¶pw Ap-am-n-¡mw. sXämb Cross staff D]tbm-Kn¨v icn-bmb offset FSp-¡p¶ hn[w. sXämb Cross staff D]tbmKn¨v A,B ssen n¶v c bv¡v offset FSp-¡p-I. Cross point ‘D’ F¶n-cn-¡-s«.- A-Xn-p-tijw ‘C’ sImSn ImWm-p-]-tbm-Kn¨ Xmc-hgn A,B sImSnIsf tm¡n, A,B sImSnIsf ImWm-p-]-tbm-Kn¨ Xmc-hgn ‘C’ sImSn ImWm³ Ign-bptam F¶p ]cn-tim-[n-¡p-I. sXämb Cross staff Bb-Xn-m³ C sImSn ImWm³ Ign-bp-I-bn-Ã. C sImSn ImW- ¯¡ hn[w A,B line- Hcp t]mbnâp ImWp-I. AXv E F¶n-cn-¡s«. DE Zqcw Af¶v AXnsâ a²y-_nμp F ImWp-I. FC Zqc-am- bn-cn¡pw AB line Ân¶v C bv¡v offset FSp-¯m In«p¶ icn-bmb offset distance. F. M. SKETCH X¿m-dm-¡p¶ hn[w kÀsÆ sN¿p¶ Hmtcm ^oÂUn-tbpw `qan-bn n¶pw FSp-¯n-«pÅ eye sketch-sâ klm-bt¯msS imkv{Xob-amb coXn-bn scale Apkcn¨v plot sN¿p¶ sketch-s Field Measurement sketch F¶p-]-d-bp-¶p. F. M sketch X¿m-dm-¡p-¶-Xnv 34 cm ofhpw 27cm hoXn-bp-apÅ drawing paper BWv D]-tbm-Kn-¡p¶Xv. CXnsâ apIÄ`mKw 4 cm, Xmsg 3 cm, CXp-h-i-§fpw 2 cm hoXhpw hn«v boarder linesImSp¡-Ww. Boarder line aptJ D­m- Ip¶ `mK- ¯nsâ a²y¯v sketch hc-¯¡ hn[w plot sNt¿-­- Xm-Wv. Field sâ Zn¡-p-k-cn-¨p-Xs¶ sketch plot sN¿-Ww. 50 BÀ hscbpÅ ^oÂUp-Isf 1 sk.ao = 5 ao. F¶ tXmXnepw 50 BÀ apX 2 slIvSmÀ hscbpÅ ^oÂUp-Isf 1 sk.-ao.= 10 ao. F¶ tXmXnepw 2 sl. apX 4 slIvSÀ hsc-bpÅ ^oÂUp-Isf 1 sk.-ao. = 20 ao. F¶ tXmXnepw AXn ¡pSp-X hnkvXoÀ®w hcp¶ ^oÂUp-Isf 1 sk.-ao.= 50 ao. F¶ tXmXnepamWv hc-t¡-­- Xv. Pn ssep-IÄ, sN¡v ssep-IÄ F¶n-h-bm-ep-­m- Ip¶ {][m {Sbm-¦n-fp-IÄ BZyw hc-bv¡-Ww. Cu ssep-I-fn n¶pÅ Hm^vsk-äp-IÄ AXmXp ssensâ ^oÂUp-_p¡p tm¡n kvsIbnepw _näpw D]tbmKn¨v th­hn[ ¯n t¹m«v
  18. 18. Institute of Land and Disaster Management sN¿-Ww. AXn-p-tijw sF kvsI¨v tm¡n Npä-Xn-cp-I-f-tSbpw k_vv Unhn-j³ AXn-cp-I-fp-tSbpw InS¸v kq£va-X-tbmsS a- Ên-em¡n tNÀ¨-bv¡-p-k-cn¨v hc-¨v tbmPn-¸n-¡-Ww. AtXm-sSm¸w sF kvsI¨n tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-SpÅ Af-hp-Ifpw t¹m«v sNbvX-t¸mÄ In«nb Af-hp-Ifpw X½n H¯p-tNc- p¶- pt­m F¶pw ]cnt- im-[n¡- -Ww. C{]Imcw AXnÀ¯n ssep-IÄ s]³kn apJm-´ncw tbmPn-¸n-¨p-I-gn-ªm `qan-bn ns¶-Sp-¯n-«pÅ Hm^v skäp-I-sfmgnsI asäÃm Af-hp-Ifpw Xmsg-¸-d-bp¶ {]Imcw Fgp-tX-­- Xm-Wv. tsc sX¡p hS-¡mbn ]nSn¨v Af-hp-IÄ CS-¯p-n¶pw he-t¯m«pw ssep-I-fpsS Af-hp-IÄ Xmsg-n¶pw apI-fnte¡pw aäp Ncnª ssep-IfpsS Af-hp-IÄ Ffp-¸-¯n hmbn-¡p-¶-Xnv Ah-bpsS Ncnhp-k-cn¨pw Fgp-tX-­- Xm-Wv. ^oÂUv _u­dn ssen-sâ Af-hp-IÄ AXnÀ¯n¡p shfn-bn-embn ssenp kam-´-c-ambn ssensâ a[y-`m-K¯v Fgp-XWw. k_vUn-hn- j³ ssensâ Af-hpIÄ k_vUn-hn-jsâ AIt¯m ]pdt¯m kuIcyw t]mse Fgp-Xm-hp-¶Xpw F¶m narrow sub division sâ Af-hpIÄ k_vUn-hn-jsâ ]pd¯pXs¶ Fgp-tX-­- Xp-am-Wv. GsX-¦nepw ssen ]mÀ«-f-hp-IÄ D­m- bn-cp- ¶m ]mÀ«-f-hp-IÄ AXmXp ]mÀ«nsâ DÅn a²y-`m-K-¯mbpw sam¯w Afhv ssensâ ]pd¯v a²y-`m-K-¯mbpw Fgp-XWw. Pn sse³, sN¡v sse³ F-¶n-h-bpsS Af-hp-IÄ sse³ Ah-km-n-¡p¶ {Ia-¯n AXmXp ssensâ a²y-`m-Kw Ignªvssen¯s¶ {_m¡äv sImSp¯v Fgp-X-Ww. s]³kn sIm­p hc-¨p-X-¿m-dm-¡nb kvsI¨nse Hmtcm ssepw {UmbnMv s]¶pw ]mc-e dqfdpw D]-tbm-Kn¨v 0.5 an.- ao. hoXn-bn Idp¯ ajn-bn hc-bv¡-Ww. k_vUnhn-j³ ssep-IÄ CXn-t-¡mÄ hoXn-Ip-d¨v hc-t¡-­- Xm-Wv.- Pn sse³, sN¡v sse³ F-¶nh hc-bv¡p-t¼mÄ AXnÀ¯n sse³ apdn-bm-sXbpw Fgp-Xn-bn-cn-¡p¶ Af-hp-IÄ sh«n-t¸m-Im-sXbpw kq£n- ¡-Ww. ASp¯ kÀtÆ ¼À Xncn-ªp-t]m-Ip¶ Zni kqNn-¸n-¡p¶ PwKvj³ ssep-IÄ 2 cm of-¯n 0.5 cm hoXn-bn eye sketch se Zni Ap-k-cn¨v Idp-¯- a-jn-sIm­v hc-t¡-­- Xm-Wv. s_âpIÄ IrXy-ambn tbmPn-¸n-¡Ww. F.M Sketch  Zn¡p-Im-Wn-¡p-¶-Xn-mbn bmsXmcp NnÓhpw hc¨p ImWn-t¡-­- XnÃ. sketch hc-¨p-­m-¡ n-bn-«pÅ page sâ ØnXn¡-p-kr-X-ambn Zn¡v nÝ-bn-¡-s¸-Sp-¶p. sketch sâ he-Xp-h-i¯v Boarder ssen-p-Ån-embn ssen sXm«v 5 tImf-§Ä hc¨v Xmsgn¶pw apI-fn-te¡v `wKnbmbn field book Fgp-XWw. ^oÂUp-_p-¡nsâ Hmtcm tImf-¯npw Cn-¸-d-bp¶ {Ia-¯n hoXn-bp-­m- bncn-¡Ww. a²y-`m-K¯v chain line sâ of-sa-gp-Xm-pÅ tImf-¯nv 2 cm AXnsâ Ccp-h-i-§-fn-embn Hm^vskäv Zqcw Fgp-Xm-pÅ tImf-¯nv 1 cm hoXw, AXnsâ Ccp-h-i-§-fnepw (c-­- ä¯pw) Hm^vskäv ¼À Fgp-Xm-pÅ tImf-¯nv 1/2 cm hoXw. Hmtcm Study material for Course on NLRMP 18 hcnbv¡pw 1/2 cm hoXn D­m- bn-cn-¡-Ww. Hm^vskäv ¼À Fgp-Xm-pÅ H¶m-as¯ tImf-¯nsâ hes¯ line Dw 5-þmas¯ tImf-¯nsâ CSt¯ ssepw Nph¶ ajn-bn hc-bv¡-Ww. Offset ¼-cp-IÄ 1,2,3 F¶ {Ia-¯n Nph¶ ajn-bn tcJ-s¸- Sp-¯W- w. Field Book  sImSp-¯nc- n-¡p¶ {Ia¯- n¯s¶ sketch epw Nph¶ ajnsIm­v offset number IÄ sImSp-¡-Ww. ^oÂUp _u­- dn-¡pÅ offset ¼-cp-IÄ sketchþ ^oÂUnp ]pd-¯mbpw k_vUn-hn-jsâ offset ¼-cp-IÄ k_vUn-hn-jsâ AIt¯m ]pdt¯m kuIcyw t]msebpw NcnbmsX sImSp-¡-Ww. sskUn-epÅ kÀsÆ ¼-dp-IÄ AXmXv PwKvj-p-I-fpsS a²y-`m-K-¯mbn sketch  n¶pw Aev]w AIse Ncn-bmsX Fgp-X-Ww. k_vUn-hn-j³ ¼-dp-IÄ AXmXp k_vUn-hn-jsâ a²y-`m-K-¯mbn Ncn-bmsX Fgp-X-Ww. amÀPn³ ssensâ shfn-bn-embn apIÄ`mK¯v CS-Xp-h-iw tNÀ¶v PnÃm Xmeq¡v F¶n-hbpw he-Xp-`m-K¯v t»m¡v ¼À, hntÃPv, hnkvXoÀ®w F¶n-hbpw a²y-`m-K¯v ^oÂUp ¼À (kÀsÆ ¼À) F¶n-hbpw Fgp-X-Ww. Xmsg t_mÀUÀ ssenp shfn-bn he-Xp-h-i¯v kÀsÆ sNbvXv sketch X¿m-dm-¡nb DtZym-K-Øsâ t]cpw H¸pw Xob-Xnbpw a²y-`m-K¯v plot sN¿m³ D]-tbm-Kn¨ tXmXpw Fgp-X-Ww. k_vUn-hn-j³ ^oÂUm-sW-¦n sketchp apIfn he-Xp-h-i¯v t_mÀUÀ ssen-p-Ån-embn Area column hc¨v Hmtcm k_vUn-hn-jsâbpw hnkvXoÀ®hpw sam¯ hnkvXoÀ®hpw Fgp-X-Ww. ^oÂUv ¼À, k_vUn-hn-j³ ¼À F¶n-h Idp¯ ajn-bnepw hnkvXoÀ®w pencil D]-tbm-Kn¨pw Fgp-X-Ww. Nne hni-Zo-I-c-W-¡p-dn-¸p-IÄ UoamÀt¡-j³ þ `qan-bpsS Cw, Xcw ssIh-im-h-Imiw apX-em-bh ASn-Øm-s¸Sp¯n hkvXp-¡-Ä ]c-kv]cw thÀXn-cn¨v AXnÀ¯n-I-fn Bh-iy-am-b- `m-K¯v nÝn-X-co-Xn-bnepw hep-¸-¯n-ep-apÅ kÀsÆ AS-bm-f-§Ä Øm]n-¡p-¶-Xnv UoamÀt¡- j³ F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. CuIz-sse-tk-j³ Hm^v _âvkv þ Hcp `qhn-`mKw kÀsÆ sN¿p-t¼mÄ c­p hkvXp-¡-fpsS s]mXp-hmb AXnÀ¯n-bn hcp¶ sNdnb s_âp-IÄ Ah-K-Wn¨v (hkvXp DS-a-سam-cpsS Ap-a-Xn-tbm-sS) AXnÀ¯n tsc-bm¡n kÀsÆ sN¿p-¶-Xns CuIz-sse- tk-j³ Hm^v _âvkv F¶p ]d-bp-¶p.
