2. Final step of the Wet processing.
For a multitude of processes and treatments to add some
finishing feathers before marketing.
It is the process carried out on textiles to change the
appearance, feel serviceability & durability.
It is the final processing of the cloth and its purpose is to
make the fabric suitable for its intended end use.
Example: making the fabric shrink proof, softer, stiffer, water
repellent, and crease resistant or a combination of these
3. To improve the appearance and make the fabric
To cover faults in the original fabric.
To improve wearing qualities of fabric by making it
shrink or crease resistant and set garment shape.
E.g. Durable press.
To import special properties to the fabric for special
end uses such as waterproofing, flame-proofing etc.
To strengthen the fabric by coating or laminating.
To produce novelty effects e.g. organdie fabrics by
5. Crease resistance properties are improved.
Handle & Draping qualities are improved.
Weight & Dimensional stabilities are improved.
Crease recovery properties are improved.
Color fastness properties are improved.
Shrinkage will be reduced while laundering.
The fabrics may be dried quickly.
The fabric strength will be increased.
Light & Laundry resistance have given good
9. The Finishing treatments improve the appearance
or touch (sensation) of the fabric is known as
It improves the quality or aspect of the Fabrics,
which appeals to the senses.
It is one type of Mechanical finish.
10. Luster :
a) Glazed b) Moiré c) Schreiner
d) Emboss e) Calendering
a) Crisp & Transparent b) Burn out
c) Sizing d) Weighting
Texture or Hand:
a) Shearing b) Brushed
c) Plisse d) Pleating
e) Embroidered f) Napped g) Fulled
12. Hence the sequence of finishing operations is
likely to be different.
While cellulosic's require a resin finishing
treatment to impart easy-care properties,
synthetic fibers already have these easy-care
criteria and require only a heat setting
14. The fabric should not become unnecessarily stiff &
It will do not affect the fastness properties of the fabric.
Specially Durable to washing. Also resistant to dry-
Easy handling and storage.
Improved finish durability, can provide repellency to 30
home laundry washes.
15. Using Metallic salts
Pad – Dry Method
Using Silicon emulsion
Pad – Dry – Cure Method
Using Wax Emulsion
Pad – Dry Method
16. Steary-methyl-pyridium-chloride is popularly
used for this type of finish.
Methylal stearamide, Methylated methyol
melamine can be also used.
If necessary catalysts may be added, those
are chemically react with fibres and produce
Durable Repellent Finish. Pad – Dry- Cure
For synthetics Zirconium type pyridium
compounds, Fluro carbons and Silicons are
17. If fabrics prevent both air and water absorption
or penetration of water for a fixed period of time
are pass through itself, known as water-Proof
For certain uses such as Tarpaulin, Umbrella
cloth are required to give this type of finish.
But these finished goods are makes un easy &
un comfortable to wear because of no air
18. Hydrophobic substances are deposited on the
The fabric becomes hydrophobic itself
Vulcanized natural rubber, Oxidaised oils of
varnishes, Polyvinyl Chloro Acetate (PVCA),
Polyvinyl Lidine Chloride (PVLC), Cellulose
acetate and Cupramonium hydroxide solution are
19. To protect the fire from the fabric is the objective
of this finish.
The finish can be carried out on the following
20. Soluble compounds such as Borax, Sodium Phosphate are used. A
mixture is given below for effective finish.
Borax, Boric acid and Sodium Phosphate mixture is used.
Most of the fire proof agents can be fixed by the synthetic resins.
THPC (Tetrakis Hydroxy methyl Phosponium Chloride) will be used with
Urea & Methylol Melamine (MM) produce good wet fasteners flame
After paddind the fabric is dried and cured at 1400C for 5 minutes.
And then the fabric was washed.
This procedure is known as Proban finish.
The process sequence is Pad – Dry – Cure for this procedure.
21. Accumulation of soil & dust particles is known as
The fabric cannot be made totally Soil repellent is
not possible, but a type of finish is given to the
fabric, so that during washing the accumulate soil
on the fabric can be easily removed by from the
Most are durable through 40 to 50 launderings
and are routinely applied to fabrics for work
clothes and table cloths
22. Increasing factors Decreasing factors
Twist in the yarn
Size of the soil
Smoothness of the surface
Denier of the fabric
23. Method – I:
Pad with PE Glycol solution and NaOH.
Pad – Dry method.
Method – II
Pad with 1.3% of concentration of Cirrasal PT.
Pad – Dry - Cure method.
Method – III
Pad with 10% NaOH @ 600C for 10 minutes.
Pad – Dry method.
Method – IV
Pad with H3PO4 (Phosphoric acid).
Pad – Dry method.
26. Silicons are the most versatile organo polymers available
It is very much use in finishing, to improve the life, value
and quality of the fabric.
Silicons give durable finish and also provide softness,
lasting, elasticity, soft handle and good sewing property.
This type of finish can reduce static charge on synthetic
In tightly woven fabrics it will improve the anti slippage
27. Pad – Dry – Cure method
Padding liquor consists of
Silicon Emulsion : 10-30 gpl
CH3COOH : 5gpl
PH : 5.5
Then the fabric is dried at 1000C – 2000C and
then cured at 1500C @ 5 minutes.
It is important that the catalyst (1/5 part of silicon)
is to be added.
28. This is used for high fashion garments and
throughout the so popular today.
Denim was one of the successful textile fabric
Finishing of this fabric has several properties
that to comprises, to improve the appearance
like feel & handle.