  19. 19. Institute of Land and Disaster Management s̸nwKv Bâv seh-enwKv þ dh-yp kÀsÆbn slmdn-tkm-­Â Af-hp-I-fmWv th­Xv. Ncnhp {]tZ-i-§fnse -slmdn-tkm-­Â Af-hp- In-«p¶Xnv N§e `mKn-I-ambn DbÀ¯n-¸n-Sn¨v DbÀ¶ Øe-¯np kaw hc-¯-¡-co-Xn-bn ]Sn-]-Sn-bmbn Af-¡p-¶- Xns s̸nwKv Bâv seh-enwKv F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. H»nIv Hm^vskäv þ Hcp ssen n¶pw Hcp nÀ±n-jvS t]mbnâ nv Hm^vskäv FSp-¡m³ Ign-bm¯h®w Hm^vskäv ssen XS-k-§tfm {]kvXpX ssenv of-¡q-Sp-Xtem h¶m sNbn³ ssen c­p t]mbnâp-I-Ä nÝ-bn¨v AXn n¶v Hm^vskäv t]mbnâ n-te-¡pÅ Af-hp-IÄ Af¶v tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶p. CXmWv H»nIv Hm^vskäv. ss_ PwKvj³ þ Hcp Po ssen³n¶pw sXm«-Sp¯ s_â n-te¡v Hm^vskäv FSp-¡m³ nhr¯n-bn-Ãm¯ kml-N-cy-¯ntem Hm^vskäv Zqcw 60 aoä-dn IqSp-X hcp¶ kμÀ`¯ntem AXnÀ¯n-bn-epÅ GsX-¦nepsamcp _â ns PwKvj-mbn kzoI-cn¨v G line, Check line F¶nh GÀs¸-Sp¯n kÀsÆ sNt¿­n hcp-¶p. C§s _u­- dn-bn-epÅ GsX-¦nepsamcp _â ns PwKvj-mbn kzoI-cn-t¡­n h¶m B PwKvj-mWv ss_ PwKvj³. ssS sse³ þ Hcp ^oÂUv kÀsÆ sN¿p-t¼mÄ G ssep-I-fn nt¶m sN¡v ssep-I-fn nt¶m Hm^vsk-sä-Sp-¡m³ Ign-bmsX hcp¶ k_vUn-hn-j³ _âp-IÄ¡v Hm^vskäv FSp-¡p-¶-Xnp th­n AsÃ-¦n atä-sX-¦n-ep-a-f-hp-IÄ ]cn-tim-[n¡p¶- Xnp th­n ^oÂUnsâ _u­dn s_â n nt¶m ]mÀ«-f-hnÂnt¶m FXnÀh-is¯ GsX-¦n-ep-samcp _â n-tet¡m ]mÀ«n-tet¡ m AsÃ-¦n ^oÂUn GsX-¦n-ep-samcp ssen-eqÅ t]mbnâ n-tet¡m hnSp¶ ssemWv Tie line CXv Su¬ kÀsÆ-bn Bh-iy-ambn hcp-¶p. t{Imkv ]À«Â sse³ þ Hcp JWvUw sNbn³ kÀsÆ coXn {]Imcw kÀsÆ sNbvX tijw JWvU-¯nsâ Hcp hi-¯pÅ Xntbm- U-sseäv tÌmWn-tet¡m {Smthgvkv ssensâ ]mÀ«n-tet¡m asämcp {Smthgvkv tÌj-n n¶v Ht¶m AXn-e-[n-Itam ssep- IÄ GÀs¸-Sp¯n JWvU-¯n-p-Ån hcp¶ ^oÂUp PwKvj-p-IÄ¡v Hm^vskäv FSp¯v ^oÂUp-_p¡v X¿m-dm-¡p-¶p.(Hm^v skäv Zqcw 100 aoäÀ hsc-bp-Å-Xnp am{Xw). C{]-Imcw JWvU-¯n-p-Ån IqSn hnSp¶ ssens t{Imkv ]À«Â sse³ F¶pw ^oÂUp-_p¡ns t{Imkv ]À«Â sse³ ^oÂUp-_p¡v F¶pw ]d-bp-¶p. G line,check line F¶nh ]cn-tim-[n-¡p-¶-Xnv group sketch X¿m-dm-¡p¶- -Xnpw CXv klm-b-I-c-am-Wv. Demarcation sketch -  Cu line Nph¶ ajn-bn hc-bv¡p-¶p. sskUv ]À«Â sse³ þ Hcp JWvUw sNbn³ kÀsÆ sNbvX tijw JWvU-¯np Npäp-apÅ {Smthgvkv ssen n¶v JWvU- ¯nsâ _u­- dn-bn hcp¶ PwKvj-p-IÄ¡v Hm^vskäv FSp-¡p-¶p. C¯cw ssep-IfmWv sskUv ]À«Â ssepIÄ (Hm- ^vskäv Zqcw 60m). I«v sajÀsaâv þ tdmUv, tXmSv apX-em-b narrow field kÀsÆ sNbvXv ¹m³ X¿m-dm-¡p-t¼mÄ AXnsâ BIr-Xn¡v hyXymkw h¶n- «pt­m F¶-dn-bp-¶-Xnpth­n ^oÂUn-sâ Hcp hi-¯pÅ _â n n¶pw asämcp _â n-te¡v sse³ hn«v ofw Af-s¶-Sp-¡p- ¶p. CXns I«v sajÀsaâv F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. ]mÀ«v sajÀsaâv þ GsX-¦n-epsamc-XnÀ¯n-bn Ht¶m AXn-e-[n-Itam AXnÀ¯n-IÄ h¶p tNÀ¶v sse³ ]e-Xmbn Awin-¡- s¸S- p-I-bms- W-¦n AXn Hmtcm `mK-¯ns- âbpw Af-hns part measurement F¶p]db- p-¶p. ]mÀ«f- -hpI- Ä AXmXp ]mÀ«nsâ DÅn a²y`m-K-¯mbpw sam¯w Afhv ssensâ ]pd¯v a²y-`m-K-¯mbpw Fgp-X-Ww. kÀsÆ ^oÂUv þ AXmXp Ime¯p ne-hn-epÅ sNbn³kÀsÆ coXn- {]-Im-chpw N«-§Ä¡-p-k-c-W-ambpw Ht¶m AXn-e-[n- Itam ssIh-i-§Ä tNÀ¶v kÀsÆ sNbvXv dn¡mÀUp X¿m-dm-¡p-¶-Xn-mbn AXnÀ¯n-IÄ Xncn-¡p-¶p. C§s Xncn-¡-s¸- Sp¶ Hmtcm `mK-t¯-bpw Hmtcm kÀsÆ ^oÂUv F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. kÀsÆ ¼À þ Hdn-Pn- kÀsÆ Ime¯v hkvXp-¡-fpsS Cw, Xcw ssIhiw Ch-b-p-k-cn¨v ne-hn-epÅ nb-a-{]-Imcw UoamÀt¡-j³ S¯n kÀsÆ sNbvXv dn¡mÀUp X¿m-dm¡n hntÃ-P-Sn-Øm--¯n kÀsÆ ^oÂUnp sImSp-¡p¶ {Ia--¼- cmWv kÀsÆ ¼À. dhyq ¼À þ Hdn-Pn- kÀsÆbv¡p tijw Hmtcm k_vUnhn-j-nepw GsX-¦nepw Imc-W-h-im H¶n-e-[nIw ssIh-i-§-fp- ­m- bm B ssIhi-§Ä nP-s¸-Sp-¯p-I,-Icw nÝ-bn¡pI F¶n-h-bv¡mbn nb-am-p-krXw UoamÀt¡-jpw kÀsÆbpw S-¯msX sImSp-¡p¶ ¼-cmWv dhyp ¼À. dhyq ^oÂUv þ Htcm dhyq ¼cpw {]Xn-n-[o-I-cn-¡p¶ ^oÂUns dhyq ^oÂUv F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. P³am-h-Imiw þ Hcp hkvXp-hn HcmÄ¡pÅ Øn-c-amb Ah-Im-is¯ B h-kvXp-hn-te-¡pÅ P³am-h-Imiw F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. P³am-h-Im-i-apÅ BfmWv P·n. Study material for Course on NLRMP 19
  20. 20. Institute of Land and Disaster Management ]pd-t¼m¡v þ s]mXp-P--§-fpsS Bh-iy-¯n-mbn Hgn-¨n-S-s¸-«n-«p-ÅXpw bmsXmcp Imc-W-h-imepw ]Xn-¨p-sIm-Sp-¡m³ ]mSn-Ãm- ¯-Xpw Kh¬saâ nsâ A[o--X-bn¯s¶ Ccn-¡p-¶-Xp-amb hkvXp-¡-fmWv ]pd-t¼m¡v (tdm-Uv, tXmSv, Ipfw). Xcniv þ Bcp-tSbpw ssIh-i-¯nepw tZl-WvU-¯nepw AÃm-¯Xpw Irjnbv¡v Ap-tbm-Py-am-b-Xpw, kÀ¡m-cnsâ DS-a-Ø-X-bn-ep- Å-Xpw, Bh-iy-ambn h¶m ]Xn¨psImSp-¡m-hp-¶-Xp-amb `qan-bmWv Xcn-iv. Io am¸v þ Hcp ssaÀ kÀIyq«n-se- FÃm ]Xn-hp-I-sfbpw aäp k_vU-hn-j-p-I-sfbpw DÄs¸-Sp¯n AXnsâ GI-tZ-i-amb Ømw am{Xw ImWn¨p sIm­v hntÃ-Pm-^o-kn hc¨p­m¡ p¶ sketch. UnsshUv kvsI¨v þ Hdn-Pn- kÀsÆ Ime¯v k_vUnhnj³ sN¿m-Xn-cp-¶-h skänÂsaâp Ime¯v k_vUnhnj³ sNt¿­n h¶m ap³ kÀsÆ ¼À kvsI¨n--I¯v ]pXnb k_vUn-hn-jsâ Ømw Bh-iy-amb Af-thm-Sp-IqSn IrXy-amb tXmXn-e-ÃmsX hc-¨p-­m-¡ p¶XmWv UnsshUv kvsI¨v. skänÂsaâv k_vUnhnj³ þ Hdn-Pn- kÀsÆ Ime¯v k_vUnhnj³ sN¿m-Xn-cp-¶ Hcp ¼-cn skänÂsaâp Ime¯p k_vUnhnj³ sNt¿-­n- h-¶m B k_vUn-hn-js skänÂsaâv k_vUnhnj³ F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. dnkÀÆv t^mdÌv þ P-§Ä¡p ]Xn-¨p-sIm-Sp-¡msX hw hIp¸p apJm-´ncw h-am-bn-Xs¶ kwc-£n¨p t]mcp¶ kÀ¡mÀ A[o--X-bn-ep-Å `qhn-`m-Ks¯ dnkÀÆv t^mdÌv F¶p-]-d-bp-¶p. P­þ hm-XnÀ¯n-bntem DÅntem Øm]n-¡-s¸-Sp¶ kÀsÆ AS-bm-f-§Ä Imem-´-c-¯n ImSp-]n-Sn¨p aqSp-¶-Xnpw Cetbm at®m hoWv ImWm-Xm-Ip-¶-Xnpw CS-bp-­v.- kÀsÆ AS-bm-f-§Ä {]-bmkw IqSm-sX-I-­p-] n-Sn-¡p-hm³ th­n AXn-tmSv tNÀ¶v hf-sc-b-[nIw sNdnb IÃp-IÄ sIm­v ASp-¡n-bn-«pÅ I¡q-¼m-c-amWv P­. Bb-s¡-«p-Im-ew þ BZy-Im-e¯v kÀ¡m-cnsâ {][m hcp-amw `qn-Ip-Xn-bm-bn-cp-¶p. CXns kw_-Ôn¨ IW¡v hyh-Øm-]n- X-ambn D­m-¡ n-b-Xnsâ t]cmWv Bb-s¡-«v. CXv ne-hn-en-cp¶ Ime-amWv Bb-s¡-«p-Im-ew. A¡m-e¯v ]Xn¨psImSp-¯n«pÅ hkvXp-IÄ¡v Bb-s¡«v ]Xnhv F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. Ch-bpsS apJy {]amWw HgpIp dn¡mÀUv BWv. sXm§Â tÌj³ þ hntÃPv _u­dn, JWvUw _u­dn apX-em-bh Xntbm-U-sseäv sIm­v kÀsÆ sN¿p-t¼mÄ Hcp tÌj-n n¶pw ASp¯ tÌj-n-te¡v line hn«v tImW-f-hp-I-sf-Sp-¡m³ nhr¯nbnÃm¯ kml-Ncy-¯ntem AsÃ-¦n `qan-bpsS ØnXn- ¡-p-k-c-Wambn AXnÀ¯n Xncn-¡p-t¼mtgm Øm]n-t¡­n hcp¶ Xntbm-U-sseäv IÃnsâ `{Z-Xsb ap³ nÀ¯n ]pg-bp-sSbpw aäpw _u­- dn-bn Øm]n-¡msX ^oÂUnsâ DÅn-te¡v Ibän Øm]n-¡p-¶p. C¯cw tÌjs sXm§Â tÌj³ F¶p ]d-bp- ¶p. Town Survey - P-§Ä Xn§n-¸mÀ¡p-¶ Kc-§Ä, apn-kn-¸m-en-än-IÄ apX-em-bh {XntIm-W-s¸-Sp¯n kÀsÆ sN¿m³ {]bm-k- am-b-Xn-m ssIhi `qan-Isf Dt±iw 4 slIvSÀ hcp¶ t»m¡p-I-fmbn Xncn¨v tdmUv, sNdnb hgn F¶n-h-bn-eqsS Xntbm-U-sseäv sIm­v kÀsÆ sN¿p-¶p. C{]-Im-c-apÅ {Smthgvkv ssen nt¶m Tie line þ nt¶m FÃm t]mbnâp-IÄ¡pw Hm^vskäv FSp¯v kÀsÆ sNbvXv dn¡mÀUp X¿m-dm-¡p-¶p. ssaÀ kÀIyq«v (m.c) - ]md-s¡-«p-IÄ, Pem-i-b-§Ä A[nIw hnkvXoÀ®-apÅ `qan sNbn³ kÀsÆ sN¿m³ km[n¡- m¯ aäp hkvXp-¡Ä F¶nh- b- psS AXnÀ¯n Xntbm-U-sseä v sIm­v kÀsÆ sNbvX v dn¡mÀUp X¿m-dm¡- p-¶p. Cu `qhn-`mK- a- mW v m.c. do kÀsÆ þ Hcn-¡Â kÀsÆ sNbvXp X¿m-dm-¡n-bn-«pÅ dn¡mÀUp-IÄ Ime-¸-g-¡-¯m in-¨p-t]m-hp-I-tbm, `qan-bnse ssIh-i- §fpw dn¡mÀUp-Ifpw X½n hf-sc-b-[nIw hyXymkw D­m- Ip-t¼mtgm apgp-h³ Øe-§fpw ho­pw kÀsÆ sNbvXv dn¡mÀUp X¿m-dm-¡p-¶p. Kh¬saâvXe hkvXp-¡Ä ap³ dn¡mÀU-p-k-cn¨pw ]Xnhp hkvXp-¡Ä mfXp InS-¸-p-k-cn-¨p-amWv dokÀsÆ sNt¿-­- Xv. dnhn-j³ kÀsÆ þ Hcn-¡Â kÀsÆ sNbvXp dn¡mÀUp X¿m-dm-¡nb-tijw AXn GXmpw `mKw Iq«ntNÀt¡­n h¶mtem ap¼p kÀsÆ sNbvX-Xn Fs´-¦nepw ]niIv Ds­- ¦ntem B `mKw ho­pw kÀsÆ sNt¿­n hcp-¶p. CXns dnhn-j³ kÀsÆ F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. A-Registar(settlement Registar) - skänÂsaâp Ime¯v Hmtcm hkvXp-hn-sâbpw kÀsÆ ¼À, k_v Unhn-j³ ¼À, Cw, X-cw, hnkvXoÀ®w, hkvXp DS-a-bpsS t]cv, Icw apX-emb FÃm hnh-c-§fpw DÄs¡m-Ån¨v Hmtcm hntÃ-Pn-ep-apÅ kÀtÆ ¼À Ap-k-cn¨v X¿m-dm-¡n-bn-«pÅ cPn-ÌÀ BWv G cPn-ÌÀ AYhm skänÂsaâv cPn-ÌÀ. Study material for Course on NLRMP 20
  21. 21. Institute of Land and Disaster Management B- Registar- skänÂsaâ np tijw Hmtcm hntÃ-Pn-sâbpw kÀsÆ ¼-dn-epÅ hyXymkw ImWn-¨p-sIm­v A¸-t¸mÄ hntÃ-Pm- ^o-kn X¿m-dm-¡p¶ cPn-ÌÀ CXv A-Registarþsâ k¹n-saâm-Wv. Land Registar(Field Registar) - Hcp `qhn-`mKw kÀsÆ sN¿p-t¼mÄ ^oÂUv ¼À, k_vUnhnj³ ¼À, C-w,- X-cw, hnkvXoÀ®w, hkvXp DS-a-bpsS t]cp-hn-hcw F¶nh DÄs¸-Sp¯ns¡m­v kÀsÆ sN¿p¶ DtZym-K-س X¿m-dm-¡p¶ cPn-ÌÀ. X­- t¸À cPn-ÌÀ (T.P.R)- Hmtcm hkvXphn-tâbpw Ah-Im-in-I-fnÂn¶pw Icw CuSm-¡p-¶-Xn-pÅ kuI-cy-¯n-mbn hkvXp-hnsâ kÀsÆ ¼À, k_vUnhnj³ ¼À,-C-w,- X-cw, -hn-kvXoÀ®w, ]«b ¼À, hkvXp DS-a-bpsS t]cv F¶nh ImWn¨v hntÃ- Pm-^o-kn kq£n-¨n-«pÅ cPn-ÌÀ. dhyp enÌv þ Hcp hntÃ-Pnse kÀsÆ ¼À {Ia-¯n ]Xn-hp-S-a-bpsS t]cv kÀsÆ ¼À, k_vUnhnj³ ¼À,- C-w,- X-cw,- hnkvXoÀ®w,- ]-«b ¼À F¶nh tcJs¸Sp¯n X¿m-dm¡p¶ enÌv ¹m³ þ `qan-bn Af-¡p¶ FÃm Af-hp-Ifpw ImWn¨v Hcp sNdnb `qhn-`m-Ks¯ Ign-bp-¶{X henb tXmXn hc¨p ImWn-¡p- ¶-XmWv Plan. Map - Af-hp-IÄ tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯m-sXbpw AXn-cp-IÄ kq£-a-ambn tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯nbpw AtIw `qhn-`m-K-§Ä DÄs¡m-Åp¶ Hcp henb `qhn-`m-K-¯nsâ cq]w sNdnb tXmXn hc¨p ImWn-¡p-¶-XmWv map. village map þ Hcp hn-tÃ-Pn-p-Ån hcp¶ FÃm kÀsÆ ¼cpw DÄs¡m-Ån¨v 1 cm=50cm F¶ tXmXn X¿m-dm-¡p¶ group sketch. Ub-K-W kvsIbn þ GsX-¦nepw Hcp tXmX-p-k-cn¨v AXns Gähpw sNdnb LSIw hfsc Ir-Xy-ambn hmbn-¡-¯-¡-hn[w hn`Pn¨p X¿m-dm-¡p¶ scale BWv Ub-K-W kvsIbnÂ. kam {XntIm-W-§-fpsS kam hi-§Ä Ap-]m-X-¯n-em-bn-cn¡pw F¶ XXz-amWv CXn AS-§n-bn-cn-¡p-¶-Xv. t_knIv SmIvkv cPn-ÌÀ (B.T.R) - Hcp hntÃ-Pn-epÅ FÃm kÀ¡mÀ `qan-I-fp-sSbpw ]Xnhp `qan-I-fp-sSbpw kÀsÆ ¼À {Ia-¯n-epÅ hnh-c-§Ä ImWn-¡p¶ cPn-ÌÀ. CXn kÀsÆ ¼À {Ia-¯n `qan-bpsS Xcw, hnkvXoÀ®w, ASn-km-Ym nIp-Xn, `q DS-a-bpsS t]cv, X­ ¸À ¼À F¶o hnh-c-§Ä tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cn-¡pw. skänÂsaâv þ Hcp `qhn-`mKw Hcn-¡Â kÀsÆ sNbvXv dn¡mÀUp X¿m-dm-¡n AwKo-I-cn¨ tijw B dn-¡mÀUp-ambn Hmtcm k_Unhn-jsâbpw Af-hp-IÄ icn-bmtWm F¶p ]cn-tim-[n-¡p-¶-XmWv Settlement. L.R.M.(Land Record Maintanance) - Hcn-¡Â kÀsÆ sNbvXv dn¡mÀUp X¿m-dm-¡nb `qhn-`m-K-§-fn A¸-t¸m-gp-­m- Ip¶ amä§Ä ]gb dn¡mÀUn DÄs¸-Sp¯n dn¡mÀUv uptodate BIp-¶ S-]-Sn¡v L.R.M.F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. ]mbvamjv ¼À þ ]s¯m-¼Xmw q{dm-­nsâ BZy-L-«-¯n a{Zmkv kwØm--¯nsâ ]e `mK-§-fnepw `qan-bpsS Af-hp-Ifpw ssIhi-§fpw tcJ-s¸-Sp¯n Hmtcm ¼-cp-IÄ sImSp-¯n-cp-¶p. C¯cw ¼-cp-I-fmWv ]mbvamjv ¼À. ]­m- c-hIþ kÀ¡mÀ hI hkvXp-¡sf ]­m- c-hI hkvXp-¡-fmbn Adn-b-s¸-Sp-¶p. ]­m- c-¸m«w þ kÀ¡mÀ hI hkvXp-¡sf bmsXmcp AÀ° _m²y-Xbpw IqSmsX BZy-Im-e¯v Hmtcm IpSn-bm³amÀ¡v ]m«- ambn sImSp-¯n-«pÅ hkvXp-¡sf ]­m- c-¸m«w F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. hncp¯n þ GXmpw nÝnX Dugy-§Ä nÝnX ka-b¯p S-¯p-¶-Xnv {]Xn-^-e-ambn AXp S-¯p-¶-hÀ¡v Aev]w Icw Npa¯n Ap`-hn-¡m³ AphZn¨n-«pÅ hkvXp-¡Ä. ntcm-[Icw þ Kh-¬saâ nsâ Ap-hmZw IqSmsX ]pd-t¼m¡p Øe-§Ä ssIhiw hbv¡p-¶-Xnpw AXn n¡p¶ ac- §Ä apdn-bv¡p-¶-Xnpw aäpw Npa-¯p¶ nIp-Xn. ^oÂUv sN¡v þ Hcp hkvXp-hnsâ icn-bmb cq]w t]¸-dn hc-bv¡p-¶-Xnpw hnkvXoÀ®w IW-¡m-¡p-¶-Xnpw th­n Af-s ¶-Sp-¯n-«pÅ Af-hp-IÄ icn-bmtWm F¶v hni-Z-ambn ]cn-tim-[n-¡p-¶-Xns field check F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. Major Triangulation - A-h[n kÀsÆ ^oÂUp-I-fmbn Xncn¨v k_vUn-hn-j³ kÀsÆ S-¯nb Hcp JWvU-¯n B kÀsÆ ^oÂUp-IÄ DÄs¡m-Ån¨v GXmpw henb {XntIm-W-§Ä nÀ½n-¡p-¶p. Cu {XntIm-W-§fpsS hi-§Ä Af-¡p-¶-tXm-sSm¸w B ssep-I-fpsS ASp¯v hcp¶ field junction -p IÄ¡v offset FSp¯v Af-hp-IÄ tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶p. C{]-Imcw {XntImW-s ¸-Sp¯n Af-shSp¡p-¶-Xns Major Triangulation F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. Study material for Course on NLRMP 21