29. Superior garment quality
Increase load handling (30-35%)
Eco friendly process
Expanded variety of ranges
Less damage to seam edges
Extra softener is not necessary
30. This is the new one trend to produce
eye catch and novel effects in the
Now this currently under trail runs very
soon will appear on fashion markets.
These effects are mainly produce on
31. Mud Wash
extracted from original organisms.
These are very aggressive.
extracted from modified organisms.
These are mild.
Amylases are used to remove the starches from the fabric into
Print paste removal:
Amylases can be used may be thickeners can also used.
Bio – washing
Celluloses Enzymes can be used to remove dye particles and
Bio – polishing & Anti Pilling
Celluloses Enzymes can be used.
Dye bath applications:
Acid and netural celluloses Enzymes can be used to enhance
the absorption property.
Combination Enzymes are used, that means two or more
Proteases Enzymes can be used, it is also a eco friendly
35. A phase-change material (PCM) is a substance with a
high heat & fusion which, melting and solidifying at a
certain temperature, is capable of storing and
releasing large amounts of energy.
Heat is absorbed or released when the material
changes from solid to liquid and vice versa.
Some phase change materials are suspended in
water, and are relatively nontoxic.
Others are hydrocarbons or other flammable
materials, or are toxic.
36. Organic PCM
Paraffin (CnH2n+2) and fatty acids (CH3(CH2)2nCOOH)
Salt hydrates (MnH2O)
Organic-organic, organic-inorganic, inorganic-
Many natural building materials are hygroscopic, that
is they can absorb (water condenses) and release
water (water evaporates).
37. Cooling: food, beverages, coffee, wine, milk products, green
Medical applications: transportation of blood, operating tables,
Human body cooling under bulky clothing or costumes.
Passive storage in bioclimatic building/architecture (HDPE,
Smoothing exothermic temperature peaks in chemical reactions
Solar power plants & Spacecraft thermal systems
40. The best method of avoiding microbial deterioration is to use
synthetic materials which are inherently resistant to attack.
Colourless and odourless.
Effective at low concentrations.
Inexpensive and easy to apply.
Resistant to sunlight and leaching from the fabric.
Not affecting fabric handle or strength.
Compatible with water-repellent and flame-retardant agents, dyes,
and other textile auxiliaries.
Does not sensitize the fabric to damage by light or other
41. Resins are the chemical group used in many of the finishes. Resins
are the most widely used chemicals in the textile industry.
They add stiffness to fabrics and are thus used as stiffening agents
or to create a firm hand.
Fabrics will become less moisture absorbent, thus drying more
rapidly. They will also be less comfortable in warm, humid weather.
Resins combine chemically with cellulosic fibres
Most resins produce an offensive "fish-like" or formaldehyde odour in
fabric. This odour eventually disappears on exposure to air and/or
Resins have an affinity for oily soils, Soil release finishes help
alleviate this objection.
42. Plasma treatment is a surface modifying process.
The fabric, sliding through the electrodes, is subject to a
true bombardment from the elements that constitute the
plasma and which come from the decomposition of gas and
contain a very high level of kinetic energy.
43. It is mainly used to increase the stability and life of
the product being encapsulated, facilitate the
manipulation of the product and control its
liberation in an adequate time and space.
44. The first commercial application of Nano tech
in textile and clothing industry is found in the
form of Nano particle.
One nanometer is being equalant for three or
The impact of nano technology in the textile
finishing area has brought up innovative
finishing as well as new application technique.
45. Silver nano particles are used in a patented coating.
A film polymer mixed with silver nano particles can be
permanently integrated into any common fabric; in the long run
it can save time and money by reducing dry-cleaning expenses.
It is also eco-friendly and contains no fluorine compounds.
The research team is also trying to engineer anti-microbial
particles or odour free agents in to the coating, which could
help to repel strong odours such as body odours & cigarette
The coating would be flow essential also permanent for wear,
46. Textile industry is one of the largest sectors of
the world. In the various textile sectors there
are over 25 Milo peoples are employed.
Also the people or the consumers spent around
1.3 Trillion Dollars on textile in an every year.
In these textile sectors, having or facing the big
trouble in their application and production for
producing the quality colors and finishers.
47. The textile chemicals and the dyeing industry sectors
consuming large quantity of water.
And also produce large amount of waste water from
the different kinds of operations.
Waste water from the textile industry can require the
appropriate treatments before releasing the
In current scenario, the treatment of wastewater that
means ETP (Effluent Treatment Plant) will be
increased, because of the environmental issues
48. Reduce water and energy consumption
during preparation, coloration and
Reduce aqueous waste and off gases.
Improve process efficiency.
Reduce exposure to hazardous
49. Reduce the amount of energy and required in the
care of the garments.
Keep the garments or clothes fresher without
Keep the garments or clothes looking new for
Reduce or eliminate the need of the tumble iron or
Eliminate the need to dry clean.
50. Modern society expects biotechnology to be the
answer for many worldwide problems like depletion of
energy sources, incurable illnesses and pollution,
among other problems.
Industrial use of biotechnology, known as white
biotechnology, is bringing about new products and
processes aimed at the use of renewable resources,
as well as the application of green technologies with
low energy consumption and environmentally healthy
51. India is only contributing about 5% of the
world’s total textile production.
The world market place is continuously
changing and so is the demand of people
Value addition on textile substrate is playing
very important role in manufacturing of fabric.
Hence Textile fabric finished with special and
the new idea to market textile goods.
52. Textile finishing, we also mean all the processing
That process included in the stage, called
These are generally applied to the fabrics to
improve their appearance, hand and properties.
These finishes are at times in accordance with
their field of application.