  22. 22. Institute of Land and Disaster Management kÀsÆ¡Ãp-I-fpsS ]p-Øm-]w Hcn-¡Â kÀsÆ sNbvXp dn¡mÀUp X¿m-dm-¡n-bn-«pÅ `qhn-`m-K-§Ä GsX-¦nepw Imc-W-h-im Af¶p ]cn-tim-[n-¡p-t ¼mÄ Ct¸m-gpÅ kÀsÆ-¡-Ãp-I-Ä X½nepÅ AIew ap³ Af-hp-ambn hyXymkw ImWp-Itbm AsÃ-¦n IÃp-IÄ jvSs¸«n-cn¡ p-Itbm sNbvXm ap³ Af-hp-I-fpsS ASn-Øm--¯n IÃp-IÄ bYm-Øm-¯v Øm]n-¡p-¶-Xns ]p-Øm-]w (do- n-Sn¡mw. i.e. Ax= Ay2 /AC C D E B C D E B y Study material for Course on NLRMP 22 ^nIvkn-Mv) F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. do^n-Ivknw-Knv Bh-iy-amb dn¡mÀUp-IÄ 1. ent¯m-am¸vþdo-^nIvkv sNt¿­kÀsÆ ¼À `qan-bn I­p-] n-Sn-¡p-¶-Xnv CXv klm-bn-¡p¶p 2. Af-¡p¶ hkvXp-hn-sâbpw Ab hkvXp-¡-fp-sSbpw F.M kvsI¨nsâ ]IÀ¸pIÄþ Hmtcm kÀsÆ ^oÂUns- âbpw F Line, G Line, Check Line, Ahb- n n¶pÅ Hm^vskä- pI- Ä apXe- mb- h F.M kvsI¨n tcJs- ¸S- p¯nbncn¡- p¶- X- n- m jvSs- ¸« IÃpI- Ä ]pxØm]n¡- p¶- X- nv Ch klmb- n¡- p¶- p. 3. Af-t¡­hkvXp- hn-sâbpw Ab hkvXp-¡-fp-sSbpw dhyp enÌvþHmtcm kÀsÆ ¼-cn-ep-apÅ I£n-I-fpsS t]cp hnh-c-§Ä Adn-bp-¶-Xnpw _Ô-s¸« I£n-I-Ä¡v tm«okv sImSp-¡p-¶-Xnpw klm-bn-¡p-¶p. do^nIvkv sN¿pt¼mÄ {i²n-t¡­kwK- Xn-IÄ kÀsÆ¡Ãp-IÄ do^n-Ivkv sN¿p-t¼mÄ `qan-bn ImWp¶ ap³ IÃns ASn-Øm-am¡n kÀsÆ XpS-t§-­Xpw B IÃp-I-fpsS Ømw icn-bmtWm F¶v ap³ Af-hp-I-fpsS klm-b-¯m ]cn-tim-[n-t¡-­- Xp-am-Wv. Bb-Xn-te¡v {]kvXpX IÃp-ambn _Ô-s¸« Ipd-ªXv c­v Af-h-pIsf¦n-epw Af¶p ]cn-tim-[n-t¡-­XmWv. GsX-¦n-epw Af-hpIÄ¡v Id-£³ sImSp-t¡ ­n h¶m AXp sN¿Ww. F Af-hp-IÄ¡v bmsXmcp Imc-W-h-imepw Id-£³ sImSp¡m³ ]mSn-Ã. 1. ASp-¯-Sp-¯pÅ c­p PwKvj³ IÃp-IÄ am{Xw `qan-bn D­mbncn¡ p-Ibpw _âp-I-ÃpIÄ jvS-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXm Ah ]p Øm]n-¡p¶ hn[w A kvsI¨n ImWn-¨n-cn-¡p-¶-Xp-t]mse A,B F¶o PwKv-j³ IÃp-IÄ am{Xw `qan-bn D­m- bn-cn-¡-pIbpw C,D,E F¶o _âp-I-Ãp-IÄ jvS-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXm Ah ]p-Øm-]n-¡p¶Xnv A,B IÃp-I-fpsS Ømhpw Ah X½n-epÅ AI-ehpw icn-bmtWm F¶v ]cn-tim-[n-¡pI. AXnptijw A bn n¶pw B bnte¡v tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-«pÅ Hmtcm Hm^v-skäv t]mbnâ-pI- fp-sS-bpw Cutting distance-þDw Offset distance Dw ^oÂUp _p¡nsâ klm-b-¯m N§-ebpw t{Imkv Ìm^pw D]-tbm-Kn¨v Af¶p h¨v jvS-s¸« C,D,E F¶o _âp-I-Ãp-IfpsS Ømw I­p-] n-Sn¡mw. AXn-p-tijw F^v Af-hp-IÄ Af¶p ]cn-tim- [n-t¡-­- Xm-Wv. 2. Hcp PwKvj³ IÃpw sXm«-Sp¯ _âp-I-Ãp-w am{X-ap-s­- ¦n jvS-s¸« PwKvj³ IÃpw aäp _âp t]mbnâp-I-fnse IÃpw ]p- Øm-]n-¡p¶ hn[w A x Sketch-þ ImWn-¨n-cn-¡p-¶Xp t]mse A F¶ PwKv-j³ IÃpw C F¶ _âp IÃpw am{Xta `qan-bn DÅq F¶p Icp-Xp- I. AB-þ n¶v C bv¡v Hm^vskäv FSp-¯-Xn D­m- Ip¶ AYC a«-{Xn-tIm-W-¯nsâ FÃm hi-§fpw Adn-bm-hp-¶-Xn Y F¶ aqe-bn n¶pw FXnÀh-i-amb AC bnte-¡pÅ ew_hpw skKvsaâpIfpw IW-¡p-hgn I­p-] , Cx=Cy2 / AC and Ax*Cx= xy2. ACIÃpIfpsS Ømhpw Ah X½n-epÅ AI-ehpw icn-bm-sW¶pd¸p hcp-¯n-b-tijw AC Line  A Ân¶pÅ Segment Zqcw Af¶ph¨v X F¶ Point I­v X  Cross staff m«n Hcp Xmc-hgn A,C sImSn-Isf tm¡n FXnÀXmc hgn B
  23. 23. Institute of Land and Disaster Management bpsS hi-t¯¡v Hcp sse³ hn«v B ssen ew_-Zqcw Af¶v h¨v (I-W¡v hgn In«nb) Y F¶ point ImWp-I. CXv AB line se point Bbn-cn¡pw. AY line o«n Y bn n¶pw YB Zqcw Af¶p h¨v B F¶ t]mbnâv ImWp-I. CXv jvS-s¸« B F¶ PwK-vj³ IÃnsâ Øm-am-bn-cn-¡pw B bpsS Ømw icn-bmtWm F¶v AXn-te¡v h¶p tNcp¶ aä-f-hp-IÄ h¨v ]cn-tim-[n¨ tijw N§-ebpw t{ImÊv Ìm^pw D]-tbm-Kn¨v ^oÂUp-_p-¡nsâ klm-b-¯m jvS-s¸« aäv _âp IÃp-I-fpsS Ømw I­p-] n-Sn-¡mw 3. ASp-¯pÅ c­p _âp IÃp-IÄ am{Xw `qan-bn-ep-­m- bn-cn-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXm B PwK-j³ IÃp-Ifpw aäp _âpIfpw ]p C D E B x y Z Study material for Course on NLRMP 23 Øm]n-¡p¶ hn[w A `qan-bn ne-hn-epÅ CD IÃp-I-fpsS Ømhpw Ah X½n-epÅ AI-ehpw icn-bm-sW-¶p-d¸p hcp-¯nb tijw AB line  n¶pw CD F¶o Hm^vskäv FSp-¯-Xn-m-ep-­m- Ip¶ CYD F¶ {XntIm-W-¯nsâ FÃm hi-§fpw Adn-bm-hp-¶-Xn-m Y n¶pw CD bnte¡v ew_w hogv¯n-bm-ep-­m- Ip¶ skKvsaâp-Ifpw ew_hpw IW-¡p-hgn I­p-] n-Sn-¡mw. C{]-Imcw I­p-] n- Sn¨ skKvsaâpw ew_hpw Af-¶p-sh¨v Y F¶ t]mbnâv ImWp-I. CXv AB ebn-n n¶pw C bv¡pÅ Hm^vskäv ssense t]mbnâv Bbn-cn-¡pw. CY sse³ o«n C bv¡pÅ Hm^vskäv Zqcw Af-¶p-h¨v z F¶ t]mbnâv ImWp-I. CXv AB ssense t]mbnâv Bbn-cn-¡pw. ‘ z’  t{ImÊv Ìm^v m«n Hcp Xmc-hgn C, Y sImSn-Isf tm¡n FXnÀ Xmc-hgn Ccp-h-i-§-fn-te¡pw sse³ hn«v Z  n¶pw ZA F¶ t]mbnâpw Z  n¶pw ZB Zqcw Af-¶p-sh¨v B F¶ t]mbnâpw I­p-] n-Sn-¡mw. Ch jvS-s¸« PwKvj³ IÃp-I-fpsS Øm-am-bn-cn-¡pw. Cu IÃp-I-fpsS Ømw icn-bmtWm F¶v AXn-te¡p h¶ptN-cp¶ aä-f-hp-IÄ h¨v ]cn-tim-[n¨ tijw ^oÂUv _p¡nsâ klm-b-¯m N§-ebpw t{Imkv Ìm^pw D]-tbm-Kn¨v aäv _âp IÃp-I-fpsS Ømw I­p-] n-Sn-¡mw. Ch-bpsS Ømw icn-bmtWm F¶v Y Af-hp-IÄ Af¶p ]cn-tim-[n-t¡-­- Xm-Wv. ]pd-t¼m¡p `qanI- f- n A[- nI- rX- a- mb ssItbäw I­m kzoI-cn-¡­ S-]-Sn-IÄ ]pd-t¼m¡v ]cn-tim-[-m-h-k-c-¯n GsX-¦nepw ]pd-t¼m¡p `qan-bn A-[n-Ir-X-amb {]th-iw I­m AXn-mbn ssItb-ä-¡m-csâ taÂhn-emkw, ssI-tb-dnb Øe-¯nsâ hnkvXoÀ®w, ]g¡w F¶o ]qÀ® hnh-c-§Ä AS§nb Hcp dnt¸mÀ«v kvsI¨p klnXw X¿m-dm¡n Xmeq¡v kÀsÆ-b-dmWv S-]-Sn-sb-Sp-¡p-¶-sX-¦n Xl-knÂZmÀ¡pw, hntÃPv Akn-ÌâmWv S-]- Sn-sb-Sp-¡p-¶-sX-¦n Xmeq¡v kÀsÆ-bÀ¡pw kaÀ¸n-¡-Ww. hntÃPv Akn-Ìâv kaÀ¸n¨ kvsI¨pw dnt¸mÀ«pw Ap-k-cn¨v Xmeq¡v kÀsÆ-bÀ `qan-bn ]cn-tim-[n¨v Bh-iyamb dnt¸mÀ«p-IsfgpXn ^b- Xl-knÂZmÀ¡v kaÀ¸n-¡-Ww. ssItb-dnb Øe-¯nsâ IrXy-amb hnkvXoÀ®w IW-¡m-¡p-¶-Xn-m-h- iy-amb FÃm Af-hp-Ifpw Af-¶n-cn-¡Ww. kvsI¨n kÀsÆ ¼À, hnkvXoÀ®w apX-em-bh ImWn-¨n-cn-¡-Ww. ta¸-dª dnt¸mÀ«n³ {]Imcw Xl-knÂZmÀ Øew ]cn-tim-[n¨v Hgn-¸n-t¡-­Xm- sW¶p I­m Bb-Xn-te¡p th­ S-]-Sn-IÄ kzoI-cn-¡-Ww. Xl-knÂZmcpsS XoÀ¸n I£n¡v ]cmXn Ds­- ¦n AXp kw_-Ôn-¨pÅ A¸o-ep-I-fpsS Ah-km Xocp-am--sa-Sp-¡-­Xv If-IvS-dm-Wv. t]m¡p-h-chp aqe-ap-­m- Ip¶ ]pXnb k_vUnh- nj- ³ kÀsÆ sN¿p¶XnpÅ S-]Sn (P.V. Case) t]m¡p-h-chpaqe-ap-­m- Ip¶ ]pXnb k_vUn-hn-j³ kÀsÆ sN¿p¶-Xnv {]tXyIw DtZym-K-سamsc nb-an-¨n-«n-Ãm¯ ]£w hntÃPv Akn-Ìâv B tPmen sNt¿-­Xm- Wv. t]m¡p-h-chp aqe-ap-­m- Ip¶ ]pXnb k_vUn-hn-j-p-IÄ kÀsÆ sN¿p-¶-Xnv `qDSa _Ô-s¸« Xmeq¡v Xl-knÂZmÀ¡v At]-£ sImSp-t¡-­- Xm-Wv. kÀsÆ sNt¿­k_ vUn-hn-j-sâ hnkvXoÀ®w 40 Btdm AXn Ipdthm BsW-¦n 50 cq]bpw AXn IqSp-X-epÅ BZys¯ 40 Bdnv 50 cq]mbpw XpSÀ¶pÅ Hmtcm 40 Bdnpw AXnsâ Awi-¯npw 50 cq] F¶ {Ia- ¯nepw ^okv AS-¨v sNem³ cko-Xpw B[m-c-¯nsâ ]IÀ¸pw DÄs¸sS sImSp-t¡-­- Xm-Wv. At]£ Xl-knÂZmÀ¡v In«n-¡- gn-ªmepS³ Xmeq-¡m-^o-kn-epÅ cPn-Ì-dn tNÀ¯ tijw _Ô-s¸« hntÃPv Hm^o-kn-te¡v kÀsÆ sN¿p¶Xn-mbn Ab¨p sImSp-¡p-¶p.
  24. 24. Institute of Land and Disaster Management C{]-Im-c-apÅ At]£ In«p¶ apdbv¡v hntÃPv Akn-Ìâv At]£ cPn-Ì-dn tNÀ¯ tijw _Ô-s¸« `qD-S-a-ØÀ¡v 6þmw ¼À t^md-¯n tm«okv sImSp-¡p-¶p. AXnp tijw tm«o-kn ]d-ªn-cn-¡p¶ XobXn Øe¯p lmP-cmbn ne-hn-epÅ AXnÀ¯n ssIh-im-p`h-¯np hnt[-bambn k_vUn-hn-j³ sNbvXv k_vUn-hn-j³ tÌävsaâpw kvsI¨pw c­p {]Xn hoXw X¿m-dm¡n ]pXnb k_vUn-hn-j³ kÀsÆ sNbvXXv icn-bm-sW-¶pÅ `qD-S-a-I-fpsS ssIt¿m-t¸m-Sp-I-IqSn Xmeq¡v kÀ-sÆ- bÀ aptJ Xl-koÂZmÀ¡v kaÀ¸n-t¡-­- Xm-Wv. Xl-koÂZmÀ k_vUn-hn-j³ Sketch Dw k_vUn-hn-j³ tÌävsaâpw sanction sNbvXv PnÃm kÀsÆ kq{]-­n v kmt¦-XnI ]cn-tim[bv¡mbn Ab¨p sImSp-t¡-­Xpw kÀsÆ-kq-{]-­nsâ kmt¦XnI ]cn-tim-[ Ignªv AwKo-I-cn¨ dn¡mÀUp-IÄ Xncn¨p hm§nb tijw dn¡mÀUv t]m¡p hchp S-]Sn kzoI-cn-¡p-¶-Xn-mbn _Ô-s¸« hntÃ-Pn Ab¨p sImSp-t¡-­- Xp-am-Wv. AXp {]Imcw t]m¡phchp S-¯p-¶p. cPnÌ- À sNbXv Hcp k_Uv nh- nj- ³ kÀsÆ sNbXv v dn¡mÀ- U vX¿md- m¡- p¶ hn[w (S.D Case) cPn-ÌÀ sNbvXn-«pÅ dhyq k_vUn-hn-jpI-fpsS kÀtÆ sNbvXv dn¡mÀUn DÄs¸-Sp-¯p-¶-Xnv `q DS-a-ØÀ _Ô-s ¸« Xmeq¡v Xl-koÂZmÀ¡v 8-þmw ¼À t^md-¯n At]£ sImSp-t¡-­- Xm-Wv. At]£ In«p¶ apdbv¡v Xmsg¸d-bp¶ nc¡nepÅ kÀsÆ NmÀÖv {Sj-dnbn HSp¡v ckoXp lmP-cm-¡p-¶-Xnv At]-£-Iv 9þmw ¼À t^md-¯n tm«okv sImSp-t¡-­- Xm-Wv. k_vUn-hn-j³ kÀsÆ sNt¿­dh yq k_vUn-hn-j³ DÄs¡m­p hcp¶ kÀsÆ sNbvXn-«pÅ k_vUn-hn-j-sâtbm, Entire Fieild BsW-¦n Survey Fieild sâtbm hnkvXoÀ®w 40 Btdm AXn Ipdthm BsW-¦n 50 cq]bpw AXn IqSp- X-em-sW-¦n ]n¶o-SpÅ Hmtcm 40 Bdnpw AXnsâ Awi-¯np 50 cq] F¶ {Ia-¯nepw kÀsÆ NmÀÖv CuSm-t¡-­- Xm-Wv.- kÀsÆ sN¿p-¶-Xnv _p²n-ap-«pÅ {]tZ-i-§-fn ta¸-dª XpI aXn-bm-Im¯ kml-N-cy-¯n PnÃm kÀtÆkq{]-­n-sâ AwKo-Im-c-t¯msS Bh-iy-amb XpI Xl-koÂZmÀ¡p nÝ-bn-¡mhp¶-XmWv. C§s nÝ-bn¨v HSp¡p¶ XpI, dn¡mÀUp- IÄ jvS-s¸-«-Xp-sIm-t­m atä-sX-¦nepw Imc-W-¯mtem kÀsÆ sN¿³ km[n-¡msX h¶m PnÃm If-IvS-dpsS Ap-hm-Z-t¯m- SpIqSn At]-£-Iv Xncn¨v sImSp-¡m-hp-¶Xpw aäv GsXmcp Imc-W-¯mepw Xncn¨p sImSp-¡m³ ]mSn-Ãm-¯-Xpam-Ip-¶p. 9þmw ¼À t^md-¯nse tm«okn ]d-ªn-cn-¡p¶ XpI nÝnX Xob-Xn-¡Iw {Sj-dn-bn HSp-¡n ckoXv lmP-cm- ¡mXn-cp-¶m At]£ nc-kn-¡m-hp-¶Xpw XpI AS¨v ckoXv lmP-cm-¡n-bm At]£ cPn-ÌÀsNbvX tijw kÀsÆ sN¿p-¶-Xnte¡v Xmeq¡v kÀtÆ-bÀ¡v sImSp-t¡-­- Xp-am-Wv. At]£ In«p¶ apdbv¡v Xmeq¡v kÀsÆ-bÀ At]-£I£n¡pw B Øe-¯np NpäapÅ `qD-S-a-ØÀ¡p 6þmw ¼À t^md-¯n tm«okv sImSp¯ tijw tm«o-kn ]d-bp¶ XobXn Øe¯p lmP-cmbn At]£ {]Im-c-ap-ff Øew DÄs¸«p hcp¶ kÀsÆ ^oÂUnsâtbm k_vUn-hn-j-sâtbm AXnÀ¯n ap³ kÀsÆ dn¡mÀUnse Af-hp-I-f-p-k-cn¨v do^nIvkv sNt¿-­Xpw ]pXp-t¡-­- Xmtbm tISp-]mSp XoÀt¡-­- Xmtbm hcp¶ kÀtÆ AS-bmf-§Ä A{]-Imcw sNt¿-­- Xp-am-Wv. AXn- p-tijw do^nIvkv sNbvX kÀsÆ ^oÂUntem k_vUn-hn-j-ntem DÄs¡m­p hcp¶ At]-£-{]-ImcapÅ Øew k_vUn-hn-j ³ kÀsÆ sNbvXv k_vUn-hn-j³ Sketch Dw Subdivision Statement Dw c­p {]Xn X¿m-dm¡n 6þmw ¼À t^md-¯n I£n- IÄ¡p sImSp¯ tm«o-knsâ {]Xnbpw kÀsÆ sNe-hp-IÄ¡pÅ _nÃ-pIÄ DÄs¸sS Xl-koÂZmÀ¡p kaÀ¸n-¡-Ww. Xl-koÂZmÀ Subdivision Sketch Dw Subdivision Statement Dw kmt¦XnI ]cn-tim-[--bv¡mbn PnÃm kÀsÆ kq{]-­n v sImSp-t¡- Study material for Course on NLRMP 24 ­- Xpam-Wv. kÀsÆ ka-b¯v 6þmw ¼À t^md-¯n ]d-ªn-«pÅ {]Imcw tPmen-¡m-scbpw kÀsÆ AS-bm-f-§fpw ÂIm³ At]- £-I£n hnk-½-Xn-¨m kÀ¡mÀ sNe-hn B tPmen sNt¿-­Xpw Bb-Xnp sNe-hmb XpI Ic-¡p-Sn-ÈnI C-¯n At]- £-I-n n¶pw CuSm-t¡-­- Xp-am-Wv. kÀsÆ ka-b-¯p-­m- Ip¶ `qDS-a-سam-cpsS ]cm-Xn-IÄ Xl-koÂZmÀ Atz-jn¨p Xocp-am-nt¡­- Xm-Wv. kmt¦-Xn- I-]-cn-tim-[ Ignªv AwKo-I-cn¨ dn¡mÀUp-IÄ e`n-¨-Xnp tijw kÀtÆ ]qÀ¯n-bmb hnh-c-¯nv 4þmw ¼À ^md-¯n _Ô-s¸« `qhp-S-a-ØÀ¡v tm«okv ÂtI-­Xpw AXp In«nb tijw ]cm-Xn-bpÅ GsXm-cmÄ¡pw 3 amk-¯n-Iw PnÃm kÀtÆ kq{]-­n v A¸o sImSp-¡m-hp-¶Xpw kÀtÆ kq{]­v A¸o Atz-jn¨v Xocp-am-n-¨-tijw dn¡mÀUn Fs´-¦nepw Xncp- ¯-ep-IÄ hcp-t¯-­- Xp-s­- ¦n Ah hcp¯n dnsshkvUv dn¡mÀUp-IÄ X¿m-cm¡n Xl-koÂZmÀ aptJ hntÃ-Pm-^o-kn Ab-¨p-sIm-Sp¯v AX-Xp-k-cn-¨pÅ amä-§Ä hntÃPv dn¡mÀUp-Ifn hcp-t¯-­- Xp-am-Wv.
  25. 25. Institute of Land and Disaster Management I£n-I-fpsS At]-£-{]-Imcw kÀsÆ sNbvXv kvsI¨v X¿mdm-¡n-bn-«pÅ `qan-I-fn AXnÀ¯n-IÄ Af¶v IÃp-IÄ Øm]n- ¡p¶ hn[w (P.B. Case) kÀsÆ sNbvXv kvvsI¨v X¿m-dm-¡n-bn-«pÅ `qan-I-fn AXnÀ¯n-IÄ Af¶v IÃp-IÄ Øm]n-¡p-¶-Xnv AXmXv hkvXp DS-a-Ø-·mÀ Xmeq¡v Xl-koÂZmÀ¡v ]¯mw ¼À ^md-¯n- At]£ sImSp-¡Ww. AXnÀ¯n H¶nv nÝnX nc-¡n ^okv CuSm-¡-Ww. Cu nc-¡n IqSp-X XpI CuSm-¡-W-sa¶ kμÀ`-§-fn PnÃm-I-f-IvS-dpsS Ap-hm-Z-t¯m-Sp-IqSn IqSp- X XpI CuSm-¡m-hp-¶-Xm-Wv. ^okv nÝ-bn¨v Xmeq¡v Xl-koÂZmÀ ]Xn-sm¶mw ¼À ^md-¯n I£n-IÄ¡v tm«okv sImSp-¯-dn-bn-¡-Ww. I£n- IÄ HSp-t¡­XpI- bpsS hnhcw AXn ImWn-¨n-cn-t¡-­- Xm-Wv. A{]-Imcw ^okv AS-¨p-I-gn-ªm B At]£ kÀsÆ tPmen-bv¡mbn kÀsÆ DtZym-K-Øv Ab-¨p-sIm-Sp-t¡-­- Xm-Wv. ^okv HSp-¡p-¶-Xnv I£n hogvN hcp-¯p¶ ]£w At]£ XÅ-s¸-tS-­- Xm-Wv. kÀsÆ dn¡mÀUp-I-fpsS A`m-h-¯mtem yq-X-I-fmtem kÀsÆ tPmen-IÄ S-¯m³ km[n-¡msX h¶m (PnÃmIf- IvS-dpsS Ap-hm-Z-t¯msS) I£n HSp-¡nb XpI aS¡n sImSp-¡m-hp-¶-Xm-Wv. kÀsÆ tPmen XpS-§p-¶-Xn-p-ap-¼mbn kÀsÆ DtZymK- -س 12þmw ¼À ^md-¯n At]£ I£n¡pw AbÂI£nIÄ¡pw tm«okv sImSpt- ¡-­- Xm-Wv. kÀsÆ tPmenbv¡p th­kÀsÆ AS-bm-f-§Ä sImSp-¡pI, sse³ sXfn-bn-¡pI apX-emb tPmen-IÄ At]£ I£n sNbvXp-sIm-Sp-t¡-­- Xm-Wv. I£n- Cu hI tPmen-IÄ sN¿m¯ ]£w B ImcWw ImWn¨v kÀsÆ DtZym-K-س Hcp dnt¸mÀt«m-Sp-IqSn At]£ Xl-knÂZmÀ¡ v Ab-bvt¡-­Xpw B Imc-W-¯m At]£ XÅ-s¸-Sm³ Imc-W-am-hp-Ibpw sN¿pw. At]£ XÅ-s¸-«m I£n Study material for Course on NLRMP 25 HSp-¡nb XpI aS¡n sImSp-¡m-hp-¶-X-Ã. I£n kÀsÆbv¡v th­klmbw sN¿p-¶-Xn hogvN hcp-¯n-bn-«pt­m F¶-Xn ]cmXn Ds­- ¦n Xl-koÂZmÀ Atz-jn¨v Xocp-amw FSp-t¡-­Xpw B Xocp-amw Ah-km--t¯-Xp-am-Wv. kÀsÆ DtZym-K-س ap³ kÀsÆ dnt¡mÀUp-IÄ Ap-k-cn¨v Af¶v AXnÀ¯n-IÄ Dd-¸n-t¡-­Xpw kÀsÆ AS-bm-f-§Ä ]pXp-t¡-­- Xp-am-Wv. kÀsÆ tPmen-IÄ XoÀ¶m Bh-iy- amb dnt¸mÀ«p X¿m-dm¡n Xl-koÂZmÀ¡v kaÀ¸n-¡p-¶p. kÀsÆ tPmen-IÄ Ign-ªm At]£ I£nbv¡pw _Ô-s¸« I£n-IÄ¡pw Xl-koÂZmÀ nÝnX ^md-¯n tm«okv sImSp-t¡-­- Xp-am-Wv. kÀsÆ DtZym-K-س ]px-Øm-]n-¨-X-p-k-cn¨v BÀs¡-¦nepw Bt£-]-apÅ ]£w ta ]dª tm«okv In«nb XobXn apX 3 amk-¯n-Iw PnÃm kÀsÆ kq{]-­n v At]£ t_m[n-¸n-¡m-hp-¶-Xm-Wv. A¸o-ep-s­- ¦n Xmeq-¡m-^o-kn n¶pw _Ô-s¸« ^b hcp¯n I£nbv¡v tm«okv sImSp¯ tijw kÀsÆ kq{]­v Øe¯v sN¶v ]cn-tim-[n-¡p-¶p. kÀsÆ kq{]­v ]cmXn {]Imcw AXnÀ¯n ]cn-tim-[n¨v FSp-¡p¶ Xocp-amw A´n-a-am-bn-cn-¡pw. Xocp-am-s¯ kw_-Ôn-¡p¶ hnhcw I£n-Isf tcJm-aqew Adn-bn-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p- ¶p. A²ymbw þ 5 XntbmU- s- seäv kÀtÆ slmdnt- km-­Â BwKnfpw shÀ«n¡-  BwKnfpw FSp-¡p¶- -Xn-p-]-tbmK- n-¡p¶ hne]- nS- n-¸pÅ Hcp D]-I-cW- -amWv Xntbm-U-sse-äv. hnhn[ Cw Xntbm-U-sseäpIÄ 1. Y ]mtä¬ 2. Fh-dÌv U_nÄ BÀ¡v 3. {Sm³knäv 4. Smt¡m aoäÀ 5. ssat{Im-ao-äÀ F¶n-§s ]e t]cp-I-fnepw Xntbm-U-sseäv D­v. Un{Kn AS-bm-f-s¸-Sp-¯nb slmdn-tkm-­Â kÀ¡n-fnsâ Ub-ao-äÀ B[m-c-am-¡n-bmWv Xntbm-U-sseäv Adn-b-s¸-Sp-¶-Xv. DZm-l-cWw þ Hcp Xntbm-U-sse-änsâ slmdn-tkm­Â kÀ¡n-fnsâ Ub-ao-äÀ 5 C©v BsW-¦n AXns 5 C©v Xntbm-U-sseäv F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. {Sm³knÌv Xntbm-U-sse-änsâ telescope ]qÀ®a- mbn Hcp du­v Xncn-¡m³ km[n-¡pw. F¶m Everest Theodolite þ CXp km[ya- -Ã.
  26. 26. Institute of Land and Disaster Management Study material for Course on NLRMP 26 Xntbm-U-sse-änsâ {][m `mK-§Ä 1. {Snt¸mUv Ìmâpw AXnsâ tSm¸pw 2. ^p«vkv{Iq (seh- -enwKv kv{Iq) 3. {Sbmw-Kp-eÀ s{^bnw 4. skâdnwKv kwhn-[mw 5. temhÀ ¢m¼pw Sm³Pâpw 6. A¸À ¢m¼pw Sm³Pâpw 7. slmdn-tkm-­Â ehepw AXnsâ __nfpw 8. shÀ«n-¡Â eh-enw-Kn-pÅ ¢n¸v kv{Iq 9. shÀ«n-¡Â ¢m¼pw Sm³Pâpw 10. t^m¡-knwKv kv{Iq 11. an slUUv kv{Iq 12. Ub{^w 13. Fbnw kv{Iq 14. slmdntkm­Â en¼v, slmdn-tkm-­Â t¹äv, slmdn-tkm­Â kÀ¡nÄ 15. shÀ«n-¡Â en¼v, shÀ«n-¡Â t¹äv, shÀ«n-¡Â kÀ¡nÄ 16. t{ImkvUv hbÀ 17. Hm_vPIvSv ¥mkv 18. sF ]okv 19. shÀ«n¡Â ehepw AXnsâ __nfpw 20. __nÄ dn^vf-IvSÀ/andÀ 21. slmdn-tkm-­Â BIvknkv 22. shÀ«n-¡Â BIvknkv Xntbm-U-sse-än-tm-sSm¸w t_mIvkn ImWp¶ D]-I-c-W-§Ä 1. Plumb bob 2. Magnetic compass 3. Spare eye piece 4. Two screw drivers 5. Two steel pins 6. Brush 7. Two dark glass 8. Ray shade 9. Spare diaphrom 10. Spanner XntbmU- -sseäv D]t- bmK- n-¡p-t¼mÄ {i²n-t¡­kwK- XnI- Ä 1. XntbmU- s- seä v t_mIvkn n¶pw shfnb- n FSp¡- pt- ¼mÄ henb _ew {]tbmK- n¡- pI- tbm t_mIvknsâ ]mÀiz§- fn X«pI- tbm sN¿c- pX- v. 2. t_mIvkv Xpd¶p Xntbm-U-sseäv ]pd-s¯-Sp-¡p-¶-Xnp ap¼mbn AXnsâ s]mkn-j³ a-Ên-em-¡n-bn-cn-¡-Ww. CXnsâ eye end þDw object endþDw hcp¶ `mK-§fpw faceþDw t_mIvkn AS-bm-f-s¸-Sp-¯-Ww. C³kv{S-saâv XncnsI t_mIvkn hbv¡p-¶-Xnv Ch klm-b-I-c-am-bn-cn-¡pw. 3. t_mIvkn n¶pw XntbmU- s- seäv ]pdt- ¯¡v FSp¡- pt- ¼mgpw XncnsI hbv¡p-t¼mgpw temhÀ slmdnt- km­-  t¹äntem Y’s tem ]nSn-¨n-cn-¡-Ww. 4. Xntbm-U-sseäv hfsc Pâ n Bbn D]-tbm-Kn-t¡-­- Xm-Wv. D]-tbm-Kn-¡p-¶-Xn-p-ap¼v FÃm ¢m¼pIfpw eqkv BsW¶v Dd-¸p-h-cp-¯-Ww. 5. Hmtcm Xh-Wbpw H_vkÀth-j³ S-¯p-¶-Xn-p-ap-¼mbn FÃm Sm³Pâv kv{IqIfpw seh-enwKv kv{IqIfpw a²y- `m-K-¯m-sW¶v Dd-¸p-h-cp-¯-Ww. 6. Sm³Pâv kv{Iq bmsXmcp Imc-W-h-imepw hf-sc-b-[nIw Xncn-¡-cp-Xv. CXv amIvkn-a-¯n F¯n B£³ CÃmsX h¶m ¢m¼v dneokv sNbvXv Sm³Pâv kv{Iq Xncn¨v AXnsâ a²y-`m-K¯psIm­p- h-c-Ww. 7. ¢m¼nwKv kv{Iq hfsc IqSp-X ssSäv sN¿m³ ]mSn-Ã. 8. H_vkÀth-j³ Ignªv tÌj-n n¶p C³kv{S-saâv FSp-¡p-t¼mÄ Ìmânsâ kv{Iq apdp-¡n-bn-«pt­m F¶pw ^p«v kv{Iq a²y-¯n-emtWm F¶pw ]cntim[n-t¡-­- Xm-Wv. 9. Hcn-¡epw Hmbn- CSm³ ]mSn-Ã.
  27. 27. Institute of Land and Disaster Management 10. XntbmU- s- seä- nsâ ]pd¯- pI- mW- p¶ FÃm `mK§- fpw ss{U Bbnc- n¡- W- w. {_jv D]t- bm-Kn¨v AXne- pÅ s]mSnIÄ Study material for Course on NLRMP 27 X«n-¡-f-b-Ww. 11. Bân t¢m¡vsshkv Bbn D]-I-cWw Xncn-¡p-hm³ ]mSn-Ã. 12. C³kv{S-saâv XncnsI s]«n-bn hbv¡pt- ¼mÄ ¢m¼pI- Ä FÃmw eqkv BsW¶v Dd-¸ph- -cp¯- W- w. 13. Hmtcm {]mhiyw C³kv{S-saâv ssIam-dp-t¼mgpw 152þmw ¼À t^md-¯n FIvkm-an-t-j³ dnt¸mÀ«v X¿m-dm-¡- Ww. Xntbm-U-sse-änsâ {Iao-I-c-W-§Ä Xntbm-U-sse-änsâ {Iao-I-c-W-§Ä c­p hn[-¯n-ep-­v. 1. XmXvIm-enI {Iao-I-cWw (Temporary adjustment) 2. Øncw {Iao-I-cWw (Permanent adjustment) Hmtcm tÌj-nepw XntbmU- s- seäv D]-tbm-Kn¨v H_vkÀth-j³ S-¯p¶- -Xn-p-ap-¼mbn XmXv¡me- nI {Iao-I-c-W- §Ä Bh-iy-am-Wv. F¶m Øncw {Iao-I-c-Ww, ]pXnb C³kv{S-saâv D]-tbm-Kn-¡p-t¼mtgm sXäp-s­ ¶p a-Ên-em-¡p-t ¼mtgm BWv Bh-iy-ambn hcp-¶-Xv. 1. Xntbm-U-sse-änsâ XmXv¡m-enI {Iao-I-c-W-§Ä XmXv¡m-enI {Iao-I-c-W-§Ä mep hn[-¯n-ep-­v. 1. skâd- nwKv 2. slmdn-tkm-­Â eh-enwKv 3. shÀ«n¡-  eh-enwKv 4. Zqscb- pÅ hkXv p¡- Ä t{ImkvU vhbd- n sIm­p- hc- nI- bpw ]mce- mIkv v CÃmX- m¡- pI- bpw sN¿pI- . hntÃPv AXnÀ¯n-bntem t»m¡v AXnÀ¯n-bntem XntbmU- s- seä v tÌj³ Øm]n¡- pt- ¼mÄ {i²nt- ¡­kwK- XnI- Ä 1. Hmtcm tÌjpw Ign-hXpw hfsc AI-e-¯n Øm]nt¡­Xm- Wv. tÌj-p-IÄ X½n Xntbm-U-sseäv D]-tbm- Kn¨v H_vkÀÆv sN¿m³ ]mI-¯n-em-bn-cn-¡-Ww. c­p tÌj-p-IÄ X½n-epÅ Zqcw Ign-hXpw 200 aoä-dnpw 400 aoä-dn pw CS-bn-em-bn-cn-¡-Ww. 2. {Smthgvkv ssen n¶v Hm^vskäv FSp-t¡­kμÀ` §fn Hm^vskäv Zqcw 60 aoä-dn IqSm³ ]mSn-Ã. 3. Ignb- p¶- nS- t- ¯mfw FÃm tÌj- pI- fpw _u­d- nb- ne- mbncn¡Ww Øm]nt- ¡­- X- .v 4. Xntbm-U-sseäv Øm]n-¡m³ ]än-bXpw eh Bb-Xp-amb Øe-¯m-bn-cn-¡Ww tÌj³ Øm]n-t¡-­- Xv. 5. Zn, ImbÂ, tdmUv F¶n-h-bpsS hi-§-fnÂIqSn UoamÀt¡äv sN¿p-t¼mÄ IÃpIÄ kpc-£n-X-amb Øm-§-fn m«-Ww. 6. IÃp-I-fpsS Ømw ]md-¸p-d¯p hcn-I-bm-sW-¦n ]md amÀ¡v sIm¯n Xntbm-U-sseäv tÌj-mbn D]-tbm-Kn-¡m-hp- ¶-Xm-Wv. 7. Zn, Imb F¶nh- -bpsS hi-§f- n¡qSn hntÃPv _u­dn UoamÀt¡äv sN¿pt- ¼mÄ IÃp-IÄ 10 aoädn Ihnbm¯ Zqc-¯n kpc-£n-X-amb Øm-§-fn mt«-­Xpw Zn-bpsS a²y-`mKw AXnÀ¯n-bmbn ]cn-K-Wn-t¡-­- Xp-am-Wv. 8. dnkÀÆvUv t^mdÌ- nsâ AXnÀ¯n hntÃPv AXnÀ¯n-bmbn hcpt- ¼mÄ P­- IÄ¡p kao-]-¯mbn IÃp-IÄ Øm]n-t¡- ­- Xm-Wv. 9. hntÃPv/t»m¡v _u­dn tdmUn¡qSn hcn-I-bm-sW-¦n Ign-hXpw tdmUnsâ Hcp hi-¯p-IqSn kÀtÆ sNt¿-­- Xm-Wv. 10. Hmtcm tÌjpw 1/3 `mKw a®np apI-fn ImW-¯-¡-hn[w ¶mbn Dd-¸n-t¡-­- Xm-Wv.
  28. 28. Institute of Land and Disaster Management Xntbm-U-sseäv D]-tbm-Kn¨v kÀsh sN¿p¶ hn[w kÀsÆ sNt¿­Øe- s¯-¸än kÀsh-bÀ¡v Hcp [mcW D­m- bn-cn-t¡-­- Xv AXym-h-iy-am-Wv. CXn-mbn kÀsh sNt¿­Øew Npän S¶p ImWW- w. CXns s]cm¼- p-te-j³ F¶p ]db- p¶- p. AXnp tijw AXnÀ¯n-bn ImWp¶ ImSp-Ifpw aäpw XS-ʧfpw o¡w sNbvXv ]c-kv]cw ImWm-hp¶ Zqc-¯n AXnÀ¯n IW-¡m¡n IÃp-IÄ Øm]n-¡- Ww. C§s AXnÀ¯n-I-fn Øm]n-¡p¶ FÃm IÃp-Ifpw Xntbm-U-sseäv IÃp-IÄ BI-W-sa-¶n-Ã. A¯cw IÃp- IÄ¡v {Smthgvkv ssen n¶v Hm^vskäv FSp¯v ^oÂUp _p¡n tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯-Ww. Hm^vskäv Zqcw 60 aoä-dn Ihn-b-cp-sX¶pam{Xw. ]pXp-Xmbn Hcp {Smthgvkv kÀsh XpS-§p-t¼mÄ ap¼v kÀsh sNbvXp Øm]n-¨n-«pÅ {Smthgvkv ssepa- mbn _Ôn¸- n¨v XpSt- §-­Xpw Ah-km- n-¸n-t¡-­X- p-amW- v. PwKvj³ t]mbnân hcp¶ FÃm ssep-Ifpw Af- ¡p-¶-tXm-sSm¸w Ah-bpsS tImWp-Ifpw {]tXyIw FSp-¯n-cn-¡-Ww. kÀsÆ sN¿p¶ ^oÂUv FÃm-bvt¸mgpw kÀsh-bdpsS CS-Xp-h-i-¯m-bn-cn-¡-Ww. F¶m am{Xta B´c tIm¬ e`n-¡p-I-bp-Åq. C{]-Imcw FSp-¡p¶ tImW-f-hp- Ifpw Hm^vskäv Af-hp-Ifpw ^oÂUp _p¡n tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯-Ww. IqSmsX kÀsÆ Bcw-`n¨ tÌj-sâbpw kÀsh Ah-km- n¸- n¨ tÌjs- âbpw tImW-f-hpI- fpw ssepI- -fpsS ofhpw ^oÂUv _p¡n Bcw-`-¯nepw Ahk- m- -¯nepw tcJ-s ¸-Sp¯n kÀsÆ-bÀ H¸p hbvt¡-­Xpw Hmtcm Znh-k-t¯bpw tPmen-IÄ Xncn-¨-dn-bp-¶-Xn-p-th­n XobXn h¨v AXmXp Znh-k-§-fn kÀsÆ-bÀ Cn-jy sNt¿-­X- p-amW- v. ^oÂUn n¶pw Af-s¶-Sp¯ tImWpI- fpw Zqc-§fpw h¨p-sIm­v t{]m{Sm-IvSdnsâ klm-b-¯m Hcp ‘_n’ kvsI¨pw hc¨p X¿m-dm-t¡-­- Xm-Wv. Study material for Course on NLRMP 28 ^oÂUv _p¡v X¿m-dm-¡p¶ hn[w Xntbm-Us- seäv kÀsÆ ka-b¯v ^oÂUn n¶pw FSp-¡p¶ tImWf- -hpI- fpw ssef- -hpI- fpw A¸t- ¸mÄ Xs¶ ^oÂUp _p¡n s]³kn sIms­- gp-X-Ww. s]³kn sIms­gpXp ¶Xv ajn-bn ho­pw Fgp-Xp-¶-Xnv Hmtcm sse³ hntS­- -XmW- v. XpS-¡-¯n-tebpw Ahk- m- n¡- p¶ PMvj-pI- -fn-tebpw CS-bv¡pÅ PMvj- pI- -fn-tebpw tImWf- -hp- Ifpw Zqchpw hc¨- p-ImW- n¨v bYmØ- -e-§-fn Fgp-X-Ww. CSbv¡v PMvj- pI- Ä hcp-s¶¦- n AXnsâ hnh-c-§fpw ^oÂUv-_p-¡n ImWn¡- -Ww. ^oÂUp_- p¡- nsâ XpS-¡¯- nepw HSp-¡¯- nepw kÀsÆ-bÀ H¸p-hb- vt¡-­Xpw HmtcmZ- nh- - k-s¯bpw tPmen-IÄ AX-Xp-Zn-hkw kÀsÆ-bÀ XobXn h¨v C³jy sNt¿-­- Xp-am-Wv. ^oÂUp-_p-¡nsâ IhÀt]- Pnepw BZy-t]-Pnepw Xmsg-¸-d-bp¶ hnh-c-§Ä D­m- bn-cn-¡Ww: 1. _p¡v ¼À 2. Pnà 3. Xmeq¡v 4. hntÃPv 5. kÀtÆ ¼À 6. tPmen-bpsS kz`mhw (do-^n-IvknMv / ]pXnb {Smthgvkv) 7. D]-tbmK- n¨ XntbmU- sv- seäv 8. tPmen Bcw-`n¨ Znhkw 9. tPmen Ah-km-n¨ Znhkw 10. kÀsÆ-b-dpsS t]cv, H¸v Nne ASnØ- m hnhc- §- Ä ssaÀ kÀIyq«v: sNbn³ kÀsÆ sN¿m³ km[n-¡m-¯-hn[w 4 slIvS-dn¡q-Sp-X hnkvXoÀ®w hcp¶ Øe-§Ä, hnkvXoÀ®-¯n Ipd-hmb ]md-s¡-«p-IÄ, ImbÂ, Ip¶n³{]-tZ-i-§Ä apX-em-bh IrXy-X-bv¡p-th­n Xntbm-U-sseäv sIm­v Npä-XnÀ¯n-IÄ kÀsÆ sN¿p-¶p. C¯cw `qhn-`m-K-§sf ssaÀ kÀIyq«v F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. sabn³ kÀIyq«:v Hcp Xmeq¡v kÀsÆ sN¿m-sS- p¡- pt- ¼mÄ AXns 150 apX 200 hsc kvIzbÀ Intem aoäÀ hnkvXoÀ®- apÅ kÀIyq-«p-IÄ B¡p-¶p. C¯cw kÀIyq-«p-Isf Pn.än tÌj-p-I-fp-ambn _Ôn-¸n-¡p-¶p. Hcp sabn³ kÀIyq-«n Hcp Pn.än tÌj³ apX ASp¯ Pn.än tÌj³ hsc-bpÅ _u­- dnsb sabn³ sse³ F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. CâÀs]mfm-täUv tÌj³: Hdn-Pn- kÀsh ka-b¯v Øm]n-¨n-«pÅ tÌj-n n¶pw ]pXp-Xmbn Hcp {Smthgvkv sse³ XpS-§mtm Ah-km- n-¸n-¡mtm Ign-bm-sXbpw XS-Êwa- qew ]c-kv]cw ImWm³ Ign-bm-sXbpw hcp¶ kμÀ`-§-fn Hdn- Pn- ^u­dn ssen ]pXp-Xmbn Hcp sse³ t]mbnâv ^nIvkv sN¿p-¶p. C¯-c-¯n ]pXp-Xmbn GÀs¸-Sp-¯p¶ tÌjs CâÀs]m-fm-täUv tÌj³ F¶p ]d-bp¶p.
  29. 29. Institute of Land and Disaster Management IUm-kv{S kÀsÆ (dhyq kÀsÆ): dhyq `c-W-¯nsâ Bh-iy-¯n-te-¡p-th­n hkvXp¡sf Ah-bpsS ssIh-im-p-`-h-a- p-k-cn¨v AXnÀ¯n Xncn¨v kÀsh sNbvX v hnkvXoÀ®w IW-¡m¡n Icw nÝb- n¡- p¶- -Xnt- e¡pw aäpw DÅ Bh-iy-¯n-te-¡ mbn S-¯p¶ kÀsÆsb dhyq kÀsh/IUm-kv{S kÀsÆ F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. Pntbm-U-änIv kÀsÆ: `qan Hcp tKmf-amW- v. F¶m sNbn³, ¹bn³ tS_nÄ, {Smthgvkv XpS-§nb kÀsÆ tPmen-IÄ¡v `qan ]c-¶-XmWv F¶ XXz-amWv kzoI-cn-¨n-cn-¡p-¶-Xv. `qan-bpsS hen¸-hp-ambn Xmc-X-ay-s¸-Sp-¯p-t¼mÄ ta {]kvXm-hn¨Xcw kÀsÆ tPmen-IÄ Xptemw sNdp-Xm-Wv. Bb-Xn-m `qan-bpsS IÀhvUv tj¸v ¹mns _m[n-¡p-¶n-Ã. F¶m henb cmPy-§-fpsS `q]Sw X¿m-dm-¡p-t¼mÄ ta¸-dª XXzw kzoIm-cy-a-Ãm-Xm-Ip-¶p. At¸mÄ `qan-bpsS tKmfm- IrXn IW-¡n-se-Sp-t¡-­n- bn-cn-¡p-¶p. C¯-c-¯n `qan-bpsS tKmfm-IrXn IqSn IW-¡n-se-Sp¯v kÀsh sN¿p-¶-Xns Pntbm-sU- Study material for Course on NLRMP 29 änIv kÀsÆ F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. Cu kÀsÆ {]Imcw Hcp {]tZ-i-¯nsâ hnkvXoÀ®w IrXy-ambn FSp-¡m³ Ign-bp-I-bn-Ã. Pntbm-sU-änIv kÀsÆ-bn [mcmfw t]mbnâp-IÄ nÝ-bn-¡p-¶p. C¯cw t]mbnâp-Isf ss{Sbm³Kp-te-j³ tÌj³ F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. Ch-bpsS bYmÀ° Øm-§fpw ]c-kv]cw _Ô-§fpw IrXy-X-tbmsS I­p-] n-Sn-¡p-¶-Xn-p-th­n C¯cw tÌj-p-Isf _Ô-s¸-Sp¯n {Sbmw-Kp-te- j³ kÀsÆ S-¯p-¶p. CXns {SnKvtmsa{Sn-¡Â kÀsÆ AYhm ss{Sbmw-Kp-te-j³ kÀsÆ F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. k_vs̳kv _mÀ hfsc Ing¡mw Xq¡mb Øe-§-fnepw Xntbm-U-sseäv D]-tbm-Kn¨v {Sbmw-Kp-te-j³ S¯n Zqcw I­p-] n-Sn-¡m³ Ign-bm ¯hn[w t_bvkv sebn³ hbv¡m³ Ign-bm¯ hn[-¯n-epÅ Øe-§-fnepw Xntbm-U-sseäv IÃp-IÄ X½n-epÅ AIew IW- ¡p-hgn I­p-] n-Sn-¡p-¶-Xn-p-]-tbm-Kn-¡p¶ D]-I-c-W-amWv k_vs̳kv _mÀ skâ-dnwKv S-¯m-pÅ kuI-cy-t¯m-Sp-IqSn Hcp ap¡men Ìmân LSn¸n-¨n-«p-ÅXpw nÝnX of¯- ne- pÅ- X- p-amb k_vs̳kv _mÀ Hcp tÌj-nepw Xntbm-Us- seä- v, ASp¯ tÌj-nepw skäv sNbvX-tijw Xntbm-U-sse-än¡qSn k_vs̳kv _mdnsâ Ccp hi-§fpw nco-£n¨v tImW-fhv IrXy-ambn FSp-¡-Ww. C{]-Imcw e`n-¡p¶ tImW-fhpw k_vs̳kv _mdnsâ ofhpw h¨p-sIm­v ss{Sbmw-Kp-tm-sa-{Sn-¡Â t^mÀape {]Imcw tÌj-p-IÄ X½n-epÅ Zqcw I­p-] n-Sn-¡mw. shÀn-bÀ kvsIbn Hcp sabn³ kvsIbn-ensâ Hmtcm Unhn-jpw AXnsâ `mK-§fpw AXn kq£va-ambn hmbn-¡p-¶-Xn-p-th­n X¿m-dm-¡n-bn- cn-¡p¶ kvsIbn BWv shÀn-bÀ kvsIbn Prismatic Compass `mcw Ipd-ªXpw sIm­p S-¡m³ kuI-cy-{]-Z-hp-amb Cu D]-I-cWw 1814  Captain Henry Kater BWv I­p-] n-Sn-¨- Xv. Refixing of missing theodolite survey stones Original Surveybn Øm]n¨ XntbmUsseäv tÌjpIÄ ImWmXmbm HdnPn kÀsÆ dn¡mÀUv D]-tbm-Kn¨v Ah bYm-Øm-¯p Øm]n-¡p¶ {]{In-b-bmWv Traverse station refixing. Traverse station refix sN¿p¶Xnv original record Ifmb field book, sketch, village map F¶nh BhiyamWv. Refixing tPmen Hcp Traverse station- n¶v Bcw`n¨v asämcp Traverse station - Ahkmn¸nt¡­XmWv. Ahkmn¸n¡p¶ station-  hcp¶ accumulated error FÃm station Ifnepw Xpeyambn hoXn¨pÂIWw. sXäpIÄ Xpeyambn hoXn¡pt¼mÄ ssefhpIfn FdÀ adjust sNt¿­Xpw tImWfhpIfn amäw hcp¯m³ ]mSnÃm¯XpamWv. tImWfhpIfn correction sImSp¡pIbmsW¦n Xs¶ aq¶p annänp apIfn Hcp station- sImSp¡m³ ]mSnÃ. AphZobamb sXäpIÄ (allowable errors) 20 aoätdm AXn Ipdthm DÅ Zqc¯nv þ 2 sUkoaoäÀ 20 aoäÀ apX 100 aoäÀ hsc þ 4sUko aoäÀ 100 aoädn IqSpX hcp¶ Zqc¯nv þ 100aoädnp apIfn hcp¶ Hmtcm 50 aoädnpw 2 deci F¶ {Ia¯nÂ. do^nIvknwKv tPmen ]qÀ¯nbm¡nbtijw kÀsÆbÀ refixing sketch-Dw refixing field book Dw X¿mdm¡Ww.
  30. 30. Institute of Land and Disaster Management 1. Hcp ka`- pP- {-Xnt- ImWw nÀ½n¨ vXSÊ- s- ¸« {Smthgkv v tÌj³ do^nIkv v sN¿p¶ hn[w 600 B Station- XntbmUsseäv fix sNbvXv Xmev¡menI {IaoIcW§Ä S¯pI. Theodolite - sâ enw_n Lower clap- Dw D]tbmKn¨v 00 hcp¯pI. ‘A’ Station interest sNbvXtijw telescope clockwise direction -  Xncn¨v 1850. 1000- sIm­phcpI. (125.10.00 + 600 = 185010‘00’). Cu BwKnÄ hcp¶ Ubd£n 40.0m Af¶v E F¶ point ImWpI. AXnptijw ntbmUsseäv E F¶ point- set sNbvXv XmXv¡menI {IaoIcW§Ä S¯n enw_n O0 hbv¡pI. ‘B’ station lower clamp-Dw target-Dw D]tbmKn¨v interest sNbvXv, telescope 600 bn Xncn¨v B Ubd£n 40.0 aoäÀ Af¶p hbv¡pI CXmbncn¡pw jvSs¸« C F¶ IÃnsâ Ømw. 2. ZoÀL-N-Xpcw nÀ½n¨v do^nIvkv sN¿p¶ hn[w Traverse line ABCD bn A, B, D F¶nh `qanbn D­mbncn¡ pIbpw C F¶ Point-se IÃv jvSs¸«ncn¡pIbpw BC line Hcp hoSnm XSÊs¸«nc¡pIbpw sNbvXm jvSs¸« XntbmUsseäv tÌm¬ Hcp ZoÀLNXpcw nÀ½n¨v ]pxØm]n¡p¶Xnv XntbmUsseäv BZyambn B F¶ tÌjn fix sNbvXv Xmev¡menI {IaoIcW§Ä ]qÀ¯nbm¡pI. AXnptijw lower clamp-Dw tangent -Dw D]tbmKn¨v Horizontal limb- ‘0’ degree set sN¿pI. Lower clampD- w tangent-Dw D]tbmKn¨v A station intersect sNbvXv telescope clock wise direction- Xncn¨v 215010’00" hcp¶ Znibn (1250.10S00T+900) kuIcy{]Zamb Zqcw (20.0m) Af¶p h¨v point F ImWpI. AXnptijw F F¶ tÌjn theodolite fix sNbvXv XmXv¡menI {IaoIcW§Ä S¯pI. Lower clamp-Dw tangent-Dw D]tbmKn¨v B station interest sN¿pI. clockwise direction - telescope Xncn¨v 900 hcp¯pI. B ssen 40.0 aoäÀ (BC line - sâ ofw) Af¶ph¨v point E mark sN¿pI. A´cw E F¶ station - XntbmUsseäv fix sNbvXv XmXv¡menI {IaoIcWw S¯pI. O0 set sNbvXtijw lower clamp-Dw tangent-Dw D]tbmKn¨v back station intersect sNbvXv telescope 900 Xncn¨v B ssen 20.0 aoäÀ Af¶ph¨v Hcp point ImWpI CXmbncn¡pw jvSs¸« C F¶p ]cntim[n¡p¶Xnv DCE F¶ BwKnÄ FSp¡pI. Cu BwKnÄ 3600- (1860 15’00" + 900) = 3600 - 2760 15’00’ = 83045’00" Bbncn¡pw. 3. H»nIv {Sbm-¦nÄ D]-tbm-Kn¨v do^nIvkv sN¿p¶ hn[w 120.08.00 Study material for Course on NLRMP 30 A B 125.10.00 40.0 C D 40.0 600 40.0 186.15.00 ---missing 600 A 125.10.00 B 40.0 C D 40.0 186.15.00 ---missing 8.0 8.0 A B 40.0 C 81.18.00 D 32.0 255.10.00 ---missing E
  31. 31. Institute of Land and Disaster Management 212.21.20 ---missing Study material for Course on NLRMP 31 LABE = 206028’00" (Observed angle) LABC = 125010’00" (Recorded angle) LCBE = 81018’00" BC = 40.0 (Recorded distance) BE = 32.0 (Measured distance) Traverse line ABCD bn A,B,D F¶o tÌjpIÄ `qanbnep­v. C- station missing BWv. C station HdnPn AfhpIÄ h¨v do^nIvkv sN¿p¶Xnv B Station-Dw C Station - sâ GItZi point -Dw ImW¯¡hn[w E F¶ point ImWpI. BE, CE F¶nh Af¡phm³ Ignbp¶Xmbncn¡Ww. XntbmUsseäv ‘B’tÌjpIÄ h¨v XmXv¡menI {IaoIcW§Ä sN¿pI. Back Station A intersect sNbvXv repetition coXnbn LABE FSp¡pI. BE Zqcw Af¡pI. Ct¸mÄ FSp¯ LABE (2060.28’.00") bn n¶v recorded angle 1250.10.00" Ipdbv¡pI. At¸mÄ 81018’00"In«pw. Triabgle CBE bn n¶v BC, BE, LCBE F¶nh e`n¨n«p­v. LBEC, LECB F¶nhbpw EC Zqchpw solution of triangle D]tbmKn¨v I­p] nSn¡mw. E tÌjn XntbmUsseäv Øm]n¨v XmXv¡menI {IaoIcW§Ä sNbvXtijw Horizontal limb- zero degree set sNbvXv lower clamp-bpw tangent - D]tbmKn¨v B Station intersect sN¿pI. Telescope clockwise direction- Xncn¨v BZyw IW¡phgn I­p] nSn¨ BCE angle -sâ Znibn IW¡phgn I­p] nSn¨ EC Zqcw Af¶ph¨v C F¶ point ImWpI. CXmbncn¡pw jvSs¸« IÃnsâ Ømw. 4. XpSÀ¨b- mb c­p IÃpI- Ä ImWmX- mh- pI- bpw ssepI- Ä ]ck- ]v cw ImWm³ km[n¡- msX hcpI- bpw sNbXv m B IÃpI- Ä do^nIkv v sN¿p¶ hn[w A 120.08.00 B LFBA = 105.25.00 (Observed angle) LABC = 125.10.00 (Recorded angle) LCBF = 129.25.00 (360-(105.25.00 + 125.10.00) BC = 40.0 (Recorded angle) BF = 31.4(Measured distance) Traverse line ABCDE -bn Station A, B, E F¶nh `qanbn D­v. Station Cbpw Dbpw missing BWv. Traverse line BC bpw sI«nS§fm XSÊs¸«ncn¡p¶p. Original field Book D]tbmKn¨v station C-bpw Station D-bpw refix sN¿p¶Xnv XntbmUsseäv B F¶ tÌjn Øm]n¨ tijw XmXv¡menI {IaoIcW§Ä S¯pI. Reception methodÂ- LFBA ImWpI. CX v 1050 25’00"BsW¶ncn¡s«. Ct¸mÄ {SbmwKnÄ BCF-bn LB, IW¡pIÄ) I­p] nSn¡mw. BF Zqcw Af¡pI. {XntImWw BCF- BC, (recorded measurement) BF, (measured distance) DÄt¡m¬ B F¶nh Adnbmhp¶Xnm _m¡nbpÅ tIm¬ F, tIm¬ C, Zqcw CF F¶nh IW¡phgn I­p] nSn¡mw. XntbmUsseäv ]pXpXmbn Øm]n¨ F F¶ tÌjn Øm]n¨v XmXv¡menI {IaoIcW§Ä S¯nbtijw IW¡phgn I­p] nSn¨ LBFC bpw FC Zqchpw `qanbn Af¶p hbv¡pI. CXmbncn¡pw jvSs¸« C F¶ IÃnsâ Ømw. AXpt]mse {XntImWw CDF- aq¶v AfhpIÄ In«nbn«p­v. (CD - recorded measurement, CF - IW¡phgn I­p] nSn¨ Zqcw, DÄt¡m¬ DCF = 360 - (1860 15’00" + IW¡phgn I­p] nSn¨ BwKnÄ FCB)]. Cu AfhpIÄ h¨psIm­v LCFD, LFDC, distance FD F¶nh IW¡phgn I­p] nSn¡mw. B AfhpIÄ `qanbn Af¶p h¨v ImWmXmb ‘D’F¶ tÌjsâ Ømw I­p] nSn¡mw. 40.0 C D 31.4 ---missing E F

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